खलनायक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

khalanayak (angrezi: Villain) vah purush kalakar hai jo sinema ya natak men kisi charitr ka abhinay karata hai. vah abhinayakarta khalanayak kahalate hain. abhinay ki kala ka gyan hi khalanayak ke bhav prastutikaran ko sarthak banata hai. bharatiy sinema ke pahale dashak men dharmik kathaon aur kinvadntiyon par sari filmen banin. kyonki is nee vidha men katha prastut karane ke gyan aur sadhan ki kami thi aur darshak apani in suni huee kahaniyon ki saksham abhivyakti ke abhav men bhi inhen poori tarah samajh leta tha.

nayak aur khalanayak

pauranik kathaon ke nayak dev the aur khalanayak rakshas gan. isake bad itihas par adharit filmon men dusht shaktiyon se darshak parichit the. gramin parivesh ki filmon men tanashah zamindar aur soodakhor mahajan khalanayak ke roop men prastut kie ge. shahari parivesh ki filmon men lalachi vyakti ya makan malik ya mil malik ko khalanayak ki tarah prastut kiya gaya aur prem kathaon men asvikrit premi ko khalanayak mana gaya. sitaron ke uday ke bad kalakaron ka chayan mahatvapoorn ho gaya, masalan nyoo thiyetars ki ‘vidyapati’ men raja ki bhoomika men sundar sugathit prithviraj kapoor ke hone ke karan maharani ke sath prem karate hue kavi ka patr darshakon ko khalanayak sa laga. shashadhar mukharji ki 1943 men pradarshit ‘qismat’ men aparadhi ka patr hi nayak raha kyonki ashok kumar ne use abhinit kiya tha. yah enti nayak chhavi ki pahali film thi aur is vidha ka bharapoor vikas 30 varsh bad amitabh bachchan ko abhinit filmon men dekha gaya. tinoo annd ki ‘shahnshah’ men amitabh kahate hain ki jahan ve khade hote hain, vahi nyayalay hai aur unaki ichchha hi qanoon hai. kuchh kalakaron ki chhavi itani lokapriy ho jati hai ki unake dvara abhinit patr darshakon ko nayak hi lagata hai. isi dhara ki agali kadi men shaharukh khan abhinit ‘bajigar’, ‘dar’ aur ‘daaun’ men aparadhi hi nayak hai.[1]

gandhi ka prabhav

bharat men sinema ka janm 1913 men hua aur dakshin aphrika se mahatma gandhi 1914 men bharat ae. unaka prabhav sabhi kshetron aur vidhaon par pada, shayad isi karan pahale char dashak tak khalanayak barbar nahin the aur unake charitr bhi suparibhashit nahin the. us daur men prem ya achchhaee ka virodh karane vale samajik kuprathaon aur andh vishvas se grasit log the. ‘achhoot kanya’ men prem-katha ke virodh karane vale jati pratha men sachamuch vishvas karate the. isi tarah mehaboob khan ki ‘nazama’ men parnparik mooly vala musalim sasur parada pratha asvikar karane vali daauktar bahu ka virodh karata hai aur ant men parada nahin karane ke karan hi vah sasur ke hridayaghat ko samay rahate samajh leti hai aur unake pran bachati hai. us daur men adhikansh khalanayak buri samajik prathaon men vishvas karane vale nirih prani hain. ‘duniya na mane’ 1937 ka vriddh vidhur yuva kanya se vivah ko apana adhikar hi manata hai aur gandhi ji ke ashram se lauti usaki beti use anyay se parichit karati hai.[1]

