ख़ान अब्दुल ग़फ़्फ़ार ख़ान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

khan abdul gaffar khan
Khan-Abdul-Ghaffar-Khan.jpg
poora nam khan abdul gaffar khan
any nam 'simant gandhi', 'bacha khan', 'badashah khan'
janm 6 faravari, 1890 ee.
janm bhoomi utamnjaee, bharat (azadi se poorv)
mrityu 20 janavari, 1988 ee.
mrityu sthan peshavar, pakistan
abhibhavak abdulla khan (paradada), bairam khan (pita)
nagarikata bharatiy
parti kangres
vidyalay mishanari skool
jel yatra 1919 ee., 1930 ee. aur 1942 ee. men jel yatra ki.
puraskar-upadhi bharat ratn
rachana 'maee laif aind stragal'
any janakari gandhi ji ke kattar anuyayi hone ke karan hi unaki 'simant gandhi' ki chhavi bani. vinamr gaffar ne sadaiv svayn ko ek 'svatntrata sngharsh ka sainik' matr kaha, parantu unake prasnshakon ne unhen 'badashah khan' kah kar pukara.

khan abdul gaffar khan (angrezi: Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, janm: 6 faravari, 1890; mrityu: 20 janavari, 1988) mahanh rajaneta the, jinhonne bharat ke svatntrata sngram men bhag liya aur apane kary aur nishtha ke karan "sarahadi gandhi" (simant gandhi), "bacha khan" tatha "badashah khan" ke nam se pukare jane lage. 20vin shatabdi men pakhtoonon (ya pathan; pakistan aur afaganistan ka musamaman jatiy samooh) ke sabase agrani aur karishmaee neta the, jo mahatma gandhi ke anuyayi ban ge aur unhen ‘simant gandhi’ kaha jane laga. abdul gaffar khan ka janm ek sampann parivar men hua tha. vah bachapan se hi atyadhik dridh svabhav ke vyakti hain, isaliye afaganon ne unhen 'bacha khan' ke roop men pukarana prarambh kar diya. apaka sima prant ke qabilon par atyadhik prabhav tha. gandhi ji ke kattar anuyayi hone ke karan hi unaki 'simant gandhi' ki chhavi bani. vinamr gaffar ne sadaiv svayn ko ek 'svatntrata sngharsh ka sainik' matr kaha, parantu unake prasnshakon ne unhen 'badashah khan' kah kar pukara. gandhi ji bhi unhen aise hi sambodhit karate the. rashtriy andolanon men bhag lekar unhonne kee bar jelon men ghor yatanayen jheli hain. phir bhi ve apani mool snskriti se vimukh nahin hue. isi vazah se vah bharat ke prati atyadhik sneh bhav rakhate the.

jivan parichay

khan abdul gaffar khan ka janm 6 faravari, 1890 ee. ko peshavar, tatkalin british bharat vartaman pakistan men hua tha. unake paradada 'abdulla khan' bahut hi satyavadi aur jujharoo svabhav the. unake pita 'bairam khan' shant svabhav ke the aur eeshvarabhakti men lin raha karate the. unhonne apane ladake abdul gaffar khan ko shikshit banane ke lie 'mishanari skool' men bheja, pathanon ne unaka bada virodh kiya. mishanari skool ki padhaee samapt karane ke bad ve aligadh a ge. garmi ki chhuttiyon men samajaseva karana unaka mukhy kam tha. shiksha samapt kar vah deshaseva men lag ge.

sarahad ke par aj bhi apane logon ki svadhinata ke lie sngharsharat 'simant gandhi' ke nam se vikhyat khan abdul gaffar khan prarambh se hi angrejon ke khilaf the.
khan abdul gaffar khan ke sath mahatma gandhi

gandhiji se parichay

rajanitik asntushton ko bina muqadama chalae nazarabnd karane ki ijazat dene vale raaulet ekt ke khilaf 1919 men hue andolan ke dauran gaffar khan ki gandhi ji se mulaqat huee aur unhonne rajaniti men pravesh kiya. agale varsh vah khilafat andolan men shamil ho ge, jo turki ke sultan ke sath bharatiy musalamanon ke adhyatmik snbndhon ke lie prayasarat tha aur 1921 men vah apane grih pradesh pashchimottar simant prant men khilafat kameti ke zila adhyaksh chune ge.

