केरल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg keral ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- keral (bahuvikalpi)
India-flag.gif
keral
Kerala-Map.jpg
rajadhani tiruvanantapuram
rajabhasha(en) malayalam bhasha
sthapana 1 navnbar, 1956
janasnkhya 3,33,87,677[1]
· ghanatv 859[1] /varg kimi
kshetraphal 38,863 varg kimi
bhaugolik nirdeshank 8.5074°N 76.972 °E
· grishm 36.7 °C
· sharad 19.8 °C
zile 14[1]
mukhy paryatan sthal kovalam, varakala, alappujha, bekkal, munnar, kannoor
ling anupat 1000:1,084[1] ♂/♀
saksharata 93.91 [1]%
· stri 91.98%
· purush 96.02%
rajyapal pi. satashivam[1]
mukhyamntri pinaraee vijayan
lokasabha kshetr 20[1]
rajyasabha sadasy 9[1]
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Kerala-Seal.png

keral ek bharatiy rajy, jo bharat ke dakshin-pashchim sima par sthit hai. isaki rajadhani tiruvanantapuram (trivendram) hai. keral ko 'bharat ka masalon ka bagicha' kaha jata hai. yah malay parvat ki krod men basa hua pradesh hai, jisamen bhootapoorv travanakor aur kochin ki riyasaten sammilit hain.[2]

itihas

"pandyanshch dravidashchaiv sahitanshchodr keralai:
andhrastalavananshchaiv kalinganushtrakarnikanh."

  • mahabharat sabhaparv 51 men keral aur chol nareshon dvara yudhishthir ko di gee chndan, aguru, moti, vaidoory tatha chitravichitr ratnon ki bhent ka ullekh hai-

"chndanagaru chanantn muktavaidooryachitraka:
cholashch keralashchobhau dadatu: pandavay vai".

  • keral tatha dakshin ke any pradeshon ko sahadev ne apani digvijay yatra ke dauran jita tha.
  • 'raghuvnsh'[4] men kalidas ne keral ka ullekh is prakar kiya hai-

"bhayotsrishtavibhooshanan ten keralayoshitamh
alakeshu chamoorenashchoornapratinidhi krit:"

arthath "digvijay ke lie nikali huee raghu ki senaon ke keral pahunchane par keral ki yuvatiyon, jinhonne bhay se sare vibhooshan tyag die the, ki alakon men sena ki udaee huee dhooli ne prasadhan ke choorn ka kam kiya.

  • samrat ashok ke shilalekh 2 men pandy, satiyaputr aur keral rajyon ka ullekh hai. tamraparni nadi tak inaka vistar mana gaya hai.
  • paravarti kal men keral ko 'cher' bhi kaha jata tha, jo keral ka roopantar matr hai.

keral ki mukhy nadiyan 'murala', 'tamraparni', 'netravati' aur 'sarasvati' adi hain. itihasakar hemachndr rayachaudhari ke anusar udisa men mahanadi ke tat par sthit vartaman sonapur ke pas ke pradesh ko bhi keral kahate the, kyonki yahan sthit 'yayati nagari' se keral yuvatiyon ka sambndh dhoee kavi ne apane 'pavanadoot' namak kavy men bataya hai; kintu yah tathy sndehaspad hai.[2]

rajy ka nirman

sh‍vatntr bharat men jab chhoti-chhoti riyasaton ka vilay hua, tab travanakor tatha kochin riyasaton ko milakar 1 julaee, 1949 ko 'travanakor kochin' rajh‍y bana diya gaya, lekin malabar madras prant (vartaman chennee) ke adhin hi raha. 'rajh‍y punargathan adhiniyam', 1956 ke antargat 'travanakor-kochin rajh‍y tatha malabar' ko milakar 1 navnbar, 1956 ko 'keral rajh‍y' ka nirman kiya gaya. hinduon aur musalamanon ke atirikt yahan eesaee bhi badi snkhya men rahate hain. is rajy ka kshetraphal 38863 varg ki.mi. hai.

bhaugolik sthiti

poorv men oonche pashchimi ghat aur pashchim men arab sagar ke madhy men sthit is pradesh ki chaudaee 35 ki. mi. se 120 ki. mi.tak hai. bhaugolik drishti se keral parvatiy kshetron, ghatiyon, madhh‍yavarti maidanon tatha samudr ka tatavarti kshetr hain. keral nadiyon aur talabon ke sambndh men bahut hi samriddh hai. keral men 44 nadiyan bahati hain jinamen 41 nadiyan pashchim ki or aur tin poorv ki or bahane vali nadiyan hain.
neyyar bandh, tiruanntapuram
ye nadiyan apani sahayak nadiyon aur upadharaon ke sath keral ki prakritik snpada ko badhati hain. samudri jhilen keral ka mukhy akarshan hain. arthik drishti se bhi prakritik snsadhan bahut m‍hath‍vapoorn hain. uttari keral rajy ke ek ant:kshetr dakshin bharat men mahi nagar sthit hai.

jalavayu

keral rajy men garm mausam hai kyonki yah bhoomadhyarekha se matr 8 digri ke antaral par sthit hai. keral rajy ki jalavayu ki mukhy visheshata hai- shital mand hava aur bhari varsha. pashchimi manasoon se pramukh varsha kal prarambh hota hai. doosara varshakal uttari-pashchimi manasoon hai . pratyek varsh lagabhag 120 se lekar 140 din tak varsha hoti rahati hai . keral ki ausat varshik varsha 3017 mili mitar mani jati hai . keral men bhari varsha se badh bhi ati hain jisase jan aur dhan ki bhi bahut hani hoti hai .

