खरोष्ठी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

  • kharoshthi lipi gandhari lipi ke nam se jani jati hai . jo gandhari aur snskrit bhasha ko lipibaddh karane men prayog men ati hai . isaka prayog tisari shatabdi eesa poorv se tisari shatabdi tak pramukh roop se eshiya men hota raha hai . kushan kal men isaka prayog bharat men bahutayat men hua . bauddh ullekhon men kharoshthi lipi prarambh se bhi prayog men ayi . kahin-kahin satavin shatabdi men bhi isaka prayog hua hai.

Blockquote-open.gif sikandar ke bharat-akraman (326 ee.poo.) ke bad pashchimottar pradesh tatha balkh par yoonaniyon ka shasan sthapit hua to unhonne bhi apane sikkon par kharoshthi lipi ke aksharon ka upayog kiya. yoonaniyon se bhi pahale eerani shasakon ke chandi ke sikkon par kharoshthi ke aksharon ke thappe dekhane ko milate hain. Blockquote-close.gif

  • ek prachin bharatiy lipi jo arabi lipi ki tarah danye se banye ko likhi jati thi. chauthi-tisari shatabdi ee.poo. men bharat ke uttar-pashchimi sima pranton men is lipi ka prachalan tha. shesh bhagon men brahmi lipi ka prachalan tha jo banye se danye ko likhi jati thi. is lipi ke prasar ke karan kharoshthi lipi lupt ho gee is lipi men likhe hue kuchh sikke aur ashok ke do shilalekh prapt hue hain.
  • bharat men islami shasan ke sath jis prakar arabi-farasi lipi ke adhar par daeen or se baeen or likhi jane vali ek lipi urdoo ke lie rachi gayi, usi prakar bharat ke pashchimottar pradesh par eeraniyon ka adhikar ho jane par vahan ee.poo. panchavi shatabdi men arameee lipi ke adhar par dahini or se baeen or likhi jane vali ek nee lipi kharoshthi ka nirman kiya gaya tha.
  • samrat ashok (272-232 ee. poo.) ke manasehara (hazara zila, sarahadi sooba, pakistan) tatha shahabazagadhi (peshavar zila, pnjab, pakistan) ke shilalekh is kharoshthi men hi hain. in do ko chhodakar ashok ke any sare lekh brahmi lipi men hain.
  • sikandar ke bharat-akraman (326 ee.poo.) ke bad pashchimottar pradesh tatha balkh par yoonaniyon ka shasan sthapit hua to unhonne bhi apane sikkon par kharoshthi lipi ke aksharon ka upayog kiya. yoonaniyon se bhi pahale eerani shasakon ke chandi ke sikkon par kharoshthi ke aksharon ke thappe dekhane ko milate hain.
  • yoonaniyon ke bad shak, kshatrap, pahlav, kushan tatha audunbar rajaon ne bhi is lipi ka prayog kiya.
  • kharoshthi ke adhikatar lekh prachin gndhar desh men hi mile hain.
  • takshashila ke dharmarajika stoop ki khudaee se sanh 78 ka ek kharoshthi ka lekh mila hai, jo rajatapatr par ankit hai. vahin se tamrapatr par ankit sanh 76 ka ek aur lekh prapt hua hai. prachin pushkalavati (charasadda, sarahadi sooba, pakistan) tatha afaganistan ke vardak aur hdda namak sthanon se bhi kharoshthi ke lekh mile hain. mathura se bhi mahakshatrap rajul ki rani ka sinhakriti par khuda hua kharoshthi lekh upalabdh hua hai.
  • patana se bhi kharoshthi ek lekh mila hai, parantu vah pashchimottar ke kisi yatri dvara laya gaya hoga. isake alava siddapur (zila chitradurg, karnatak) ke ashok ke brahmi ke lekh ki antim pnkti men 'chapaden likhite' shabdon ke bad 'lipikaren' shabd ke panch akshar kharoshthi lipi men khude hue hain, jisase gyat hota hai ki is lekh ka lekhak pashchimottar bharat ka nivasi raha hoga. lekin in udaharanon ka arth yah nahin hai ki dakshin men siddapur aur poorv men patana tak kabhi kharoshthi lipi ka prachar tha. vastut: gndhar desh men hi is lipi ne janm liya tha aur vahin par isaka sarvadhik prayog hua.