mahajan se dakoo tak ka saphar

‘sahookari pash’ men prastut soodakhor mahajan sadat husain mnto dvara likhi gee ‘kisan hatya’ se hote hue apani anyatam abhivyakti mehaboob khan ki ‘aurat’ 1939 men prapt kar abhineta kanhaiyalal ne isi bhoomika ko ek bar phir 1956 men ‘madar indiya’ men prastut kiya. mahajan khalanayak ke patr ki jhalak dostoviski ke upanyas ‘kraim end panishament’ se prerit ramesh sahagal ki ‘phir subah hogi’ men bhi dikhi. mahatmaon ke desh ke men dakoo har kal khnd men rahe hain aur ye lokapriy khalanayak siddh hue. 'madar indiya' ka mahajan khauf paida karata hai azadi ki alasabhor men pradarshit rajakapoor ki ‘avara’ men keen sinh abhinit dakoo patr itana sahriday tha ki daee ke yah batane par ki vah garbhavati ka apaharan kar le aya hai, vah use mukt kar deta hai. bharat men dakoo ki ek chhavi raaubinahud numa vyakti ki bhi rahi hai aur use nayak ki tarah bhi mana gaya hai. samaj men vyapt anyay aur shoshan ke karan majaboori men dakoo banane vale patr lokapriy rahe hain aur sunil datt ki satahi ‘mujhe jine do’ ke bad yah patr dilip kumar ki ‘gnga-jamuna’ men 'klasik dayamenshan' pata hai.[1]

dakoo se raja ka saphar

dakoo apane barbar svaroop men ramesh sippi ki ‘shole’ men prastut hota hai aur ‘gabbar’ nayakon se adhik lokapriyata prapt karata hai. darasal gabbar ke charitr men barbarata ke sath sanakipan ko jodakar use kaaumiks ke khalanayakon ke samakaksh khada kar diya gaya hai. usaki apar lokapriyata ke karan kuchh netaon ne usake adhar par apani chhavi gadhi aur sanakipan rashtriy samajik vyavahar ka hissa ban gaya. jivan aur kala ke bich apasi len-den ke rishte aise hi chalate rahate hain. ganatntr vyavastha apanane ke bad bhi bharatiy samaj ka manas samntavadi raha hai aur dakoo ko jngal ke raja ke roop men hi svikar kiya gaya. apravasi bharatiy darshakon ke ashray ke karan daaular sinema ke panapane ke karan vigat dashak men dakoo filmen nahin banin. mahanagaron ke siment ke jngal ke khalanayak dakuon ke hi ne svaroop hain. gabbar sinh khalanayak hokar bhi film par havi raha. azadi ke bad samajavadi samaj ki rachana ke adarsh ke karan ek aisi arthik niti samane aee jisane bhrashtachar ko jngal ghas ki tarah phailane ke avasar die aur avyavaharik kntrol ke karan taskari ka svarn yug prarnbh hua. filmon men taskar khalanayak ka uday hua, nakali karnsi banane valon ka varchasv bana. samajavadi svapn ke karan poojipati ko khalanayak banaya gaya, masalan rajakapoor ki film ‘shri 420’ men seth sonachnd dharmannd chunav bhi ladata hai aur kale dhndhon ki film ‘ath sau chalis’ hai. yah us yug ki bat hai jab arthaniti 'sentar' men thi aur aj jab arthaniti ki rachana men ‘lepht’ shamil hai, ‘guroo’ jaisi film banati hai jisamen poonjipati punah khalanayak hote hue bhi nayak ki tarah prastut hai aur akhiri ril men vah svayn ko mahatma gandhi ke samakaksh khada karane ka bachakana prayas bhi karata hai. dukh ki bat hai ki usake prayas par sinemagharon men taliyan bhi bajaee gee hain. khalanayak ki chhavi men yah parivartan samaj ke badalate hue moolyon ko rekhankit karata hai.[1]

