गंगा डॉल्फ़िन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gnga daaulfin
gnga daaulfin
jagat enimeliya (Animalia)
sngh kaaurdeta (Chordata)
varg maimeliya (Mammalia)
gan sitesi (Cetacea)
upagan odontoseti (Odontoceti)
kul inidi (Iniidae)
jati pletenista (Platanista)
prajati gengetika (gangetica)
dvipad nam pletenista gengetika (Platanista gangetica)
any nam angrezi- 'ph‍letenish‍ta gengetika', hindi- 'susu', bangla- 'susak' ya 'sisuk', snskrit- 'sisumar'.
prajanan samay janavari se joon tak. yah ek bar men sirf ek bachche ko hi janm deti hai.
any janakari gnga nadi men paee jane vali daaulfin bharat ki ek mahath‍vapoorn snkatagrast prajati hai, isalie ise 'vanh‍y jivan (snrakshan) adhiniyam', 1972 men shamil kiya gaya hai.

daaulfin, rashh‍triy jaliy jiv

gnga daaulfin (Platanista gangetica) tatha sindhu nadi daaulfin (Platanista gangetica minor) gnga tatha sindhu nadi men paee jane vali mithe pani ki daaulfin ki do prajatiyan hain. ye bharat, bangladesh, nepal tatha pakistan men paee jati hain. gnga nadi daaulfin sabhi deshon ki nadiyon ke jal, mukhyatah gnga nadi men tatha sindhu nadi daaulfin, pakistan ke sindhu nadi ke jal men paee jati hain. bharat men daaulfin gnga aur usaki sahayak nadiyon ke alava brahmaputr aur meghana nadi men bhi paee jati hai. yah machhali nahin darasal ek stanadhari jiv hai. mada daaulfin ki ausat lambaee nar daaulfin se adhik hoti hai.

nivas sthan

daaulfin ki prajati ko bharat, nepal, bhootan aur bngaladesh ki gnga, meghana aur brahmaputr nadiyon men tatha bngaladesh ki karnaphooli nadi men dekha ja sakata hai. uttar pradesh ke zile: merath, bijanaur, muradabad, gajiyabad aur bulandashahar men bah rahi gnga nadi men daaulfinen rahati hain. bijanaur bairaj se lekar naraura bairaj tak 165 kimi ke jal kshetr men yah payi jati hain. gadh se lekar naraura tak ke 86 kimi tak ka kshetr ramasar kshetr ghoshit hai, jisamen yah prajanan bhi karati hain. unaki snkhya badhane ke lie ab yahan prayas bhi kie ja rahe hain. seviyars snstha ki sachiv svati sharma aur vishv prakriti nidhi ke adhikariyon ke anusar, to ramasar sait men varsh 2005 men daaulfino ki snkhya 35 thi, jo varsh 2010 men badhakar 53 ho gee hai. daaulfinon ke vyavahar ko janane ke lie tokyo yoonivarsiti, japan aur aeeaeeti jaise snsthan shodh bhi kar rahe hain aur isi ke lie bulndashahar ke karnabas men gnga nadi ke andar vibhinn prakar ke upakaran bhi lagae ge hain.

uttar bharat ki panch pramukh nadiyon- yamuna nadi, chnbal nadi, sindhu nadi, kaveri nadi v pahuj ke sngam sthal 'pnchanad sthal' ko daaulfin ke liye sabase khas samajha ja raha hai, kyonki yahan par ek sath 16 se aghik daaulfinon ko ek samay men ek sath paryavaran visheshgyon ne dekha hai. isi adhar par desh bhar ke vaigyanik 'pnchanad sthal' ko desh ke daaulfinon ke lie snrakshit karane ki mang kar rahe the.

bharat men snkhya

daaulfin ki poore desh men qrarib 2000 ki tadad is vaqt anki ja rahi hain. gnga aur isaki sahayak nadiyon men daaulfin paee jati hain. chnbal nadi men daaulfinon ki snkhh‍ya is vaqt 75 ke qrarib anki gee hai, jabaki varsh 2000 men yah snkhya 100 ke qrarib anki gee thi. paryavaraniy snstha 'dabloo dabloo ef' ke 2008 ke sarvekshan ke anusar nimn nadiyon men daaulfin ki snkhya is prakar hai-

snrakshan ki muhim

desh men daaulfin gnga aur usaki sahayak nadiyon ke alava brahmaputr aur meghana nadi men bhi paee jati hai. varsh 2005 se vishv prakriti nidhi aur seviyars snstha ne daaulfin ko bachane ki muhim chalaee hai. isi muhim ke tahat sarakar ne 5 aktoobar, 2009 ko daaulfin ko bharat ka rashtriy jaliy jiv ghoshit kiya hai. yah sh‍tanadhari jiv pavitr gnga nadi ki shuddhata ko bhi prakat karata hai, kh‍yonki yah keval shuddh aur mithe pani men hi jivit rah sakata hai. inh‍hen am taur par susu kaha jata hai kh‍yonki yah sans lete samay aisi hi avaz nikalati hai.