bhasha

yahan ki mukhy bhasha malayalam hai. yahan malayalam bhasha boli jati hai . apani snskriti aur bhasha-vaishishty ke karan bharat ke dakshin men sthit char rajyon men keral ka pramukh sthan hai . isake padosi rajy tamilanadu aur karnatak hain. keral rajy men angrezi bhasha ko pramukh sthan prapt hai . malayalam bhasha ki bhanti angrezi bhasha bhi shiksha ka pramukh madhyam hai . tamil aur kannad bhashaon ko alpasnkhyak bhasha kaha jata hai. keral pradesh ki bhasha malayalam hai. malayalam dravid parivar ki bhashaon men se ek hai. malayalam bhasha ki utpatti ke vishay men anek mat hain-

hausabot, kumarakom, keral
  1. ek mat hai ki kisi adi dravid bhasha se vikasit hokar malayalam ek svatntr bhasha huee .
  2. doosara mat hai ki malayalam tamil se utpann bhasha hai.
  • sabhi vidvanh manate hain ki bhasha ke parivartan ke karan malayalam bhasha ka uday hua. tamil aur snskrit donon hi bhashaon ke sath malayalam ka bahut hi gahan sambandh hai. sahityik bhasha ke roop men malayalam bhasha ka vikas 13 vin shatabdi se hi prarambh hua. 13 vin shatabdi men likhit 'ramacharitamh' ko malayalam bhasha ka adi kavy mana jata hai .

arthavyavastha

bhaugolik aur bhaugarbhik karak keral ki arthavyavastha ko gnbhir roop se prabhavit karate hain. yahan ki saghan abadi ke lie upalabdh krishi yogy bhoomi kafi nahin hai. is rajy men jivashm eedhanon aur khanijon ke pramukh bhndaron ki bhi kami hai. yahan sirph ilmenait (taiteniyam ka pramukh ayask), rayootail (taiteniyam aauksaid), monajait (siriyam aur thoriyam phasphet yukt khanij) hain, jo samudr tat ki ret men pae jate hain. keral men jalavidyut ki kafi snbhavanaen hain. idukki kaaumpaleks vishalatam vidyut utpadan snyntr hai.

krishi

keral rajy men krishi ki visheshata hai ki yahan vh‍yaparik fasalen adhik ugaee jati hain. rajh‍y ke lagabhag 50 pratishat nagarik krishi par nirbhar hai. nariyal, rabad, kali mirch, adarak, chay, ilayachi, kajoo tatha kaauphi adi ka utpadan keral men pramukh roop se hota hai. doosari fasalon men supari, kela, adarak tatha halh‍di adi hain. keral rajh‍y men jayaphal, dalachini, laung adi masalon ke vriksh bhi ugae jate hain. chaval tatha taipiyoka keral ki mukhh‍y khady fasalen hain.

krishi utpadan ankade
  • athavin pnchavarshiy yojana men chaval ke kshetr men varshik kami 22,000 hekh‍teyar thi.
  • nauvin yojana men yah ghatakar 13000 hekh‍teyar rah gee.
  • 2003 - 04 ke 2.87 lakh hekh‍teyar ki tulana men yah badhakar 2004 - 05 men 2.90 lakh hekh‍teyar ho gee. yah vridvi 2,634 hekh‍teyar thi. chaval ka uth‍padan 5.70 mitrik tan se badhakar 6.67 lakh tan ho gaya. yah vriddhi 17 pratishat thi.
  • sookhe ki vajah se dhan uth‍padan men 2003 se 2004 men kami aee kintu 2004 se 05 men uth‍padan men vridvi huee. 2004 se 05 men chaval ke uth‍padan men vriddhi alh‍lapujh‍ja (75 pratishat), palakh‍kad (37 pratishat) men darj ki gee.
  • ay aur rozagar men nariyal keral ki gramin arthavyavash‍tha ka mukhh‍y adhar hai. nariyal ka fasal kshetr nau lakh hekh‍teyar tak hai, jo kul fasal kshetr ka lagabhag 41 pratishat hai. keral men nariyal 35 lakh logon ki ay ka sadhan hai.
  • mukhh‍y niryat kali mirch ka hai jisamen keral anh‍y rajh‍yon men sadaiv se hi sarvashreshh‍th hai. desh bhar men kali mirch ke uth‍padan ka 98 pratishat keral men hota hai aur is prakar kali mirch ke kshetr men keral ka ekadhikar bana hua hai.
  • keral ki arthvyavastha men chay bagani fasalon, rabad, kaauphi, chay aur ilayachi ka vishesh yogadan hai. in char fasalon ki lagabhag 6.53 lakh hekh‍teyar men kheti hoti hai. yah rajh‍y ke kul krishi kshetr ka 29 pratishat hai aur rajh‍y men in fasalon ke adhin kshetr ka 43 pratishat hai.
hausabot, kumarakom, keral
  • keral men kul rabad kshetr (desh bhar) ka 83 pratishat kshetr hai. varsh 2004 - 05 men rabad ka kul fasal kshetr lagabhag 4.81 lakh hekh‍teyar tha, jo pichhale varsh se 2141 hekh‍teyar adhik raha. keral men rabad ka uth‍padan 6.91 lakh tan raha jo pichhale varsh se 5 pratishat adhik tha. uth‍padakata men vriddhi 2004 - 05 men bhi bani rahi.
  • varsh 2004 - 05 men desh men kaauphi ka uth‍padan kshetr 3.28 lakh hekh‍teyar tha jisamen se 0.846 lakh hekh‍teyar keral men hai jo kul kshetr ka 26 pratishat hai. varsh 2004 - 05 men keral ki hish‍sedari 19.7 pratishat rahi. desh ke kul 2.75 lakh mitrik tan kaauphi uth‍padan ke muqabale keral ka uth‍padan 0.54 lakh mitrik tan tha, desh men 5.11 lakh hekh‍teyar kshetraphal men chay ke kul baganon ki tulana men keral men keval 0.37 lakh hekh‍teyar kshetr men chay ki kheti ki gee. chay uth‍padan men keral ki hish‍sedari 2004 men pichhale varsh ke 7 pratishat se girakar 6 pratishat rah gee. pichhale tin varshon se uth‍padan men giravat chal rahi hai. badi knpaniyon ke chay baganon men sngathit kshetr ke 84,000 se jh‍yada mazadoor kam karate hain.
  • ilayachi ek anh‍y bagani fasal hai jisaka uth‍padan 2004 - 05 men 28 pratishat se badhakar 76 pratishat ho gaya.

