कोयला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

koyala

koyala ek karbanik padarth hai jisako eendhan ke roop men prayog men laya jata hai. sadharanataya lakadi ke angaron ko bujhane se bach rahe jale hue ansh ko koyala kaha jata hai. us khanij padarth ko bhi koyala kahate hain jo snsar ke anek sthalon par khanon se nikala jata hai. koyala ek taraph jahan shakti prapt karane athava audyogik eedhan ka ek mahattavapoorn sadhan hai, vahin vibhinn udyogon ke lie kachche mal ka srot bhi hai. ek anuman ke anusar bharat men 19689 karod tan koyala nikalane ka pratham prayas 1774 men jharakhand ke ranignj koyala kshetr men do angrezon sanamar tatha helthili ne kiya evn usake bad 1814 men isi kshetr men roorpat jons ki rirpot milane par koyale ka utkhanan prarambh kiya gaya.

koyale ke prakar

karban ki matra ke adhar par koyala char prakar ka hota hain -

  1. pit koyala :- isamen karban ki matra 50% se 60% tak hoti hai. ise jalane par adhik rakh evn dhuan nikalata hai. yah sabase nimn koti ka koyala hai.
  2. lignait koyala :- koyala isamen karban ki matra 65% se 70% tak hoti hai. isaka rng bhoora hota hai, isamen jalavashp ki matra adhik hoti hai.
  3. bituminas koyala :- ise mulayam koyala bhi kaha jata hai. isaka upayog ghareloo karyon men hota hai. isamen karban ki matra 70% se 85% tak hoti hai.
  4. enthrasait koyala :- yah koyale ki sabase uttam koti hai. isamen karban ki matra 85% se bhi adhik rahati hai.

koyale ke vibhinn star samooh

bharat men koyala mukhyat: do vibhinn yugon ke star samoohon men milata hai: pahala gondavana yug men tatha doosara tritiy kalp men. koyala utkhanan men vartaman men bharat ka sthan chin aur amerika ke bad vishv men tisara hai aur yahan par lagabhag 136 kigra. prati vyakti koyala nikala jata hai, jo ausat se kam hai. bharat men prachin kal ki gondavana shailon men kul koyale ka 98 pratishat bhag paya jata hai jabaki tritiyak athava tarshiyar yugin koyala matr 2 pratishat hai.

gondavana yugin koyala

gondavana koyala uchch shreni ka hota hai. isamen rakh ki matra alp tatha tapotpadak shakti adhik hoti hai. bharat men gondavana yugin aur poorvottar ke koyala bhndaron ke sabhi prakar ka lagabhag 2,0624 kharab tan koyala hai. gondavan yugin koyala dakshin ke pathari bhag se prapt hota hai evn isaki ayu 25 karod varsh nirdharit ki gayi hai. gondavana yug ke pramukh kshetr jhariya (bihar) tatha ranignj (pashchim bngal) men sthit hai. any pramukh kshetron men bokaro, giridih, karanapura, penchaghati, umariya, sohagapur, sigareni, kothagudem adi ullekhaniy hain.

tarshiyar yugin koyala

tarshiyar koyala ghatiya shreni ka hota hai. isamen gndhak ki prachurata hone ke karan yah katipay udyogon men prayukt nahin kiya ja sakata. tarshiyar yugin koyala uttar-poorvi rajyon (pashchim bngal, asam, meghalay, arunachal pradesh tatha nagalaind), jammoo kashmir, rajasthan evn kuchh matra men tamilanadu rajy men paya jata hai. isaki anumanit ayu 1.5 se 6.0 karod varsh ke bich hai. isake sabase pramukh kshetr hain- makoom kshetr (asam), neveli (tamilanadu, lingait koyale kak lie prasiddh) tatha palana (rajasthan).

