कोलकाता  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kolakata vishay soochi

parichay    itihas    bhoogol    prashasanik vyavastha    arthavyavastha    kala    shiksha    yatayat    paryatan    chitravali    alekh

kolakata
Kolkata-colaj.jpg
vivaran kolakata ka bharat ke itihas men mahath‍vapoorn sh‍than hai. kolakata shahar bngal ki khadi ke oopar hugali nadi ke poorvi tat par sthit hai.
rajy pashchim bngal
zila kolakata
sthapana san 1690 ee. men jaaub charnok dvara sthapit
bhaugolik sthiti uttar- 22°33′ - poorv -88°20′
marg sthiti kolakata shahar rashh‍triy rajamarg tatha rajh‍y rajamarg se poore desh se juda hua hai. kolakata sadak marg bhuvaneshh‍var se 468 kilomitar uttar-poorv, patana se 602 kilomitar dakshin-poorv tatha ranchi se 404 kilomitar dakshin-poorv men sthit hai.
prasiddhi rasagulla, bngali sadiyan, tant ki sadiyan
kab jaen aktoobar se faravari
kaise pahunchen havaee jahaz, rel, bas adi se pahuncha ja sakata hai.
havaee adda netaji subhash chndr bos antarrashtriy havaee adda v damadam havaee adda
relave steshan havada jnkshan, siyaladah jnkshan.
bas adda bas adda, kolakata
yatayat saikil-riksha, aauto-riksha, mitar-taiksi, siti bas, tram aur metro rel
kya dekhen kolakata paryatan
kahan thaharen hotal, atithi grah, dharmashala
kya khayen rasagulla, bhat
kya khariden hathakaragha sooti sadiyan, resham ke kapade, hash‍tashilh‍p se nirmit vash‍tuen bhi kharid sakate hain.
es.ti.di. kod 033
e.ti.em lagabhag sabhi
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr, kolakata havaee adda
any janakari yah bharat ka sabase bada shahar hai aur pramukh bndaragahon men se ek hain. kolakata ka purana nam kalakatta tha. 1 janavari, 2001 se kalakatta ka nam adhikarik taur par kolakata hua.
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎

kolakata (angrezi:Kolkata) bharat ke mahanagaron men se ek tatha pashchim bngal rajy ki rajadhani hai aur bhootapoorv british bharat (1772-1912) ki rajadhani tha. kolakata ka upanam dayamand harbar bhi hai. yah bharat ka sabase bada shahar hai aur pramukh bndaragahon men se ek hain. kolakata ka purana nam kalakatta tha. 1 janavari, 2001 se kalakatta ka nam adhikarik taur par kolakata hua.[1] kolakata shahar bngal ki khadi ke muhane se 154 kilomitar oopar ko hugali nadi ke poorvi tat par sthit hai, jo kabhi gnga nadi ki mukhy nahar thi. yahan par jal se bhoomi tak aur nadi se samudr tak jahazon ki avajahi ke kendr ke roop men bndaragah shahar vikasit hua. mukhy shahar ka kshetraphal lagabhag 104 varg kilomitar hai, halanki mahanagariy kshetr[2] kafi bada hai aur lagabhag 1,380 kilomitar men phaila hai. vanijy, parivahan aur nirman ka shahar kolakata poorvi bharat ka pramukh shahari kendr hai. is shahar ka angrezi nam kalakatta hai.

  • kuchh logon ke anusar kalikata ki utpatti bangla shabd kalikshetr se huee hai, jisaka arth hai 'kali (devi) ki bhoomi'.
  • kuchh kahate hain ki shahar ka nam ek nahar (khal) ke kinare par usaki mool basti hone se pada.
  • tisara vichar yah hai ki choona (kali) aur siki huee sipi (kata) ke lie bangla shabdon se milakar yah nam bana hai, kyonki yah kshetr paki huee sipi se uchch gunavatta vale choone ke nirman ke lie vikhyat hai.
  • ek any mat yah hai ki is nam ki utpatti bangla shabd kilakila (samatal kshetr) se huee hai, jisaka ullekh prachin grnthon men milata hai.