snkatagrast jati

gnga nadi men paee jane vali daaulfin bharat ki ek mahath‍vapoorn snkatapanh‍n prajati hai aur isalie ise vanh‍y jivan (snrakshan) adhiniyam, 1972 men shamil kiya gaya hai. gnga nadi men paee jane vali gnga daaulfin ek netrahin jaliy jiv hai jisaki ghran shakti atynt tivr hoti hai. vilupt pray is jiv ki vartaman men bharat men 2000 se bhi kam snkhya rah gayi hai jisaka mukhy karan gnga ka badhata pradooshan, bandhon ka nirman evn shikar hai. inaka shikar mukhyatah tel ke lie kiya jata hai jise any machhaliyon ko pakadanen ke lie chare ke roop men prayog kiya jata hai. es samay uttar pradesh ke narora aur bihar ke patana sahib ke bahut thode se kshetr men gnga daaulfin bachin hain.

snrakshan

gnga nadi ki daaulfin

bihar v uttar pradesh men ise 'sons' jabaki asami bhasha men 'jihoo' ke nam se jana jata hai. yah ikolokeshan (pratidhvani nirdharan) aur soonghane ki apar kshamataon se apana shikar aur bhojan talashati hai. yah mansahari jaliy jiv hai. yah prachin jiv qarib 10 karod sal se bharat men maujood hai. yah machhali nahin darasal ek stanadhari jiv hai. mada ke ausat lambaee nar daaulfin se adhik hoti hai. isaki ausat ayu 28 varsh rikard ki gayi hai. san aauf rivar kahi jane vale daaulfin ke snrakshan ke lie samrat ashok ne kee sadi poorv qadam uthaye the. kendr sarakar ne 1972 ke bharatiy vany jiv snrakshan qanoon ke dayare men bhi gnga daaulfin ko shamil lauya tha, lekin antatah rashtriy jaliv jiv ghoshit karane se vany ji snrakshan qanoon ke dayare men svatah a gaya. 1996 men hi 'intarneshanal yooniyan aauf knjarveshan aauf nechar' bhi in daaulfinon ko to vilupt pray jiv ghoshit kar chuka tha. gnga men daaulfinon ki snkhya men vriddhi mishan klin gnga ke pramukh adhar stambh hoga, kyonki kendriy paryavaran evn van mntri ke anusar jis tarah bagh jngal ki sehat ka pratik hai usi prakar daaulfin gnga nadi ke svasthy ki nishani hai.

daaulfin ke any nam

  • angrezi men ph‍letenish‍ta gengetika ke nam se jana jata hain.
  • hindi men susu ke nam se jana jata hain.
  • bngal men susak ya sisuk ke nam se jana jata hain.
  • snskrit men sisumar ke nam se jana jata hain.

roop aur akriti

  • daaulfin machhali lnbe nokadar munh vali hoti hai aur isake oopari tatha nichale jabadon men dant bhi dikhaee dete hain.
  • inaki ankhen men lens nahin hoti hain aur isalie ye keval prakash ki disha ka pata lagane ke sadhan ke roop men kary karati hain.
  • daaulfin machhaliyan sabash‍tret ki disha men ek pnkh ke sath tairati hain aur shrimh‍p tatha chhoti machhaliyon ko nigalane ke lie gaharaee men jati hain.
  • daaulfin machhaliyon ka sharir moti th‍vacha aur halh‍ke bhoore-sh‍leti th‍vacha shalh‍kon se dhaka hota hai aur kabhi kabhar yah gulabi rng ki abha dekha sakati hai.
  • isake pnkh bade aur prishh‍th disha ka pnkh tikona aur kam vikasit hota hai.
  • is sh‍tanadhari jntu ka matha sidha khada hota hai aur isaki ankhen chhoti-chhoti hoti hai.
  • daaulfin ek stanadhari jiv hai, jo mithe pani men rahane ke karan machhali hone ka bhram paida karati hai.
  • gnga nadi ki god men palane vali yah machhali janm se hi andhi hoti hai aur sonar tarng ke madhyam se chalati hai, jisake balaboote par yah apanon ko hamesha bachane men kamayab ho jati hain.
  • mada daaulfin ka vajan 100 se 150 kilo tak hota hai aur 2.70 mitar lnbi hoti hai.
  • nar daaulfin mada daaulfin se chhota hota hai.
  • daaulfin shudool van prajati ka jaliy jiv hai, jo poori tarah se netrahin hai.
  • yah jiv kisi ko nuqasan nahin pahunchata hai, balki manav ke sath mitravath snbndh banane ko atur rahata hai.
  • pahale yah pani se nikal kar panch minat men sans leti hai aur phir ath ghnte tak gahare pani men chali jati hai aur asani se pani ke andar sans leti rahati hai. sans lene ke lie jab yah pani se uchhal leti hai to isaka uchhal darshaniy hota hai.
  • prajanan samay janavari se joon tak rahata hai. yah ek bar men sirf ek bachche ko janm deti hai.