kharoshthi lipi
ashok ke siddapur (zila chitradurg, karnatak) ke pas ke brahmagiri lekh ki antim pnkti.
isamen baeen or ke shabd hain chapadene likhite (brahmi men) aur daeen or ka shabd hai
lipakiren (kharoshthi lipi men), jo daeen or se baeen or padha jaega.

kharoshthi lipi
hind-yavan shasak minandar (ee.poo. doosari sadi) ke
sikke par ankit kharoshthi lekh (daen se baen):
maharajas trataras menndras

kharoshthi lipi
pashchimottar bharat ke shak shasak moas (lagabhag 90 ee. poo.) ke
sikke par ankit kharoshthi lekh (daen se baen) :
rajatirajas mahatas moas

  • lekin ab hamen chini turkistan ko bhi kharoshthi lipi ka kshetr manana padega.
  • 1892 men ek phransisi yatri dyootry d rans ne khotan se kharoshthi lipi men bhojapatr men likhi huee 'dhammapad' ki ek prati prapt ki thi. yah bhojapatr par likhi huee sabase prachin upalabdh pustak hai.
  • prasiddh puratattvavetta aaurel stain (1862-1943) ne madhy eshiya ke masi-majar, niya, lon-lanh adi sthanon se kashtapattikaon par likhe hue sainkadon kharoshthi lekh prapt kie hain. in kashtapattikaon ki lnbaee 7.5 se 15 inch aur chaudaee 1.5 se 2.5 inch hai. kuchh chaukor pattikaen bhi mili hain. aisi pattikaon ko jab patr roop men bheja jata tha, to inhen doosari pattikaon se dhakakar un par mohar laga di jati thi charmapatt par ankit ankit lekh bhi niya se mile hain.
  • kharoshthi lipi ke ye sare lekh prakrit men hain, jo dhammapad ki prakrit se kafi milati julati hai.
  • chini turkistan se hi ek pattika par kharoshthi lipi men snskrit ke char shlok prapt hue hain. snskrit ke lie kharoshthi lipi ke prayog ka yah ek matr upalabdh udaharan hai.
  • lon-lanh se kagaz par kharoshthi ke lekh prapt hue hain. hamen chini turkistan ko bhi kharoshthi lipi ka kshetr manana padega.
  • samanyat: eesa poorv tisari shatabdi se eesa ki chauthi shatabdi tak kharoshthi lipi ka vyavahar hota raha.
  • kharoshthi ke prachinatam abhilekh ashok ke shahabajagadhi tatha manasehara ke shilalekh hain.
  • bharat men mile kharoshthi ke sabase bad ke abhilekh kushan shasakon (eesa ki tisari aur chauthi shatabdi) ke hain.
  • chini turkistan ke lekh bhi tisari-chauthi shatabdi ke hain. snbhav hai ki isake bad bhi vahan ke nivasiyon ne kuchh samay tak is lipi ka upayog jari rakha ho; parntu bharat men panchavin shatabdi men jab hoonon ka agaman hota hai to ham kharoshthi ka kahin koee astitv nahin dekhate. jab videshi shasak bharat ki snskriti men ghul-mil ge to unhonne kharoshthi lipi ko tyagakar yahan ki adhik prachalit brahmi lipi ko apana liya.

is lipi ka nam kharoshthi kyon pada

isake bare men vidvanon men kafi matabhed hai. kuchh vidvanon ne ise 'indo-baiktriyan' , 'baiktriyan' 'baiktro-pali', 'qabuli' , 'gandhari' adi nam bhi die hain. lekin ab isake lie 'kharoshthi' nam hi roodh ho gaya hai. kintu is nam ki utpatti ke bare men bhi nana prakar ke mat prachalit hain.

