खनिज  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

khanij (angrezi:Mineral) prakriti men paya jane vala vah padarth jisamen mukhyatah ek rasayanik avayav (tattv ya yaugik) upasthit rahata hai.

bharat men khanij snpada

svatntrata prapti ke pashchath bharat men khanijon ke utpadan men nirantar vriddhi huee hai. koyala, lauh ayask, baauksait adi ka utpadan nirntar badha hai. 1951 men sirf 83 karod rupaye ke khanijon ka khanan hua tha, parantu 1970-71 men inaki matra badhakar 490 karod rupaye ho gee. agale 20 varshon men khanijon ke utpadan men abhootapoorv vriddhi huee. 2001-02 men nikale gaye khanijon ka kul mooly 58,516.36 karod rupaye tak pahunch gaya jabaki 2005-06 ke dauran kul 75,121.61 karod rupaye mooly ke khanijon ka utpadan kiya gaya. yadi matra ki drishti se dekha jaye, to bharat men khanijon ki matra men lagabhag tiguni vriddhi huee hai, usaka 50% bhag sirf petroliyam aur prakritik gais ke karan tatha 40% koyala ke karan hua hai. any shabdon men 2005-06 men kul khanij mooly (75,121.61 karod ru) men se petroliyam aur prakritik gais se 26,851.31 karod rupaye tatha koyala aur lignait se 29,560.75 karod rupaye ke mooly shamil hain. shesh 11,575.35 karod rupaye mooly ke any dhatvik tatha adhatvik khanij the.

kailsiyam, maigneshiyam, phaausphoras, potaishiyam aur sodiyam panch mahattvapoorn buniyadi khanij, sharir ke lie mahattvapoorn hain. mahattvapoorn sookshm matrik tatv kromiyam, tanba, ayodin, loha, mainganij aur jasta hain. isake atirikt seleniyam bhi achchha svasthy qayam rakhane men ek mahattvapoorn bhoomika ada karata hai. any sookshm matrik tatv jaise gndhak, nikal, kobalt, florin, aauksijan, karban, haidrojan aur naitrojan ki bhi hamare sharirik svasthy ko qayam rakhane men apani bhoomika hai.[1]

khanij snsadhan

khanij sampada ki upalabdhata ki drishti se bharat ki ganana vishv ke khanij snsadhan sampann deshon men ki jati hai. choonki bharat ki bhoogarbhik snrachana men prachin dridh bhookhandon ka yogadan hai, atah yahan lagabhag sabhi prakar ke khanijon ki prapti hoti hai. ek taraph yahan par loha, mainganij, tngstan, tanba, sisa, jasta, baauksait, sona, chandi, ilmenait, bairait, maignesait, silemainait, tin adi dhatvik khanij milate hain, to doosari taraph adhatvik khanijon jaise - abhrak, esabestas, payarait, namak, jipsam, hira, kainait, imarati patthar, sngamaramar, choona patthar, vibhinn prakar ki mittiyan adi bhi milate hain. anushakti ke khanijon yatha - yooreniyam, thoriyam, ilmainait, beriliyam, jirakaaun, surama, grephait adi bhi hamare desh men yatr-tatr milate hain. prakritik shakti sadhanon men koyala, khanij tel tatha prakritik gais ki bhi prapti sthaliy evn apatat kshetron men hoti hai.

mahattvapoorn khanij

desh ke mahattvapoorn khanij
khanij anumanit bhandar prapti ke kshetr vishesh bindu
loha 13 arab tan udisa (sonaee, kyonjhar, mayoorabhnj)

jharakhand (sinhabhoom, hazaribag palamoo)
chhattisagadh (bastar, durg, rayapur, rayagadh)
madhy pradesh (jabalapur, bilasapur, balaghat, chhindabada)
andhr pradesh (kudappa, krishna, kurnool, guntoor, varngal, chittoor)
karnatak (belari, chikamngaloor, chital durg)
maharashtr (salem, tiruchirapalli)
gova

desh men vishv ka sarvadhik anumanit bhandar (sampoorn vishv ka lagabhag 25% vidyaman hai).

jharakhand tatha udisa rajyon se desh ka lagabhag 75% loha prapt kiya jata hai.