bhojan

  • daaulfin ka bhojan prayah machhaliyan hi hoti hain.
  • chhoti machhaliyon ko nigalane men daaulfin ko bahut maza ata hai.
  • daaulfin ki ghranashakti atynt tivr hoti hai. shaktishali ghranashakti tatha pratidhvani nirdharan ki kshamataon se yah apane shikar ka pata lagati hai.

snrakshan ke prayas

rashtriy senchuri bana kar daaulfin ko bachane ki disha men sabase pahala qadam 1979 men chnbal nadi men kiya gaya tha. isake sath-sath ghadi़yal ki hi tarah daaulfin ko any vany jivon ki tarah se snrakshan mila. daaulfin ko sudool van men vany jiv prani snrakshan aghiniyam 1972 men shamil karake rakha gaya hai. varsh 1991 men bihar ke vikramashila men gaingatik rivar ke nam se ise sultanagnj se lekar pahalagam (jammoo) tak snrakshit karane ki koshis bhi ki gee, parntu yah kafi nahin rahi.

nadiyon ke sngam sthalon par sabase adhik daaulfinen nazar ati hain. yahi ek karan hai ki uttar pradesh ke itava zile men 'pnchanada sthal' par varsh 2000 men ek sath 16 daaulfinen dekhi geen. yah desh men daaulfinon ki ek sath dekhi jane vali sabase badi snkhh‍ya hai. is sthal par prachur matra men daaulfinon ke lie bhojan milata hai.

1982 men desh ki sabhi nadiyon men daaulfinon ki snkhya 4000 se lekar 5000 ke bich anki gee thi, jo ab simat kar 2000 ke qrarib rah gee hai. har sal lagabhag 100 daaulfinen vibhinn tarikon se maut ki shikar ho jati hain. inamen sabase mukhh‍y vajah machhali ke shikar ke dauran jal men phns jana hai. kuchh daaulfinon ko shikari log tel nikalane ke irade se mar dalate hain.

parnparagat hindoo vishvas ke anusar

dharmik manyataon men jis prakar se vibhinn devi-devataon ki savariyan hoti hain usi prakar gnga man ki savari daaulfin (makar) hi hai. bhagirath jab bhagavan shnkar ki jataon se gnga ko nikal kar le ja rahe the, tab daaulfin hi unako rasta dikha rahi thi. tabhi se yah manyata hai ki gnga man ki savari daaulfin hai.

ghatati snkhya par chintan

man gnga ki savari samajhi jane vale jalachar daaulfin ka astitv khatare men hai, ise snrakshit karane ki kavayad bade zorashor se shuroo ki gee hai, nadiyon ke pradooshan ne isake jivan ko sabase bada khatara paida kiya hai, daaulfin ko bachane ki pahal kitani sarthak hogi is par kuchh bhi spasht nahin kaha ja sakata.

daaulfin aisa jalachar jiv hai, jisaka astitv khatare men hain. pichhale 15 sal men inaki snkhya men pachas fisadi se adhik ki giravat aee hai. ashh‍charyajanak to yah hai ki gnga ki dharohar samajhi jane vali daaulfin ab gnga men hi kafi kam rah geen hai. daaulfin ko bachane ke lie pradhanamntri manamohan sinh ne pahal karate hue ise 'rashh‍triy jaliy jiv' to ghoshit kar diya hai, parntu jis prakar se desh ki nadiyon men karakhanon ka kachara gir raha hai, usase visheshgy chintit hain ki jaliy jiv kahin keval kitabon ka hissa n ban kar rah jaen. chnbal nadi men to inaki snkhya apratyashit hai.

daaulfin ka shikar dndaniy aparadh hai. shikar karate hue pakade jane par 6 sal ki karavas tatha 5,000 ke jurmane ka pravadhan hai. daaulfin ke astitv par sabase bada khatara pradooshat pani ki vajah se aya hai. isake snrakshan v snvardhan ki avashh‍yakata hai. yadi ise bachane ki abhi se pahal ki gee to ise bachaya ja sakata hai.