vikas se panape aparadhi

panchave aur chhathe dashak men hi devannd ke sinema par doosare vishvayuddh ke samay men amarika men panape (noir) ne sinema ka prabhav raha aur khalanayak bhi jarayam pesha aparadhi rahe hain jo mahanagaron ke aniyojit vikas ki kokh se janmen the. samaj men haji mastan ka uday hua. salim javed ne ‘madar indiya’ aur ‘gnga jamuna’ tatha marlin bredon abhinit ‘vatar phrnt’ se prabhavit hokar haji mastan ki chhavi men ‘divar’ ke enti nayak ko gadha jisamen us kalakhnd ka akrosh bhi abhivyakt hua. film 'bnti aur babali' men aparadhi hi film ke nayak-nayika the. isi samay se nayak khalanayak ki chhaviyon ka mel-jol bhi prarnbh hua. isi kalakhnd men shyam benegal ki ‘ankur’ aur ‘nishant’ men khalanayak zamindar hi rahe parntu ab ve rajaniti men sakriy ho chuke the. rajaniti men aparadh ka samavesh neharoo ki mrityu ke bad tivragati se hua aur filmon men bhi neta ke patr ko khalanayak ki tarah prastut kiya gaya jaisa ham rahul ravail ki film ‘arjun’ aur amitabh abhinit ki film ‘akhiri rasta’ aur ‘inqalab’ ityadi men dekhate hain. pulis men aparadh ke pravesh ko govind nihalani ki ‘ardhasaty’ men rekhankit kiya gaya aur pulis ke rajanitikaran aur jativad ke grahan ko ‘dev’ men prastut kiya gaya.

nayak-khalanayak ka bhed

‘baaurdar’ 1996 aur ‘gadar’ 1999 ki saphalata ke bad pakistan ko khalanayak ki tarah prastut kiya gaya parntu in do filmon ke pradarshan ke bad is tarah ki sari filmen asaphal rahin aur avam ne spasht kar diya ki bharat ke kasht ke lie sirf pakistan jimmedar nahin hai. bharatiy sinema ka arthashastr aur vichar prakriya sitara kendrit ban chuki hai, isalie lokapriy sitara ek hi film men nayak bhi hai, khalanayak bhi hai aur hasy abhineta bhi hai goyaki vah nayika ki bhoomika chhodakar sab kuchh kar raha hai aur usake har svaroop men sahanubhooti usi ke sath hai. atnkavad ke uday ke bad ‘gulami’ jaisi filmon men aeeesaee ejent ko khalanayak ki tarah prastut kiya gaya parntu ye lahar bhi zyada samay nahin chali. vigat dashak men koee film aisi nahin aee jisamen 'gabbar' ya 'mogambo' ki tarah barbar aur sanaki nayak prastut hue hain kyonki samaj ke nayak-khalanayak ka antar mitata ja raha hai. hamari snsad aur vidhanasabhaon men dagi logon ka pratishat badh gaya hai. arthik udaravad ke bad jivan shaili aur mooly men antar a gaya hai. daaular sinema aur maltiplaiks ne khalanayak ko ya to gair zaroori kar diya hai ya ‘daaun’, ‘dhoom’ aur ‘bnti-babali’ ki tarah dagi charitron ko mahamndit kar diya gaya hai. svayn phransis phord kapola ne svikar kiya tha ki gaaudaphadar-I men aparadh abha mndit ho gaya hai. 'guru' film men arthik aparadh karane vala khalanayak hi nayak banakar vahavahi lootata raha vigat dashak men bharat men kuchh logon ko vipul dhan kamane ke avasar mile hain aur ek ‘chamakadar bharat’ ki chhavi ubhari hai. is snpada ne desh ke jalasa-ghar men hasy udyog khada kar diya hai jabaki sachamuch prasann deshon ki soochi men hamara nnbar 46 hai. phir bhi vatavaran men thahake hain, galiyaron men gaausip hai, yatharth par ayatharth ka bhari saty hai. shayad inhin sab arthik, samajik aur rajanitik karanon se sinema ko khalanayak vihin kar diya gaya aur bharatiy sinema ki us parnpara ka lop sa ho gaya jisamen nayak ka qad khalanayak ki barbarata ke manadnd par mapa jata tha. vah apane mool roop men lautega kyonki vah uttejak hai.[1]


bharatiy sinema men khalanayak ki bhoomika nibhane vale kuchh mukhy khalanayakon ki soochi
  1. bob kristo
  2. amarish puri
  3. dayakishan saproo
  4. prem chopada
  5. jivan (abhineta)
  6. ajit
  7. kadar khan
  8. amajad khan
  9. lakshmikant


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 samay ke sath badalate rahe khalanayak (hindi) www.bbc.com. abhigaman tithi: 29 joon, 2017.

snbndhit lekh