  • prasiddh bauddh grnth 'lalitavistar' (eesa ki doosari shatabdi men rachit) ke dasaven adhyay men 64 lipiyon ke nam ginae ge hain, jinamen pahala nam 'brahmi' ka aur doosara 'kharoshthi' ka hai. in 64 namon men adhikatar nam kalpit yani avastavik hi jan padate hain.
  • 668 ee. men likhe ge ek chini bauddh vishvakosh 'pha-van-shu-linh' men bhi brahmi aur kharoshthi lipiyon ke ullekh milate hain. usamen kharoshthi lipi ke bare men likha hain, kia-lu (kia-lu-se-a>k-lu-se-to>kh-ro-s-t> kharoshth) ki lipi daeen or se baeen or ko padhi jati hai. ....brahma aur kharoshth bharatavarsh men hue. brahma aur kharoshth ne apani lipiyan devalok se paeen.'
  • lalitavistar aur chini vishvakosh ke inhin ullekhon ke adhar par prasiddh puralipivid byoohlar ne is lipi ko 'kharoshthi' ka nam diya tha.
  • kharoshth ka arth 'gadhh ke oth vala' hota hai!
  • ek mat ke anusar gadhe ki khal par likhi jane se ise eerani men kharapost kahate the aur usi ka apabhrnsh roop kharoshth hai.
  • ek any mat yah hai ki arameee bhasha men 'kharoshth' shabd tha, aur usi ke bhramak samy ke adhar par snskrit ka 'kharoshth' shabd bana. lekin ye sare mat atakalen hi hain; inamen se kisi ko bhi thos pramanon se siddh nahin kiya ja sakata.

kharoshthi lipi
lipyntar (daen se baen):

1. s 1 100 20 10 4 2 (=136) ayas ashadas masas divase 1 4 1 (=15) ish divase pradistavit bhagavato dhatuo uras
2. ken lot phriaputran bahalien noache nagare vastaven ten ime pradistavit bhagavato dhatuo dhamar-
3. ie tachhashi (l) e tanuve bodhisatv gahami maharajas rajatirajas devaputras khushanas arog dakshine
4. sarv budhan puye prachag budhan puye arah (t) n puye sarvasan puye matapitu puye mitramach natis
5. lohin puye atvano arog dachhine nivane hotu a (y) de samaparichago


takshashila ke dharmarajika stoop se prapt, rajatapatr par ankit kharoshthi lekh (pratham shatabdi ee.)
isamen is bat ka ullekh hai ki ay-varsh 136 (lagabhag 78 ee.) men balkh desh ke urasak ne
uparyukt stoop ke niji upasana-grih men apane gurujanon,
snbndhiyon aur mitron ke samman ke lie tatha mahanh kushan samrat ke tatha
apane svasthy ke lie bhagavan buddh ke asthi-avasheshon ki pratishthapana ki.

kharoshthi lipi
kharoshthi varnamala

  • kharoshthi lipi, semetik lipiyon ki tarah, daeen or se baeen or ko likhi jati thi. isake kuchh akshar hi nahin, balki inake dhvaniman bhi arameee lipi se milate hain. isalie anek vidvanh aisa manate hain ki kharoshthi ka nirman arameee lipi ke adhar par hua hai.
  • eeran ke hakhamani shasan-kal men snpoorn pashchim eshiya men arameee bhasha tatha lipi ka prachar tha.
  • takshashila se bhi arameee lipi men likha hua ek shilalekh mila hai.
  • hakhamani shasakon ka gndharadesh par bhi shasan tha. arameee lipi semetik bhashaon ko likhane ke lie to thik thi, parntu bharopiy parivar ki prakrit bhasha ko is lipi men likhana snbhav nahin tha. isalie, aisa jan padata hai ki ee.poo. panchavin shatabdi mn gndhar desh men, arameee lipi ka anukaran karate hue, is nee lipi ko janm diya gaya. arameee lipi men keval 22 akshar the aur usamen svaron ki apoornata (jaisa ki sabhi semetik lipiyon men dekhane ko milata hai) thi aur usamen hrasv-dirgh ka koee bhed nahin tha. isalie prakrit (pali) ke lie nee lipi ka nirman karate samay kuchh ne svar tatha unaki matraon ke lie snket gadhane pade.
  • kharoshthi lipi ki varnamala ko dekhane se spasht pata chalata hai ki usake nirman men brahmi lipi ka prabhav kafi raha hai. itana hone par bhi brahmi ki tarah kharoshthi ke svaron tatha unaki matraon men hrasv-dirgh ka bhed nahin hai. isamen snyuktakshar bhi bahut kam milate hain. kuchh snyuktaksharon ka padhana to ab bhi sndeh se mukt nahin hai. vastut: jis prakar hamare desh men aj bhi ek kamachalaoo 'mahajani' lipi' chalati hai, usi ki tarah is kharoshthi ka bhi janm mamooli patr-vyavahar, bahi-khaton ke hisab adi ke lie hi hua tha.