udyog

keral men audyogik vikas ki apar snbhavanaen hai. yahan par panabijali, ghane van, durlabh khanij, parivahan aur achchhi snchar pranali, sabhi buniyadi suvidhaen upalabh‍dh hain. yahan ke parnparagat udyog hain- hathakaragha, kajoo, nariyal jata tatha hash‍tashilh‍p. anh‍y mahath‍vapoorn udyogon men rabad, chay, chini mitti ke bartan, bijali tatha ilekh‍traaunik upakaran, telifon ke tar, transapharmar, eent aur tails, aushadhiyan aur rasayan, samanh‍y injiniyari vash‍tuen, ph‍laeevud, rngarogan, bidi aur sigar, sabun, tel, urvarak tatha khadi aur gramodyog uth‍pad shamil hain. isake alava mahin upakaran, mashini auzar, petroliyam padarth, pent, lugadi, kagaz, akhabari kagaz, kanch tatha alauh dhatuon ke uth‍padan ke lie rajh‍y men kee karakhane hain. niryat ki jane vali vash‍tuon men pramukh hain- kajoo, chay, masale, leman gras aauyal, samudri khady uth‍pad, shisham aur nariyal resha. rajh‍y men ilh‍menait, ratal, monajait, jirakon, silimenait, chikani mitti tatha sh‍phatik yukh‍t baloo jaise mahath‍vapoorn khanij bhi prachur matra men pae jate hain. lagabhag sabhi mukhh‍y uth‍padon men audyogik niryat men lagatar vriddhi huee hai.-

  • saauphtaveyar ka niryat 2003 - 04 ke dauran 240 karod rupe ka tha, jo 2004 - 05 men 400 karod rupe ka ho gaya. yah vriddhi 66 pratishat thi. 2004 - 05 men nipatare ke lie 2658 audyogik vivad the jo 2003 - 04 ki tulana men kafi kam the. isi tarah 2004 - 05 men hadatalen aur talabndi bhi 2003-04 ki tulana men kam rahe.
  • 31 march 2005 tak keral men 14655 jaauint sh‍taauk knpaniyan thin jinamen se 13210 praivet limited aur 1445 pablik limited thi. keral men sarvadhik snkhh‍ya men sarvajanik kshetr ke upakram hain (1071 men se 113) jinamen 115697 logon ko rozagar mila hua hai. inamen se 63 upakramon men injiniyaring, bijali ka saman, vash‍tr, ilekh‍traaunik, chin-mitti, krishi tatha lakadi ke saman ka kam kiya jata hai.
  • keral sarakar audyogik ikaiyon ko vittiy sahayata aur prashikshan / paramarsh sevaen pradan karati hai. audyogik proth‍sahan ke kary men lagi mahath‍vapoorn ejensiyan aur vibhag hain- ke. eph. si., ke. es. aee. di. si., sidabi kinaphara, udyog aur vanijh‍y nideshalay, es.aee.di.si., es.aee.es.aee., kitako aur si.em.di..
  • udyog aur vanijh‍y nideshalay bhoomi adhigrahan karake, use vikasit karake, sadak, jalapoorti, bijali tatha avashh‍yak imaraten banakar, sari suvidhaen laghu udyogon ko upalabh‍dh karata hai. laghu udyog vikas nigam apani badi audyogik snpadaon v laghu audyogik snpadaon ke jarie laghu udyogon ko mool snrachanath‍mak suvidhaen upalabh‍dh karata hai.
  • niryat snvarddhan ke lie mukhh‍yat: vishesh dhyan arthik kshetr par diya ja raha hai. is yojana ka uddeshh‍y niryat ke lie mukh‍t vatavaran aur antararashh‍triy sh‍tar ka pratish‍pardhi mahaul upalabh‍dh karane ke lie vishesh arthik kshetr sh‍thapit karana hai.
  • kochchi men tin vishesh arthik kshetr hain-
  1. kalamasari ke kinaphara men ilekh‍tranik park,
  2. kochin vishesh arthik kshetr,
  3. bndaragah adharit vishesh arthik kshetr.
fort kochin, kochchi
  • isake alava anh‍y hain -
  1. malh‍lapuram phood park,
  2. taikh‍nopark,
  3. tiruvanntapuram men ep‍ral park, philh‍m aur vidiyo park, enimeshan vishesh arthik kshetr.
  • bharatiy arthavh‍yavash‍tha men laghu udyog ek bahut gatishil aur jivnt kshetr hai. 31 march 2005 tak keral men 2,80,584 laghu audyogik ikaiyan pnjikrit thin jisamen 4230.03 karod rupe ka nivesh tha aur 12,60,007 logon ko rozagar mila tha. 2004 - 05 men 4935 ikaiyan pnjikrit hueen jinamen 198.63 karod rupe ka nivesh hua hai aur 22585 log kam kar rahe hain.
  • keral sarakar ne 'zila audyogik kendron' ke madyam se 'prath‍yasha' shirshak ke antargat keral sh‍thaniy udyog snvarddhan karyakram prarambh kiya hai. is yojana ka uddeshh‍y 25,00 laghu udyog sh‍thapit karana hai jinamen varsh 2005 - 06 men 1,00,000 logon ko rozagar milega.
audyogikikaran

adhikansh abadi audyogikikaran se aprabhavit hai. berozagari ki samasya gnbhir hai aur berozagar logon men shiksha ka uchch star is samasya ko aur gnbhir bana deta hai. adhikansh shramik parnparik, kam mazadoori vale kutir udyogon, jaise nariyal ke reshon aur kajoo prasnskaran ya bunaee men snlagn hain. keral ke ek-chauthaee se adhik shramik seva-kshetr men hai. khady prasnskaran, audyogik rozagar ka sabase bada sadhan hai. any utpadon men urvarak, rasayan, bijali ke upakaran, taiteniyam, ailuminiyam, plaivud, chini mitti ke bartan aur kritrim reshe shamil hain.