sthapana

british adhikari jaaub charnok ka kolakata aj ek mahanagar ke roop men tabh‍dil ho chuka hai. jaaub charanak ne 1690 ee. men tin ganvon kolikata, sutanati tatha govinh‍dapuri namak jagah par kolakata ki ninv rakhi thi. vahi kolakata aj ek bhavh‍y shahar ka roop le chuka hai. kolakata ka bharat ke itihas men mahath‍vapoorn sh‍than hai. yah kee aitihasik ghatanaon ka sakshi raha hai. yahan par hi 1756 ee. men prasiddh kalakothari ki ghatana ghati thi. isake alava 1757 ee. men yahin ph‍lasi ka prasiddh yuddh hua tha. isi yuddh ne age chalakar bharat ke itihas ko badal diya. pahale is shahar ka nam kalakatta tha. lekin 2001 ee. men ise badal kar kolakata kar diya gaya.

itihas

kalikata nam ka ullekh mugal badashah akabar (shasan kal, 1556-1605) ke rajasv khate men aur bngali kavi bipradas (1495) dvara rachit 'manasamngal' men bhi milata hai. ek british basti ke roop men kolakata ka itihas 1690 men british eest indiya kampani ke ek adhikari jab charnok dvara yahan par ek vyapar chauki ki sthapana se shuroo hota hai. hugali nadi ke tat par sthit bndaragah ko lekar poorv men charnok ka mugal samrajy ke adhikariyon se vivad ho gaya tha aur unhen vah sthan chhodane ke lie vivash kar diya gaya tha. jisake bad unhonne nadi tat par sthit any sthanon par svayn ko sthapit karane ke kee asaphal prayas kie. angrez gavarnar-janaral varen hestings ke samay men 'regyuleting ekt' ke tahat 1774 ee. men kalakatta (kolakata ka bhootapoorv nam) men ek sarvochch nyayalay ki sthapana ki gee, jisaka adhikar kshetr kalakatta tak tha. kalakatta men rahane vale sabhi bharatiy tatha angrez isaki paridhi men the. kalakatta se bahar ke mamale yah tabhi sunata tha, jab donon paksh sahatam hon. is nyayalay men nyay angrezi qanoonon dvara kiya jata tha.

kalakatta ki kal kothari

20 joon 1756 ko bngal ke navab sirajuddaula dvara nagar par qabza karane aur eest indiya knpani ki pratirakshak sena dvara parishad ke ek sadasy jaaun jed haaulavel ke netritv men samarpan karane ke bad ghati ghatana men navab ne shesh bache yooropiy pratirakshakon ko ek kothari men bnd kar diya tha, jisamen anek bndiyon ki mrityu ho gee thi, yah ghatana bharat men british samrajyavad ke adarshikaran ka ek sanasanikhej muqadama aur vivad ka vishay bani.

bhautik evn manav bhoogol

shahar ka svaroop

upaniveshavadi angrezon ke dvara bhavy yooropiy rajadhani ke roop men abhikalpit kolakata ab bharat ke sabase adhik nirdhan aur sarvadhik janasnkhya vale kshetron men se ek hai. yah atyadhik vividhataon aur antarvirodhon ke shahar ke roop men vikasit hua hai. kolakata ko apani alag pahachan pane ke lie tivr yooropiy prabhav ko atmasat karana tha aur aupaniveshik virasat ki simaon se bahar ana tha. is prakriya men shahar ne poorv aur pashchim ka ek snyog bana liya, jise 19vin shatabdi ke kulin bngaliyon ke jivan karyon men abhivyakti mili. is varg ke sabase vishisht vyaktitv the, kavi aur rahasyavadi ravindranath taigor. bharatiy shaharon men sabase bada aur sabase adhik jivant yah shahar ajey lagane vali arthik, samajik v rajanitik samasyaon ke bich phala-phoola hai. yahan ke nagarikon ne atyadhik jivntata dikhaee hai, jo kala v snskriti men unaki abhiruchi aur ek star ki bauddhik ojasvita men pradarshit hoti hai. yahan ki rajanitik jagarukata desh men anyatr durlabh hai. kolakata ke pustak melon, kala pradarshaniyon aur sngit sabhaon men jaisi bhid hoti hai, vaisi bharat ke kisi any shahar men nahin hoti. divaron par vad-vivad ka achchha-khasa adan-pradan hota hai, jisake karan kolakata ko ishtaharon ka shahar kaha jane laga hai.

arthavyavastha

bharat ke ek mukhy arthik kendr ke roop men kolakata ki jaden usake udyog, arthik evn vyaparik gatividhiyon aur mukhy bndaragah ke roop men usaki bhoomika men nihit hai; yah mudran, prakashan aur samachar patr vitaran ke sath-sath manornjanak ka kendr hai. kolakata ke bhitari pradesh ke utpadon men koyala, loha, mainganiz, abhrak, petrol, chay aur joot shamil hain. 1950 ke dashak se berozagari ek satat v badhati huee samasya hai. kolakata men berozagari bahut had tak mahavidyalay shiksha prapt aur lipik v any safedaposh vyavasayon ke lie prashikshit logon ki samasya hai.