utpadan

bharat ke kul koyala utpadan ka sarvadhik bhag gondavana yugin chattanon men milata hai, jisaka vistar 90650 varg kimi. kshetr par hai. isaka sabase pramukh kshetr pashchim bngal, jharakhand, tatha udisa rajyon men phaila hain, jahan se kul utpadan ka 76 pratishat koyala prapt kiya jata hai, jabaki 17 pratishat koyala madhy pradesh v chhattisagadh tatha 6 pratishat koyala andhr pradesh men milata hai. gondavan yugin koyala mukhyatah bituminas prakar ka hai, jisaka upayog koking koyala banakar desh ke lauh- ispat ke karakhanon men kiya jata hai. prayadvipiy bharat ki nadi-ghatiyan koyala ke pramukh prapti sthal hain, jinamen damodar nadi ghati, son-mahanadi, brahnani nadi ghati, vardha-godavari-indravati nadi tatha koyala-pnch-kanhan nadi ghati pramukh hain.

koyale ka vitaran evn utpadan
rajy khadano ki
snkhya
desh ke
kul bhndar
ka pratishat
utpadan
2000-01
(lakh tan)
kul utpadan
ka pratishat
jharakhand 207 35% 754.13 24.35%
udisa 21 24% 448.03 14.46%
chhattisagadh 17%
pashchim bngal 106 13% 200.99 6.29%
andhr pradesh 68 06% 302.74 9.77%
maharashtr 62 03% 287.53 5.45%
uttar pradesh 04 168.63 5.45%
snpoorn bharat 606 3096.28
koyale par adharit desh ke pramukh tap vidyut grih
vidyut grih rajy
nevali tap vidyut grih tamilanadu
pataratoo tap vidyut grih hazaribag, jharakhand
koraba tap vidyut grih chhattisagadh
haraduagnj tap vidyut grih uttar pradesh
obara tap vidyut grih mirjapur, uttar pradesh
talachar tap vidyut grih udisa
pharakka supar tap vidyut grih pashchim bngal
satapuda tap vidyut grih madhy pradesh
ramagundam supar tap vidyut grih andhr pradesh
vindhyachal supar tap vidyut grih madhy pradesh
rihand tap vidyut grih uttar pradesh
singarauli tap vidyut grih uttar pradesh

prapti sthan

jharakhand rajy men jhariya, bokaro, giridih, ramagadh, uttari evn dakshini karanapura, aurnga, hutar, daltagnj adi tatha bihar ke lalamatiya adi kshetron men uttam koti ka bituminas koyala nikala jata hai. jhariya koyala kshetr 450 varg kimi. dvotr men vistrit hai evn yahan se jharakhand rajy ka lagabhag 50 pratishat koyala nikala jata hai. giridih koyala kshetr ka kshetraphal 2.8 varg kimi hain. yahan barakar shreni ki shainlon men koyala milata hai. bokaro kshetr jhariya ke pashchimi men sthit hai evn isaka kshetraphal 674 varg kimi hai. yahan par 305 mi. ki gaharaee tak 53 karod tan koyala hone ka anuman lagaya gaya hai. bihar ka karanapura kshetr oopari damodar ghati se 3 kimi pashchimi men sthit hai aur isaka kul kshetraphal 1,424 varg kimi hai. yahan milane vali koyala paraten 20 se 30 mi. moti hain.

pashchim bngal rajy ka ranignj koyala kshetr oopari damodar nadi ghati men hai, jo bharat ka sabase mahattvapoorn evn bada koyala kshetr hai. isaka kul kshetraphal lagabhag 1,500 varg kimi hai. isamen barakar tatha ranignj shreniyon ka uttam koyala nikala jata hai. is kshetr se bharat ka lagabhag 35 pratishat koyala prapt hota hai. arunachal pradesh ke namachik-namakuph kshetr men bhi koyala khan sthit hai.

sonaghati koyala kshetr ka vistar madhy pradesh[1] tatha udisa[2] rajyon men phaila hain. yahan ke tatapani - ramakola koyala kshetr ko chhattisagadh koyala kshetr ke nam se jana jata hai. udisa ka talachar koyala brahnani nadi ghati men phaila hai, jahan ki karaharavadi koyala parat mashahoor hai. isake atirikt maharashtr ki godavari evn vardha nadi ghatiyon tatha satapuda parvatiy kshetr men bhi koyale ka utkhanan kiya jata hai. 2007-08 ke dauran desh men kul 4911 lakh tan koyale ka utpadan hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. umariya, sohagapur, singarauli, tatapani, ramakola adi
  2. aurnga, hutar evn daltanagnj

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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