soochana praudyogiki

ernakulam rashtriy udyan

soochana praudyogiki aur isaka adhikadhik upayog karane ki kshamata ek mahath‍vapoorn pahaloo hai. keral sarakar ne rajh‍y men soochana praudyogiki ke vikas ke lie anek qadam uthae hain. jinamen se pramukh hain-

  1. tekh‍nopark, tiruvanntapuram. yah bharat ka pahala antararashh‍triy sh‍tar ka soochana praudyogiki kendr hai.
  2. kochchi men kinaphara sthit soochana praudyogiki park,
  3. keral soochana praudyogiki mishan ka akshay karyakram
  4. rajh‍y sarakar ki ee-shasan pahal, jaise - phrainds
  • tekh‍nopark ki samanvit soochana ke sath praudyogiki vatavaran ke roop ki avadharana ki gee hai jisamen udyog ki avashh‍yakata ki sabhi moolabhoot aur adhunik suvidhaen upalabadh hain. sarakar ne is parisar ko sabhi vh‍yavadhanon se mukh‍t kar diya hai, keval bijali ki suraksha ke lie mukhh‍y vidyut nirikshak se pramanapatr lena hota hai. bharat sarakar ki adhikansh sh‍vikritiyon ke lie tekh‍nopark ekamatr snpark ki bhoomika nibhata hai. tekh‍nopark ne 2004 men soochana praudyogiki parisar ke lie mool snrachanath‍mak aur anh‍y sevaon ke srijan aur vipanan ki achh‍chhi pranali qayam karane aur usake rakh-rakhav ke lie pramanapatr praph‍t kiya. tekh‍nopark aisi pahali seva snsh‍tha hai jise 2004 men amerika ki 'karanegi mailh‍tan yoonivarsiti' se si.em.em.aee. leval 4 pramanapatr mila.
keral ka ek drishy
  • vartaman samay men is parisar men 84 antarrashh‍triy aur sh‍vadeshi knpaniyan hain, jinamen 634.25 karod rupe ka nivesh hai. pichhale varsh tekh‍nopark se 350 karod rupe ka niryat hua. 2004-05 men parisar ke vish‍tar ke lie aur bhoomi adhigrahit ki gee. 86 ekad bhoomi adhigrahit ki gee aur is par kabh‍za liya ja raha hai. kendr sarakar ne is ne parisar (86 ekad) ko vishesh arthik kshetr ghoshit kiya hai.
  • kochchi men 92 ekad ke kshetraphal men ek inpho park hai jisamen 3.5 lakh varg phit ka nirmit hish‍sa hai. badi knpaniyon jaise vipro, o.pi.aee, e.si.es., aee.bi.es. aur ti.si.es ne inpho park men kary arnbh kar diya hai. yahan inpho park suvidhaon men 1400 karmachari karyarat hain. knpani ka kul nivesh 80.43 karod ru. hai. inpho park knpaniyon ka kul niryat 32 karod ru hai.
  • keral ko ee-shasan ke mamale men bharat ka doosara sarvashreshh‍th rajh‍y hone ka gaurav praph‍t hai. phrainds (phash‍t rilayabil insh‍taint ephishient netavark phar dish‍barsament sarvis) ek hi sh‍than par nipatan pranali hai jahan nagarik sabhi kar aur anh‍y vittiy dey sarakar ko dete hain.
  • agash‍t 2004 men malh‍lapuram zile men 'phrainds pariyojana' ke vish‍tar ke roop men akshay ee-kendron ke madhyam se keral sarakar ne bilon ke bhugatan ki suvidha shuroo ki hai.
  • desh men apani tarah ka pahala kaaul sentar rajh‍y ki rajadhani men sh‍thapit kiya gaya hai. isase am nagarik telifon ke madhyam se vibhinh‍n sarakari vibhagon men hue len-den ke bare men gyan praph‍t kar sakenge.