kharoshthi lipi
kharoshthi vynjanon ke sath svar-matraen jodane ki vyavastha

kharoshthi lipi
ashok ke kharoshthi lekhon ke kuchh snyuktakshar, kramash:

1. tr tv thr thri dr dhr dhr kr grn
2. pr pri br br bhye bhr mm my mru
3. shr vrn sp spi str str thr
  • kharoshthi ke lekh shilaon, dhatu-phalakon, kashth-pattikaon, sikkon, bhoorjapatron tatha kagaz par milate hain aur in sabhi lekhan-samagriyon par is lipi ka samanyat: ek-sa hi svaroop dekhane ko milata hai. yon yah lipi syahi aur kalam se likhane ke lie adhik upayukt thi.
  • pichhali shatabdi ke poorvardh men karnal jems taaud, janaral ventura, alekjaindar barns adi puravidon ne bakhtri, yoonani, shak, pahlav tatha kushan shasakon ke dheron sikkon ka sngrah kiya tha. in sikkon men se kee par ek taraph yoonani lipi ke akshar hain aur doosari taraph kharoshthi lipi ke. arnbh men kharoshthi lipi ke bare men kafi atakalen lagaee geen. in sikkon ke yoonani aksharon ko asani se padha ja sakata tha.
  • afaganistan men puratattvanveshan men jute hue mesan mahashay ne sabase pahale sikkon ke ek taraph ke yoonani namon ki tulana doosari or ke kharoshthi aksharon se karake doosari taraph ki ibaraton ka adhyayan kiya, to unhen 'minandar' 'epolodotas', 'harmias' , 'besiliyas' (raja) aur 'soteras' (rakshak) shabdon ke kharoshthi aksharon ko pahachanane men saphalata mili. mesan ne apani is khoj ki janakari jems prinsep ko di.

kharoshthi lipi
arameee aur kharoshthi aksharon men samy

  • prinsep (1799-1840) us samay brahmi aur kharoshthi ke anveshan men jute hue the. unhonne brahmi lipi ka to udghatan kiya hi, unhen kharoshthi lipi ka bhi udghatan karane ka shrey prapt hai.
  • mesan ke aksharamanon ke adhar par prinsep ko arnbh men 12 rajaon ke namon tatha 6 padaviyon ko padhane men saphalata mili. isake sath yah bhi pata chala ki yah lipi daeen or se baeen or ko likhi jati thi. lekin prinsep arnbh men is lipi ki bhasha ko galati se pahalavi samajh baithe the.
  • 1838 men pahali bar do bakhtri rajaon ke sikkon par prakrit (pali) men lekh dekhane ko mile, to yah siddh ho gaya ki kharoshthi lekhon ki bhasha pali hai. isake bad to kharoshthi lipi ke aksharon ko pahachanana aur bhi adhik asan ho gaya.
  • svayn prinsep ne is lipi ke 17 akshar pahachane the.
  • bad men janaral kaningham (1814-93) ne kharoshthi ki snpoorn varnamala tatha snyuktaksharon ko pahachanane ka kam poora kar diya.

kharoshthi lipi
kharoshthi lipi men shahabajagadhi ka saptam shilalekh.
daeen or se baeen ko ise yon padha jata hai:

1. devann priyo priyashi raj savratr ichhati savr
2. prashnd vaseyu save hi te sayame bhavashudhi ch ichhnti
3. jano chu uchavuchachhndo uchavucharago te savrn v ekadeshn v
4. pi kashnti vipule pi chu dane bas nasti sayam bhav
5. shudhi kitranat dridh bhatit niche padhn

arthath,
devataon ke priy priyadarshi raja chahate hain ki sab jagah sab snpradayon
ke log (ekasath) nivas karen, kyonki sab snpraday snyam aur chitt ki shuddhi chahate hain.
parntu bhinn-bhinn manushyon ki pravritti tatha ruchi bhinn-bhinn- oonchi ya nichi,
achchhi ya buri – hoti hai. ve ya to snpoorn roop se ya keval anshik roop se
(apane dharm ka palan) karenge. kintu jo bahut adhik dan nahin kar
sakata usamen snyam, chittashuddhi,
kritgyta aur dridh bhakti ka hona nitant avashyak hai.


snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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