ख़लीफ़ा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(खलीफ़ा se punarnirdeshit)

khalifa arabi bhasha ka shabd hai, jisaka arth hai- 'uttaradhikari'. khalifa shabd ko muslim samuday ke shasak ke lie bhi prayog kiya jata hai. jab muhammad sahab ki mrityu huee (8 joon 632), to abu bakr ne khalifa rasool allah ya paignbar ke uttaradhikari ke roop men unake rajanitik aur prashasanik karyon ka uttaradhikar snbhala, lekin doosare khalifa umar bin al-khattab ke kal men khalifa shabd ka istemal muslim rajy ke nagarik aur dharmik pramukh ke roop men hone laga. isi arth men quran men is shabd ko adam aur devid ke lie bhi istemal kiya gaya hai, jinhen khuda ka up-rajy sahayak kaha jata tha.

itihas

abu bakr aur usake bad ke tin uttaradhikariyon ko snpoorn ya sunirdeshit 'khalifa'[1] mana jata tha. unake bad damishk ke 14 umayad khalifaon ne yah upadhi dharan ki, jisake bad bagadad ke 38 abbasi khalifa hue, jinaka vnsh 1258 men mngolon se parajit ho gaya. 1258 se 1517 tak kahira men mamaluk ke antargat abbasi vnsh ke upadhikari khalifa the, jisake bad antim khalifa ko aautoman ke sultan salim pratham ne bndi bana liya. isake bad aautoman sultanon ne is upadhi par dava kiya aur 3 march, 1824 ko turki ganatntr dvara samapt kie jane tak isaka upayog kiya.

upadhi

  • damishk men umayya vnsh ke patan ke bad is parivar ki speni shakha ne bhi khalifa ki upadhi dharan ki, jo spen men koradoba par shasan (755-1031) karate the.
  • fatima[2] aur unake pati ali ka vnshaj hone ka dava karane vale misr ke fatimaee shasakon (909-1171) ne bhi yah upadhi dharan ki.

many khalifa

sarvochch pad ko imamat ya netritv kahane vale shiya musalamanon ke anusar, sirf vahi khalifa jayaj hai, jo paignbar muhammad ka vnshaj hai. sunni musalamanon ka dava hai ki yah pad kuraish janajati ka hai, svayn paignbar muhammad bhi jisake sadasy the, lekin is dave ne turki ke sultanon ke dave ko kharij kar diya hota, jo qahira ke antim abbasi khalifa dvara salim pratham ko yah pad sthanantarit karane ke bad se is par bane rahe the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. al khulafa ar-rashidoon
  2. paignbar ki beti

snbndhit lekh