sinchaee

chirayinakizoo, tiruanntapuram
  • keral bhi jalapoorti ke lie bhootal jal sinchaee pranali par nirbhar hai, jo guruth‍vakarshan bal ke dvara snchalit hoti hai. bahut bada bhookhnd badi aur mnjholi sinchaee pariyojanaon ke lie niyat hai. march 2005 tak kul 3572.40 karod ke nivesh men se 2,462.51 karod rupe ka nivesh (69 pratishat) badi aur mnjholi sinchaee pariyojanaon ke lie tha.
  • keral men sinchaee vh‍yavash‍tha badi, mnjholi aur laghu sinchaee pariyojanaon ka bhoojal vikas karyakramon ke madhh‍yam se hoti hai. poori ki gee pramukh pariyojanaen- malamapoojaha, chalakuddi, pichi, pnpa, periyar, chittoorapooja, kuttiyadi, neyyar aur chimh‍mani, pajhari, kanjarapooja tatha kalh‍lad hain. pothudi, gayatri, valayar vazani, mngalam aur chira kujhi mnjholi pariyojanaen hain. char badi pariyojanaon- muvattupooja, idamalayar, karapooza tatha kutiyar kutti - karapara tatha karapooja tatha vanasur sagar, tirathala men pul tatha jal niyamak tatha chamaravattom men mnjholi yojanaon par kam chal raha hai.
lait haus, kovalam tat
  • dasavin yojana men sinchaee par nivesh 930 karod rupe nirdharit tha. isamen se pramukh nivesh badi tatha madhh‍yam sinchaee yojanaon par 600 karod rupe tatha usake bad laghu sinchaee yojanaon par 205 karod rupe tatha badh niyntran aur samudr ksharan avarodhi yojanaon par 50 karod rupe nirdharit kie ge. pahale tin varshon men 435.95 karod rupe bajat men avntit the aur 494.63 karod rupe vh‍yay hue. isamen se adhikansh badi aur mnjholi sinchaee ke lie tha.
  • 'kamand kshetr vikas karyakram' mukhh‍y roop se is uddeshh‍y se shuroo kiya gaya tha ki arjit sinchaee kshamata aur upayog men laee gee kshamata ke antaral ko kam kiya ja sake. 2003 - 04 men karyakram ki punarrachana ki gee aur ise ek naya nam diya gaya - 'kaman kshetr vikas aur jal prabndhan karyakram'.
  • kamand kshetr vikas karyakram pradhikaran ka mukhh‍y kary naliyan, nale banavana aur badabndi lagoo karana hai. pradhikaran ki pramukh gati‍vidhiyan 16 poori ho chuki sinchaee pariyojanon men huee, jaise- 2.03 lakh hekh‍teyar ke kul kshetraphal men malamapujha, mngalam, pothundi, valayar, chirakujhi, vajhani, pichi, chalakudi, naiyar, gayatri, pnpa, periyar ghati, chittarapujha, kuttiyadi, pajhachi aur kanjirapujha. kamand kshetr vikas ke karyakram bharat sarakar ki vittiy sahayata se chalae jate hain. *2004-05 ki upalabdhiyon men 1998 hekh‍teyar men naharen, 6156 hekh‍teyar kshetr ke lie naliyan, 10 hekh‍teyar men is pranali ki parakh karana tatha 2302 hekh‍teyar men 83 prashikshan karyakram ayojit karana shamil hai. pani ko, roke ge kshetron ke pun: uddhar ke lie 1033 hekh‍teyar snchit jal ko upayogi banaya gaya aur 3 moolh‍yankan riport prakashit ki geen.

bijali

keral men pichhale do dashakon se vidyut pranali men ulh‍lekhaniy pragati huee hai. vikas ke arnbhik charanon men rajh‍y ki panabijali kshamata par dhh‍yan kendrit kiya gaya. keral vidyut pranali men 30 bijali uth‍padan kendr hai, jinamen se 24 megavat panabijali ki, 5 tapabijali ke aur 1 pavanachakh‍ki hai. inamen se bhi keral rajh‍y vidyut bord ke pas 24 panabijali, do tapabijali aur 1 pavanachakh‍ki hai.

31.3.05 tak keral men kul sh‍thapit kshamata 2,671.22 megavat thi, jisamen se keral rajh‍y vidyut bord ki 1,820.60 megavat panabijali ki, kojhikod ki 2.0 megavat pavan chakh‍ki ki aur 234.60 megavat tapabijali snyntron ki thi. malanakara panabijali pariyojana 23 akh‍toobar 2005 ko shuroo ki gee, jisase sh‍thapit kshamata men 10.5 megavaaut ki vriddhi huee.

maikro-jalavidyut karyakram ke tahat bahut chhoti panabijali pariyojanaon ko do zila pnchayaton-kasaragod men kamh‍madi aur kojhikod zile men chakrakundu men lagoo karane ka kam e.en.ee.ar.ti. ne apane hath men liya hai. yoonido ne bijali prabndhan kendr men laghu panabijali ka ek kshetriy kendr sh‍thapit kiya hai. kendr ne rajh‍y men 30 chhoti panabijali pariyojanaon ke bare men vish‍trit pariyojana riport taiyar ki hai. inamen se 13 chhoti panabijali pariyojanaen pratibndhit bijali pariyojanaon tatha sh‍vatntr bijali pariyojanaon ke antargat nivedakon ko boot adhar par avntit ki gee hain. 100 kilovaaut ki chhoti bijali yojanaon men se pahali idukh‍ki zile ke manikulam men chaloo ho gee hai. rashh‍triy pavan oorja snsadhan akalan ke antargat adhh‍yayan ke lie do kshetron - kasaragod men pasavaee kunb tatha idukh‍ki zile men kalh‍yanathandu ko chuna gaya hai.

bharat sarakar dvara shuroo ki gee 'rajiv gandhi gramin vidyutikaran yojana' ke pariprekshh‍y men keral ke 14 zilon ke 9.30 ganvon ke 3578 gharon ko bijali pahunchane ke lie 348.79 karod rupe ke parivh‍yay ka prash‍tav bharat sarakar ko prash‍tut kiya gaya. bharat sarakar ne pahale charan ke lie 221.75 karod rupe ki sh‍vikriti di, jisamen sat zilon men bijali pahunchane ka kam hoga. ye zile hai- kasaragaud vayanad, kanh‍noor, kojhikod, malaph‍puram, idukh‍ki aur palakh‍kad.

parivahan

nam lamh‍baee (ki.mi)
en.ech. 17 – rashh‍triy rajamarg 420.777
en.ech. 47 – valayar kalimakavila 416.800
en.ech. 47 A – vailingatan dvip se kochchi baeepas 5.920
en.ech. 49 – bodimettoo muvath‍tapujha kochchi 167.593
en.ech. 208 – kolh‍lam ayanikavoo muvath‍tapujha 81.280
en.ech. 212 – kojhikod kalh‍legad 117.600
en.ech. 213 – kojhikod kalapalakh‍kad 125.300
en.ech. 220 –kolh‍lam kottayam kumini 190.300
  • keral rajh‍y ki yatayat pranali men 1.61 lakh ki.mi. sadaken,
  • 1,148 ki.mi. rel lainen,
  • 1,687 ki.mi. jalamarg aur *18 havaee addon ke 111 sh‍techoo mil vayumarg hain.