chnbal kshetr men gat varsh varlh‍d vaild phedareshan v jivaji yoonivarsiti ne adhyayan kiya tha, to inake adhyayan men 78 se 80 daaulfinen dekhi gee thin. yah ek bar men sirf ek bachche ko janm deti hai. aisi sthiti men ise snrakshit kiya jana nitant avashh‍yak hai.

daaulfin ke astitv ko bachane ke lie jis prakar se pradhanamntri ne pahal ki hai yadi jaliy jiv prani ko bachane ke lie pratyek vyakti apani zimmedari samajhe to is manamohak jiv ko bachaya ja sakata hai. ankade batate hain ki desh men gnga, ghaghara, girava, chnbal, brihmaputr sahit gnga ki sahayak nadiyon men daaulfin paeen jatin hain.

mrityu ka karan

  • nayalaaun ke jal men sonar tarng par ho jati hai, jis karan yah usamen phns jati hai. yadi tin minat tak vah oopar nahin ati, to pani ke andar hi dam ghutane se usaki maut ho jati hai.
  • is prajati ki snkhh‍ya men giravat ke karan hain avaidh shikar aur nadi ke ghatate pravah, bhari talachhat, beraj ke nirman ke karan inake adhivas men giravat ati hai aur is prajati ke lie pravas men badha paida karate hain.
  • nadiyon ka uthala hona yani prakritik vas sthalon ka nashh‍t hona, nadiyon men pradooshan hona aur nadiyon par ban rahe bandh bhi daaulfinon ke mukh‍t vicharan ko prabhavit karate hain.
  • jab yah sans lene ke lie pani se uchhal leti hai, tabhi yah machhaliyon ke shikar ke lie lagae jal men phns jati hai aur shikariyon ki kaid men chali jati hai.
  • ankade gavah hai ki prativarsh taqrariban ek saikad se adhik daaulfin ki maut vibhinn karanon se ho rahi hai jo paryavaranavidon ke lie chinta ka sabab bani huee hai.
  • daaulfin ke lie sabase badi samasya hai, gnga par bairajon ka nirman. is nirman ke karan gnga men gndagi aur ret badh rahi hain aur usaka jal star ghat raha hai.
  • isake alava 'palej’ ki kheti bhi isake lie ek badi samasya bani hai, jisamen prayog hone vali rasayanik khad daaulfin ke jivan ko khatam kar rahi hai.
  • kheti ke kamon aur udyog men kitanashakon ke atyadhik prayog ke karan pradooshit gnga viluptikaran ke kagar par pahunch chuke bharat ke rashtriy jal jiv daaulfin ke lie khataranak ban gee hai.
  • krishi bhoomi men kitanashakon ka atyadhik prayog daaulfinon ke astitv ke lie khatara hai kyonki daaulfinon ke sharir ki chayapachay kshamata bahut kam hoti hai.

avaidh shikar

avaidh shikar ke karan daaulfin ki snkhya men lagatar giravat a rahi hai. daaulfin ke shikar se isake jism se nikalane vale tel ko mardanagi badhane evn hadihdayon ko mazaboot karane ke lie prayog kiya jata hai. yahi karan hai ki isake tel ki kimaten bazar men bhi adhik hoti hain. isalie shikariyon ki nazaron men daaulfin ek dhan kamane ka zariya ban chuki hai.

lupt hoti daaulfin

lekin nirntar badhate pradooshan se n sirf gnga maili ho gee, balki isaki god men pal raha hamara rashtriy jaliy jiv, daaulfin ka astitv bhi khatare men pad gaya. daaulfin ke snbndh men mana jata hai ki yah base adhik buddhiman jivon men se ek hai, aur unake aksar dostana vyavahar aur hamesha khush rahane ki adat ne unhen manavo ke bich khasa lokapriy bana diya hai. kaha jata hai ki bhagirath ki tapasya se jab gnga svarg se utari thi, tab usaki dhara men daaulfin bhi thi. daaulfinon ko bachane ki sabase pahali muhim samrat ashok ke kal men shuroo huee thi, par usake bad lnbe samay tak ise bachane ka koee prayas nahin hua aur yah shikariyon ka shikar hoti rahi.

lekin ek achchha snket yah hai ki ab am vyakti bhi is machhali ko bachane ke lie age a rahe hai. snstha ke prayason se jahan 5 zilon ke qrarib 100 skoolon ke bachche is jiv ke prati logon ko jagarook karane ke lie abhiyan chala rahe hain, nishad samuday ke log bhi ise bachane men sahayog de rahe hain. lekin daaulfinon ko bachane ke lie aur adhik prayas ki zaroorat hai. abhi inake snrakshan ke lie pradesh ke 5 zilon men hi kary ho rahe hain. yadi any zilon ke logon ko bhi isase jod liya jae, to gnga ki svachchhata ka praman kahi jane vali daaulfinen gnga men asani se nazar bhi aengi.


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