sngrahalay

prashasan evn samajik visheshataen

kolakata shahar men shasan ka dayitv kolakata nagar nigam ka hai; shahar ke 100 vardon se chune hue pratinidhi nigam ki sabha ka nirman karate hain. nigam parshad har varsh ek mahapaur, ek upamahapaur aur nigam ki gatividhiyan chalane ke lie kee samitiyon ka chunav karate hain. nigam ka karyakari pramukh ayukt, nirvachit sadasyon ke prati uttaradayi hota hai. shahar bhi kolakata mahanagar zile ka ek bhag hai, jise kshetriy adhar par yojana banane aur vikas ke paryavekshan ke lie banaya gaya tha. pashchim bngal ki rajadhani hone ke karan kolakata shahar ke aitihasik rajabhavan men rajyapal nivas karate hain. rajy vidhanasabha bhi yahin par sachivalay ke sath raitars bilding men sthit hai aur kolakata uchch nyayalay bhi yahin par hai. kee rashtriy shasakiy snsthaen kolakata men hi sthit hain, jinamen neshanal laibreri, bharatiy sngrahalay, bharatiy bhoo-vaigyanik sarvekshan shamil hain.

shiksha

shiksha lambe samay se kolakata men uchch samajik star ka parichayak rahi hai. yah shahar bharatiy shiksha ke punarjivan kal se, jisaki shuruat 19vin shatabdi ke prarambhik varshon men bngal men huee, shiksha ka ek kendr raha hai. angrezi shaili ka pahala vidyalay, d hindoo kaaulej (jo bad men prezidensi kaaulej kahalaya) 1817 men sthapit hua. shahar men prathamik shiksha ka snchalan pashchimi bngal shasan ke dvara kiya jata hai aur nagar nigam dvara chalae ja rahe vidyalayon men yah niahshulk hai. bahut badi snkhya men bachche niji prabndhan dvara snchalit manyata prapt vidyalayon men shiksha pate hain. adhikansh uchchatar madhyamik vidyalay, pashchim bngal madhyamik shiksha mandal ke adhin hain aur kuchh kendriy madhyamik shiksha bord v bharatiy madhyamik shiksha parishad ke adhin hain.

kala

kolakata vasi lambe samay se sahity v kala kshetron men sakriy rahe hain. 19vin shatabdi ke madhy men yahan pashchimi shiksha se prabhavit sahityik andolan ka uday hua, jisane sampoorn bharat men sahityik punarjagaran kiya. is andolan ke mahattvapoorn pranetaon men se ek ravindranath taigor the, jinhen 1913 men sahity ka nobel puraskar pradan kiya gaya. unaki kavita, sngit, natak aur chitrakala men ullekhaniy srijanatmakata ne shahar ke sanskritik jivan ka samriddh kiya. kolakata paramparik evn samakalin sngit aur nrity ka bhi kendr hai. 1937 men taigor ne kolakata men pahale akhil bngal sngit samaroh ka udghatan kiya tha. tabhi se prativarsh yahan par kee bharatiy shastriy sngit samaroh ayojit kie jate hain. kee shastriy nartakon ka ghar kolakata paramparik nrity kala men pashchim ki mnchiy takanik ko apanane ke uday shnkar ke prayog ka sthal bhi tha. 1965 se unake dvara sthapit nrity, sngit aur natak shalaen shahar men vidyaman hain. 1870 ke dashak men neshanal thietar ki sthapana ke sath hi kolakata men vyavasayik natakon ki shuruat huee. shahar men natakon ke adhunik roopon ki shuruat girishachndr ghosh aur dinabandhu mitr jaise natakakaron ne ki. kolakata aj bhi vyavasayik v shauqiya rngamnch aur prayogadharmi natakon ka ek mahattvapoorn kendr hai. yah shahar bharat men chalachitr nirman ka prarambhik kendr bhi raha hai. prayogadharmi film nirdeshak satyajit ray aur mrinal sen ne antarrashtriy star par prashnsa paee hai. shahar men kee sinemaghar hain, jinamen niyamit roop se angrezi, bangla aur hindi filmen dikhaee jati hain.