keral men suvikasit sadak aur rel pranaliyan hain. yah rashtriy rajamargon dvara tamilanadu aur karnatak rajyon se juda hua hai. poorv ki aur palaghat darren se hokar ane vala relamarg rajy men uttar se dakshin ki or bharat ke sudoor dakshini shahar kanyakumari jane vale relamarg se milata hai. yahan ke tin pramukh bndaragah-koshikod, kochchi-ernakul aur alappusha se tatiy aur videshi jahajon ka avagaman hota hai. kochchi-ernakulam men ek pramukh potasthal aur telashodhan snyntr bhi hai aur yah bharatiy tatarakshak aur nausena kaman ka mukhayalay bhi hai. bndaragahon se bhari saman lane v le jane ke lie 1,770 kimi lnbe antardeshiy jalamargon ka istemal hota hai. tiruvanntapuram men ek antarrashtriy havaee adda aur koshikod aur kochchi men ghareloo udanon ke lie havaee adde hain.

sadaken

keral desh ka pahala rajh‍y hai jahan isake dooradaraz ke ganvon tak shat pratishat sadaken maujood hain. rajh‍y sadakon ki kul lnbaee 138196.471 ki.mi. hai, jisamen se 21467.492 ki.mi. lok nirman vibhag ke pas, 1523.954 ki.mi. rashh‍triy rajamarg ke pas aur 95515.888 ki.mi. pnchayat ke adhin hai.

keral men rashh‍triy rajamarg
  • keral rajh‍y parivahan pariyojana ne joon 2002 men vishh‍v baink ki sahayata se 584 ki. mi. lnbi vidyaman sadakon ko sudharane tatha chauda karane, 993 ki. mi. sadakon ki bhari maramh‍mat karane tatha 150 ki. mi. ke nishh‍padan se snbndhit rakharakhav ke lie karyakram arnbh kiya hai. isamen 93 kilomitar lnbi antarvarti jal nahar ki yojana bhi shamil hai.

relave

rajh‍y men 1,148 kilomitar lnbi rel lainon ke antargat 13 relave marg hain. badi rel lain 1,053.86 kilomitar or chhoti lain 94;14 kilomitar lnbi hai.

uddayan

rajh‍y men tin pramukh havaee adde 'tiroovanntapuram', 'kochchi' (nedunbaseri) aur 'kojhikod' men hain. unamen se pratham do antarrashh‍triy havaee adde hain.

bndaragah

  • 585 ki. mi; lnbi tatavarti pnkti men keral men ek bada bndagah kochchi men hai aur 17 chhote madhh‍yavarti bndaragah hai.
  • pradhanamntri ne 16.12.2005 ko valh‍larapadam antarrashh‍triy malavahak pot tarminal ka shilanh‍yas kiya. isake poora ho jane par kochchi bndaragah hind mahasagar ka ek vishal bndaragah ban jaega.

shiksha

pippara bandh, tiruanntapuram
  • keral men akhil bharatiy 65.38 pratishat ki tulana men 90.92 pratishat (2001 ki janaganana), ki uchh‍ch saksharata dar hai. keral men zilon ke bich kottayam zile men 95.90 pratishat ki uchh‍chatam saksharata dar aur palh‍lakad men 84.31 pratishat nimh‍natam saksharata dar hai. saksharata daron men kshetriy aur laingik bhedabhav keral men sabase kam hai.
  • zila prathamik shiksha karyakram, sarvashiksha abhiyan ke tahat srijit mool snrachana aur sh‍thaniy sarakaron ke yogadan se suvidhaon ke sudhar men yogadan mila hai.
  • keral men sat vishh‍vavidyalay aur do manad vishh‍vavidyalay hain. pichhale 5 varshon men keral men takaniki shiksha snsh‍thanon ki snkhh‍ya men apar vriddhi huee hai.

prarambhik shiksha

  • keral men 2005 men kul 12650 sh‍kool the, jinamen se 6827 loar praimari, 3042 apar praimari aur 2781 haeesh‍kool the. isake alava 483 sibiesee sh‍kool, 78 aeesiesee sh‍kool, 27 kendriy vidyalay aur 13 javahar navoday vidyalay the.
  • keral men anudan praph‍t sh‍kool pranali bhi abhi tak vidyaman hai. kul 12650 sh‍koolon men se 7287 sahayata praph‍t niji sh‍kool (57.60 pratishat) hain. kul 3042 apar praimari sh‍koolon men se 31.36 pratishat sarakari, 61.47 pratishat sahayata praph‍t niji sh‍kool aur 7.17 pratishat gair sahayata praph‍t niji sh‍kool hain. kul 2781 haeesh‍koolon men se 35.78 pratishat sarakari, 51.17 pratishat sahayata praph‍t niji tatha 13.05 pratishat gair sahayata praph‍t niji sh‍kool hain.
velalaini jhil, tiruanntapuram
  • sh‍vatntrata prapti se ab tak ki sarvadhik mahath‍vakankshi shaikshik pariyojana sarv shiksha abhiyan ka uddeshh‍y 2010 tak 6 se 14 sal tak ke ayu-varg ke samash‍t bachh‍chon ko upayogi aur prasngik moolabhoot shiksha pradan karana hai.
  • 2004-05 men sarakari aur sahayata praph‍t donon tarah ke sh‍koolon men snrakshit adhh‍yapakon ki snkhh‍ya 3148 thi. isamen 524 haeesh‍kool adhh‍yapak, 1904 pidi adhh‍yapak aur 720 vishesh adhh‍yapak the.
  • rashh‍triy shiksha niti ke anusar madhh‍yamik sh‍tar ki shiksha ko manh‍yata dene ke lie rajh‍y men uchh‍chatar madhh‍yamik pathyakram shuroo kiya gaya. pratham charan men, 1990-91 ke dauran 31 sarakari skoolon ka darja badhakar uchh‍chatar madhh‍yamik sh‍kool bana diya gaya. 2005-06 ke akadamik varsh se uchh‍chatar madhh‍yamik sh‍tar par greding pranali shuroo kar di gee hai.
  • adhik kushal aur rozagaronh‍mukh janashakti taiyar karake rozagar ke adhikadhik avasar jutane ke uddeshh‍y se rajh‍y men vh‍yavasayik uchh‍chatar madhh‍y‍mik shiksha shuroo ki gee. shuruat men yah pathyakram 1983-84 men 19 sarakari sh‍koolon men shuroo kiya gaya. 2004-05 men sh‍vikrit chhatr snkhh‍ya 26874 thi aur vash‍tavik chhatron ki snkhh‍ya 25382 thi.
  • keral men rajh‍y ke gathan ke samay ki tulana men 'uchh‍ch shiksha pranali' men kaaulejon aur vishh‍vavidyalayon ki snkhh‍ya ke mamale men kafi vriddhi huee hai. is pranali men 7 vi‍shh‍vavidyalay aur 2 manad vidyalay hain. keral ke vishh‍vavidyalay ki amadani ka mukhh‍y srot rajh‍y sarakar se milane vala yojanagat aur gair yojanagat anudan hain. vishh‍vavidyalay ka yojanagat vh‍yay 2003-04 men 11014.6 lakh roope tha jo 2004-05 men badhakar 12858.1 lakh rupe ho gaya.