mainganij 16.7 karod tan jharakhand (sinhabhoom)

karnatak (chitaladurg, tumakur, shimoga, kinmagaloor, uttari kanara, dharavad, belaganv)
andhr pradesh (vishakhapattanam)
gujarat (pnchamahal)
rajasthan (udayapur tatha bansavada)
madhy pradesh (balaghat, chhindavada, sivani, jabalapur)
udisa (kyonjhar, kalahandi, talachar, mayoorabhnj)
maharashtr (nagapur, bhandara tatha ratnagiri)

mainganiz utpadan men bharat ka vishv men tisara sthan hai.

udisa desh ka sarvadhik mainganiz utpadan karane vala rajy hai.

abhrak 1.09 lakh tan bihar (abhrak peti ka vistar gaya tatha munger zilon men)

jharakhand (hazaribag men)
rajasthan (abhrak peti ka vistar ajamer, shahapura, tinka, bhilavada, jayapur men)
andhr pradesh (nellor)

bharat men vishv ka sarvadhik abhrak hai tatha yahan par se vishv utpadan ka lagabhag do tihaee abhrak prapt kiya jata hai.
baauksait 303.7 karod tan jharakhand (palamoo)

gujarat (kheda)
madhy pradesh (katani, balaghat, bilasapur, bastar tatha jabalapur)
tamilanadu (salem)
karnatak (chitaladurg tatha belaganv)
maharashtr (kolhapur)
jammoo kashmir (kotali)

baauksait se elyuminiyam dhatu ki prapti hoti hai.

bharat ka vishv men baauksait utpadan men tisara sthan hai.

tanba 67.41 karod tan jharakhand (sinhabhoom, hazaribag)

rajasthan (khetadi, jhunjhunoo, bhilavada, alavar, sirohi)
karnatak (chitaladurg, hasan, rayachoor tatha chikamngaloor)
andhr pradesh (guntoor, khammam tatha agrigundal)
gujarat (banansakatha); madhy pradesh (balaghat)
desh men tanbe ki kuchh matra pnjab, uttar pradesh, sikkim tatha tamilanadu se bhi prapt hoti hai.

desh men tanba bahut hi kam matra men bhandarit hai.

desh ka lagabhag tanba bihar ke sinhabhoom tatha hazaribag zilon evn rajasthan ki khetadi khanon se prapt kiya jata hai.

sona 176.9 lakh tan karnatak [2]
maignesait 24.50 karod tan karnatak (maisoor tatha hasan)

uttarakhand (almoda, chamoli tatha pithauragadh)
tamilanadu (salem)

koyala 2,0624 kharab tan jharakhand tatha bngal ki koyala peti (ranignj, jhariya, giridih, bokaro tatha karanapura)

madhy pradesh (singarauli)
chhattisagadh (rayagadh, sonahat, sohagapur tatha umariya)
udisa (desagadh, talachar); maharashtr (chanda zila)
asam (makoom tatha lakhimapur); andhr pradesh (singareni)
bahut thodi matra men koyala arunachal pradesh, jammoo kashmir, meghalay tatha nagalaind se bhi prapt kiya jata hai.

lignait 260 karod tan tamilanadu (nebeli kshetr), tamilanadu ke atirikt rajasthan (palloo kshetr)

jammoo kashmir (riyasi kshetr) gujarat tatha pandicheri men bhi lignait ke kuchh bhandar milate hain.

desh men lignait ka sarvadhik bhandar (lagabhag 383 karod tan) keval tamilanadu rajy men hi hai.
khanij tel 620 karod tan isaki prapti ke pramukh kshetr asam ki brahmaputr ghati tatha gujarat rajy men sthit hain. inake atirikt tripura, manipur, pashchim bngal, himachal pradesh, kachchh kshetr, andhr pradesh adi men bhi khanij tel ka pata laga hai. pashchim bngal, udisa, andhr pradesh, maharashtr tatha gujarat ke apatatiy kshetr men bhi tel bhandar sthit hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. khanij (hindi) jan kalyan. abhigaman tithi: 22 march, 2011.
  2. kollar svarn kshetr tatha anantapur zile se bahut kam matra men sona nikala jata hai

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