khudaee khidamatagar ki sthapana

1929 men kangres parti ki ek sabha men shamil hone ke bad gaffar khan ne khudaee khidamatagar (eeshvar ke sevak) ki sthapana ki aur pakhtoonon ke bich lal kurti andolan ka ahvan kiya. vidroh ke arop men unaki pahali giraftari 3 varsh ke lie huee thi. usake bad unhen yatanaon ki jhelane ki adat si pad gee. jel se bahar akar unhonne pathanon ko rashtriy andolan se jodane ke lie 'khudaee khidamatagar' namak snstha ki sthapana ki aur apane andolanon ko aur bhi tez kar diya.

kangres ko samarthit

muslim lig ne jahan pakhtoonon ko is andolan ke liye koee madad nahin di, vahin kangres ne unhen apana poorn samarthan diya. atah ve pakke kangresi ban ge aur yahin se ve gandhi ji ke anuyayi ke roop men pratishthit hote chale gaye. khan ne pathanon ko gandhi ji ka 'ahinsa' ka path padhaya.

shantipriy badashah khan

khan abdul gaffar khan aur mahatma gandhi
  • peshavar men jab 1919 ee. men angrezon ne 'fauji qanoon' (marshal laau) lagaya. abdul gaffar khan angrezon ke samane shanti ka prastav rakha, phir bhi unhen giraftar kar liya gaya.
  • 1930 ee. men satyagrah andolan karane par ve pun: jel bheje ge aur unhen gujarat (us samay pnjab ka bhag) ki jel bheja gaya. vahan pnjab ke any bndiyon se unaka parichay hua. unhonne jel men sikh guruon ke grnth padhe aur gita ka adhyayan kiya.
  • hindoo muslim ekata ko zaroori samajhakar unhonnen gujarat ki jel men gita tatha quran ki kaksha lagayin, jahan yogy snskritgy aur maulavi snbndhit kaksha ko chalate the. unaki sngati se sabhi prabhavit hue aur gita, quran tatha guru grnth sahab adi sabhi grnthon ka adhyayan sabane kiya.
  • badashah khan (khan abdul gaffar khan) andolan bharat ki azadi ke ahinsak rashtriy andolan ka samarthan karate the aur inhonne pakhtoonon ko rajanitik roop se jagarook banane ka prayas kiya.
  • 1930 ke dashak ke uttarardh tak gaffar khan mahatma gandhi ke nikatasth salahakaron men se ek ho ge aur 1947 men bharat ka vibhajan hone tak khudaee khidamatagar ne sakriy roop se kangres parti ka sath diya .
  • inake bhaee daauktar khan sahab (1858-1958) bhi gandhi ke qaribi aur kangresi andolan ke sahayogi the.
  • san 1930 ee. ke gandhi-iravin samajhaute ke bad abdul gaffar khan ko chhoda gaya aur ve samajik karyo men lag ge.
  • 1937 ke prantiy chunavon men kangres ne pashchimottar simant prant ki prantiy vidhanasabha men bahumat prapt kiya. khan sahab ko parti ka neta chuna gaya aur vah mukhyamntri bane. 1942 ee. ke agast andolan men vah giraphtar kie ge aur 1947 ee. men chhoote.
  • desh ke vibhajan ke virodhi gaffar khan ne pakistan men rahane ka nishchay kiya , jahan unhonne pakhtoon alpasnkhyakon ke adhikaron aur pakistan ke bhitar svayattashasi pakhtoonistan (ya pathanistan) ke lie ladaee jari rakhi.
  • bharat ka bntavara hone par unaka snbndh bharat se toot sa gaya kintu vah bharat ke vibhajan se kisi prakar sahamat n the. pakistan se unaki vicharadhara sarvatha bhinn thi. pakistan ke viruddh 'svatntr pakhtoonistan andolan' ajivan chalate rahe.
  • unhen apane siddhanton ki bhari qimat chukani padi, vah kee varshon tak jel men rahe aur usake bad unhen afaganistan men rahana pada.
  • 1985 ke 'kangres shatabdi samaroh' ke ap pramukh akarshan ka kendr the. 1970 men ve bharat bhar men ghoome. 1972 men vah pakistan laute .
  • inaka snsmaran grnth "maee laif aind stragal" 1969 men prakashit hua.

samman aur puraskar

khan abdul gaffar khan ko varsh 1987 men bharat sarakar ki or se bharat ka sarvochch nagarik samman 'bharat ratn' se sammanit kiya gaya.

mrityu

san 1988 men pakistan sarakar ne unhen peshavar men unake ghar men nazarabnd kar diya gaya. 20 janavari, 1988 ko unaki mrityu ho gayi aur unaki antim ichchhanusar unhen jalalabad afaganistan men dafanaya gaya.


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