manornjan

Blockquote-open.gif is andolan ke mahattvapoorn pranetaon men se ek ravindranath taigor the, jinhen 1913 men sahity ka nobel puraskar pradan kiya gaya. Blockquote-close.gif

kolakata nagar nigam 200 se adhik bagichon, chaurahon aur khule maidanon ki dekharekh karata hai. halanki shahar ke bhid bhare hisson men bahut kam sthan hai. lagabhag 3.2 kilomitar lamba aur 1.6 kilomitar chauda maidan sabase prasiddh khula sthan hai. yahin par phutabal, kriket aur haauki ke pramukh maidan hain. maidan se laga hua hai, vishv ke sabase purane kriket maidanon men se ek, eedan gardan men ranaji stediyam; charadivari men khele jane vale khelon ke lie netaji stediyam pas hi hai. nagar ke poorv men bane salt lek stediyam men ek lakh darshak baith sakate hain. shahar men do ghudadaud maidan aur do golf maidan hain aur nauka vihar ke lie lek klab aur bngal naukayan sngh lokapriy hai. lagabhag 20 hekteyar se adhik kshetr men chidiyaghar phaila hua hai. gnga nadi ke pashchimi tat par bharatiy vanaspatik udyan sthit hai. isake vanaspati sngrahalayon men paudhon ki lagabhag 40 hazar prajatiyan hain.
eedan gardan, kolakata

khanapan

bhojan

kolakata bhojan ke mamale men ek prasiddh shahar hai. kolakata men bhojan kafi sash‍ta milata hai. kolakata men kalighat ki taraph 'komal vilas hotal' men kele ke patte par dakshin bharatiy bhojan parosa jata hai. jatin das rod par sthit 'ray udupi hom' men bhi achh‍chha bhojan milata hai. yahan sthit markopolo hotal men apako har tarah ka vh‍ynjan mil jaega. park sh‍trit par sthit 'moknbo' hotal kaaunh‍tinenh‍tal phish ke lie prasiddh hai. yahin par 'sauravs' hai jo kriketar saurav ganguli ka restorent hai. yahan bhi sabhi prakar ka bhojan milata hai. lekin sabase vishesh bat yah ki agar ap kolakata jaen to yahan ka rasagulh‍la khana n bhoolen. kolakata ka rasagulla poore bharat men prasiddh hai.

yatayat

kolakata men jan yatayat kolakata upanagariy relave, kolakata metro, tram aur bason dvara upalabdh hai. vyapak upanagariy jal sudoor upanagariy kshetron tak phaila hua hai. bharatiy rel dvara snchalit kolakata metro bharat men sabase purani bhoomigat yatayat pranali hai. ye shahar men uttar se dakshin disha men hugali nadi ke samanantar shahar ki lnbaee ko 16.45 ki.mi. men napati hai. yahan ke adhikansh logon dvara bason ko prathamik taur par yatayat ke lie prayog kiya jata hai. yahan sarakari evn niji aauparetaron dvara basen snchalit hain. bharat men kolakata ekamatr shahar hai, jahan tram seva upalabdh hai. tram seva kailkata tramavez knpani dvara snchalit hai. tram mnd-gati chalit yatayat hai, v shahar ke kuchh hi kshetron men simit hai. manasoon ke samay bhari varsha ke chalate kee bar lok-yatayat men vyavadhan padata hai.

jain mndir, kolakata
kolakata metro rel

kolakata men do mukhy lnbi dooriyon ki gadiyon vale relave steshan hain- havada jnkshan aur siyaladah jnkshan. kolakata nam se ek naya steshan 2006 men hi banaya gaya hai. kolakata shahar bharatiy relave ke do mndalon ka mukhyalay hai:-

  • poorvi relave aur
  • dakshin-poorv relave.

paryatan

kolakata ek dharmik shahar hai. yahan apako har g‍li men mndir, masjid, charch, gurudvara, yahoodi sabhagar adi mil jaenge. in mndiron aur masjidon ke alava bhi yahan dekhane layaq bahut kuchh hai. yahan sngrahalay, aitihasik bhavan, art gailariyan bhi hain jinh‍hen ap dekh sakate hain.[3]

janasnkhya

2001 ki ganana ke anusar kolakata ki janasnkhya 45,80,544 hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. kolakata ka itihas (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 8 julaee, 2010.
  2. kolakata shahari snkedran
  3. mukesh. kolakata-vibhinh‍n dharmalnbiyon ka aitihasik shahar (hindi) (e ais pi) yatra salah. abhigaman tithi: 8 julaee, 2010.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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