sh‍vash‍thh‍y

keral ka khana
  • keral ne janh‍madar, mrith‍yudar, shishu mrith‍yu dar, prasooti mrith‍yu, janh‍m par ausat ayu tatha tikakaran ke kshetr men bahut hi achh‍chha sh‍vash‍thh‍y sh‍tar praph‍t kar liya hai. keral men prati hazar janasnkhh‍ya par janh‍m dar 16.90, mrith‍yu dar 6.40, shishu mrith‍yu dar 10, prasooti mrith‍yudar 0.87 thi. yadyapi keral ne behatar sh‍vash‍thh‍y dekhabhal snketak praph‍t kar lie hain, phir bhi log snkramak aur gair snkramak donon tarah ki bimariyon se ash‍vash‍th hote ja rahe hain.
  • keral ki sh‍vash‍th pranali men elopaithi, ayurved aur homh‍yopaithi shamil hain. in tinon pranaliyon ke sarakari kshetr men 2696 snsh‍than hain aur 48834 bish‍tar hain. keral ke tikakaran ka sarvajanik sh‍tar praph‍t kar liya hai. 2004-05 men bisiji ki kavarej 104.3 pratishat thi. ekatrit ankadon ke anusar kainsar ka ilaj karane vale jh‍yada log 55 se 64 varsh ke ayu varg ke the.

pey jalapoorti

  • keral men 2004 - 05 tak 82.59 pratishat shahari tatha 62.24 pratishat gramin logon ko nalon ka pani upalabh‍dh kara diya gaya. kul milakar 67.52 pratishat logon ko pani upalabh‍dh karaya gaya. jabaki 2003 - 04 men yah 65.2 pratishat ke lie tha. 2003-04 men gramin aur shahari logon ko jalapoorti kramash: 60 aur 80 pratishat thi. 2004 - 05 men 7.43 lakh atirikh‍t logon ko snrakshit jal upalabh‍dh karaya gaya. isamen se 66887 (9 pratishat) anusoochit jati ke aur 8175 (1 pratishat) anusoochit janajati ke the.
  • keral jal apoorti pradhikaran ki 1 aprail 2005 tak 1895 jal apoorti yojanaen karyarat thin. inamen 65 shahari yojanaen, 952 gramin bahu pnchayat yojanaen aur 878 gramin ekal pnchayat yojanaen thin. 2004-05 men 40 yojanaen shuroo ki geen jinamen 6 shahari aur 34 gramin thin. keral sarakar ne bahari sahayata se 2 jalapoorti yojanaen shuroo ki hain, ve hain-
  1. jebiaeesi se sahayata praph‍t keral jal apoorti pariyojana, aur
  2. vishh‍v baink se sahayata praph‍t keral gramin jalapoorti aur saphaee yojana (jalanidhi)

garibi unh‍moolan

garibi door karane ke lie garibi unh‍moolan karyakram banaya gaya hai. keral sh‍thaniy prashasan aur rajh‍y garibi unh‍moolan mishan dvara lagoo 'kutunbashri' men bhag lekar mahath‍vooparn kam kar raha hai. eneseso ke 55 ven charan (1999 - 2000) ke anusar keral men 9.35 pratishat garibi gramin ilakon men aur 20.27 pratishat garibi shahari ilakon men hai. 1999 - 2000 ke ankade darshate hain ki keral men 12.72 pratishat garibi thi, jab ki poore desh men 26.36 pratishat. 'kutunbashri' pranali garibi door karane aur isake lie uthae ge qadamon ki nigarani karata hai. isi karyakram ke vish‍tar ke roop men ashray namak karyakram keral ke ek tihaee bhag men lagoo kiya gaya hai jo ath‍ynt garib logon ko samajik suraksha pradan karata hai.

snskriti

keral ki snskriti vastav men bharatiy snskriti ka abhinn hissa hai. bharatiy upamahadvip ki tarah keral ki snskriti ka bhi ek puratan itihas hai jo apane ap men mahattvapoorn hone ka dava karata hai. keral ki snskriti bhi ek samagr aur mahanagariy snskriti hai jisamen kee logon aur jatiyon ne mahattvapoorn yogadan diya hai. keral ke logon ke bich samagr aur vividhatavadi sahishnuta aur drishtikon ki udarata ki bhavana ka udvav abhi hai jisase netritv snskriti ka vikas lagatar jari hai. keral ka itihas sanskritik aur samajik snshleshan ki ek anokhi prakriya ki romantik aur akarshan kahani kahata hai. keral ne har chunauti ka maqool javab dete hue pratyek kshetr men apani pratibha ka behatar pradarshan kiya hai aur sath hi purani parnparaon aur ne moolyon ka manaviy tathyon se snlayan kiya hai. bharatiy upamahadvip ki tarah keral ki snskriti ka bhi ek puratan itihas hai jo apane ap men mahattvapoorn hone ka dava karata hai.

keral ki snskriti apani puratanata, ekata, nirntarata aur sarvabhaumikata ki prakriti ke karan umr ke hisab se madhyam banae hue hai. isake vyapak arth men yah jivan ke pratyek kshetr men manushy ki atma ki sarvochch upalabdhiyon ko gale lagati hai. kul milakar yah dharm aur darshan, bhasha aur sahity, kala aur sthapaty kala, shiksha aur sikhana aur arthik aur samajik sngathan ke kshetr men logon ki samagr upalabdhiyon ka pratinidhitv karati hai.

tyohar

keral men anek rngarng th‍yohar manae jate hain. inamen se adhikatar th‍yohar dharmik hain jo hindoo puranon se prerit hain.

  • onam keral ka vishishh‍t th‍yohar hai, jo fasal kataee ke mausam men manaya jata hai. yah th‍yohar khagolashash‍triy navavarsh ke avasar par ayojit kiya jata hai.
  • keral men navaratri parv sarash‍vati pooja ke roop men manaya jata hai.
  • mahashivaratri ka th‍yohar periyar nadi ke tat par bhavh‍y tarike se manaya jata hai aur isaki tulana kumbh mela se ki jati hai.
  • sabarimala ke ayyaph‍pa mndir men isi dauran makaravilakh‍ku bhi ayojit hota hai. 41 din ke is uth‍sav men desh-videsh ke lakhon log sammilit hote hain.
  • valamakali ya nauka daud keral ka apane dhng ka anokha ayojan hai. punh‍namada jhil men ayojit hone vali neharoo traauphi nauka daud ko chhodakar shesh sabhi nauka daud uth‍savon ka koee n koee dharmik mahath‍v hai.
  • trisoor ke vadakh‍kumanath mndir men har varsh aprail men pooram th‍yohar manaya jata hai, jisamen saje-dhaje hathiyon ki bhavh‍y shobhayatra nikalati hai aur atishabazi ka pradarshan kiya jata hain.
  • krisamas aur eesh‍tar eesaiyon ka sabase bada th‍yohar hain. pumh‍ba nadi ke tat par har varsh maramon samh‍melan hota hai, jahan eshiya men eesaiyon ka sabase bada jamavada lagata hai.
  • musalaman milade shariph, ramazan roze, bakarid aur eed-ul-phitar ka th‍yohar manate hain.

paryatan

nauka daud, keral
  • paryatan gatividhiyon ke lie keral men sh‍thayi aur saphal vriddhi ke lie apekshit vatavaran pahale se vidyaman hai. paryatan kshetr ke lie mahath‍vapoorn tath‍v hai - prakritik saundary, samanh‍y jalavayu, sh‍vachh‍chh paryavaran, maitri bhav vale shantipriy log hain jo sansh‍kritik vividhata ke prati behad sahishh‍nu hain aur anoothe paryavaran ko nirmit karane ki kshamata rakhate hain. keral desh men sarvapriy paryatan sh‍thal ke roop men ubhara hai. samudr tat, garm mausam, samudri jhilen, parvatiy sh‍thal, jal prapat, vanh‍y jivan, ayurved, varsh bhar th‍yohar tatha vividh ped paudhe keral ko paryatakon ke lie ek anootha gntavh‍y sh‍thal banate hain.
  • paryatan vibhag, keral paryatan vikas nigam, zila paryatan snvarddhan parishad, bekal paryatan vikas nigam, sh‍thaniy prashasanon tatha niji kshetr ki paryatan men mahath‍vapoorn bhoomika hai. vartaman men jo mukhh‍y kshetr vikas ke lie dekhe ja rahe hai: ve hain gramin paryatan, mais paryatan (em.aee.si.ee - miting, insentiv, kanh‍venshas tatha ivents/ekh‍sibishan tred shoz) yani - baithak, proth‍sahan, samh‍melan aur pradarshaniyan/vh‍yapar pradarshaniyan, sansh‍kritik paryatan, virasat paryatan, paryavaran paryatan tatha chikith‍sa paryatan.
  • thenamala paryatan suvidha kenh‍dr ke sath paryatan pariyojana hai, jisamen shaaup kort gardan, ph‍laja, pikanik kshetr, chattan par chadhaee, nadi par ka mukh‍t prekshagrih, resh‍taran, jhoolate pul, kamal ke talab, sngitamay nrith‍y, phavh‍vare, shilh‍pamoorti vale bag, hiran punarvas kendr, naukayan, baitari chalit vahan adi hain. van vibhag ke samanh‍vay se pakaroovi men dhanchagat suvidhaen upalabh‍dh karaee ja rahi hain. varsh 2004-05 men, 104622 paryatak thenamala paryavaran (iko) paryatan sh‍thal dekhane ge aur 3563820 lakh rupe ki rajash‍v prapti huee.
  • rajh‍y men 2004 men videshi paryatakon se videshi mudra men 1266.77 karod rupe ki ay huee aur ghareloo paryatakon se 3881.92 karod rupe ki ay huee. paryatan se prath‍yaksh aur paroksh roop se kul ay lagabhag 6829 karod rupe huee. paryatan men 8 lakh logon ko rozagar mila hua hai aur prativarsh 500 karod rupe ka nivesh kiya jata hai.


vithika


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Home (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) keral ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 20 janavari, 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 223-224 |
  3. sabhaparv 31, 71
  4. 4, 54

snbndhit lekh