गंगेशोपाध्याय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gngeshopadhyay ek darshanik hai. bharatiy darshanik parampara men gngeshopadhyay ka sthan moordhany vicharakon men mana jata hai. unake dvara 'tatvachintamani' namak granth unaki amar evn mahanatam kriti hai. is granth ke sath hi bharatiy tarkashastr ka navayug prarambh hota hai aur isake adhyayan ke bina bharatiy darshan ka gyan adhoora mana jata hai.

janm

gngeshopadhyay ka janm maithil brahman parivar men hua tha. unaka janm sthan bihar men darabhnga se 12 mil dakshin poorv kamala nadi ke tat par sthit 'kariyon' gram mana jata hai. gngesh ke janm kal ke vishay men anek vivad hain, parantu samanyat: yah mana jata hai ki unaka janm eesavi 12vin shatabdi ke antim charan athava 13vin shatabdi ke pratham charan men hua hoga.

granth

gngeshopadhyay ne 'tatvachintamani' men gyan mimansa evn tarkashastr ka vyavasthit vivechan kiya hai. yah granth char khndon men vibhajit hai, jinake shirshak kramash: 'pratyaksh', 'anuman', 'upaman' evn 'shabd' hain. gngesh ne apane darshan ko 'navyanyay' kaha hai aur is prakar prachin nyay se, jisaka srot gautam dvara rachit 'nyasootr' hai, apane darshan ka bhed kiya hai.

gngeshopadhyay ke siddhant

gngesh dvara pranit navyanyay siddhanton ki drishti se utana maulik nahin hai, jitana chintan evn vishleshan paddhati ki drishti se. gngesh ki chintan paddhati ki navinata unaki vishayon ki pratipadan shaili tatha unake vyavasthit niroopan men hai. apane poorv acharyon ki tulana men ve shabdon ki paribhasha karane men atyant savadhani evn sookshmata baratate hain. prachin nyay ki tulana men gngesh ne 'tatvachintamani' men pramanon (yatharth gyan ke karanon) ke vivechan ko vishesh mahattv diya. unhonne shabdon ki parishuddh paribhasha karane par bal diya tatha is prayojan ki poorti evn sookshm vicharon ki spasht abhivyakti ke lie navin tarkik shabdavali ki rachana ki. kintu pramanon ke vichar ke sath sath pramey (yatharth gyan ke vishay) ke sambandh men apana paksh spasht karana avashyak tha, kyonki donon (praman evn pramey) paraspar sapeksh hain. is drishti se gngesh sahit nyay ke sabhi acharyon ne vaisheshik tatv darshan ko kuchh parivartanon ke sath svikar kiya, kyonki vah poornat: vastavavadi evn bahutatvavadi hone ke karan nyay ki vastavavadi gyanamimansa ke lie sarvatha upayukt tha.

padarthon ke parishuddh lakshan (paribhasha) karane tatha darshanik siddhanton ke pratipadan ke lie gngesh ne navin pranalitntr ka prayog kiya. yahan par ham unamen prayukt kuchh siddhanton ka snket matr karenge. pratham siddhant hai ki pratyek lakshan ka tin doshon se rahit hona avashyak hai. ve dosh hain 'avyapti', 'ativyapti' evn 'asambhav'. yadi lakshan lakshy se kam vyapak hai to vah avyapti dosh se grast hai, yadi vah lakshy se adhik vyapak hai to vah ativyapti dosh se grast hai aur yadi lakshan lakshy par lagoo hi n ho to vah asambhav dosh se grast hai. ek parishuddh lakshan ko in tinon doshon se mukt hona chahie. doosara mahattvapoorn siddhant jis par gngesh ne vishesh bal diya, laghav ka siddhant hai. isake anusar yadi saral evn nyoonatam avadharanaon ki snkhya badha kar jatilata ko badhana darshan ka dosh hai. gngesh ne apane anek siddhanton ka pratipadan isi kasauti ke adhar par kiya hai. tisara mahattvapoorn siddhant hai anyathasiddhi ka. ve padarth jo kisi kary ke karanon ke sath niyamit roop se rahate hain, kintu vastav men kary ki utpatti men prayojak nahin hain anyathasiddhi kahalate hain. aise padarthon ka vishleshan kar unako karan koti se alag karana ek samichin darshan ke lie avashyak hai.  

praman mimansa

'tatvachintamani' men gngesh ne nyay darshan men svikrit char pramanon- pratyaksh, anuman, upaman evn shabd ka char khndon men vistrit vivechan kiya hai, jisaka atisnkshipt niroopan niche kiya ja raha hai.

pratyaksh

pratyaksh khnd ke prarambh men sarvapratham gyan ke pramany athava yatharthata ka vichar kiya gaya hai. is sambandh men do prashn uthaye ge hain-

  1. gyan ke pramany ka kya hetu hai.
  2. pramany ka gyan kaise hota hai.

gngesh ke anusar gyan ka pramany gyan ke samany karanon se atirikt ek vishesh karan gun ki apeksha karata hai, anyatha saty evn mithya gyan men bhed hi nahin rah jayega. usi prakar gyan ka pramany bhi gyan ke sath hi gyat nahin hota, balki ek any gyan ki apeksha karata hai. yadi aisa n hota to hamen kisi gyan ke vishay men sndeh n hota. at: yah manana hoga ki gyan ke pramany ka gyan usake dvara prerit pravritti ki saphalata ke adhar par anuman dvara hota hai. uparyukt siddhant ko bharatiy darshan men 'parat:pramanyavad' kaha jata hai. isake viruddh mimansakon ka 'svat:pramanyavad' ka siddhant hai, jisaka gngesh ne khndan kiya hai.

prachin nyay men pratyaksh ka lakshan 'indriy tatha arth (vishay) ke sannikarsh se utpann gyan' kiya gaya hai. gngesh darshate hain ki yah lakshan ativyapti dosh se grast hai, kyonki smriti tatha anuman jo pratyaksh nahin hai, isake antargat samavisht ho jate hain. smriti evn anuman poorv pratyaksh par adharit hain aur is prakar paroksh roop se ve bhi indriy tatha arth ke sannikarsh se utpann gyan ho jaenge. is dosh ke nivaran ke lie gngesh pratyaksh ka lakshan 'sakshatkaritv' karate hain. yah lakshan pratyaksh ko smriti tatha anuman se, jo sakshathgyan nahin hain, alag karata hai. pratyaksh khnd men hi gngesh ne 'tatvamimansa' se sambandhit do mahattvapoorn padarthon ka astitv siddh kiya hai. ve hain : samavay tatha abhav. samavay pratyaksh men pradatt do aisi vastuon ke bich ka ghanishth sambandh hai, jo ek doosare se prithakh nahin kie ja sakate aur jinamen ek ashray aur doosara ashrit hai. udaharanarth, dravy evn gun, dravy evn kriya, vyakti evn jati, ityadi ke bich ka sambandh. pratyaksh siddh hone ke karan is sambandh ko svatntr padarth manana avashyak hai. usi prakar abhav ko bhi atirikt padarth manana avashyak hai, kyonki bhav padarthon ke saman abhav ki bhi yatharth pratiti hoti hai. in donon padarthon ke sambandh men any maton dvara jo apattiyan uthaee gee hain, unaka gngesh ne yukti poorn uttar diya hai. gngesh ne pratyaksh ke vibhinn prakaron ka bhi vistrit vivechan kiya hai, jisaka is snkshipt vivaran men vichar karana snbhav nahin hai.  

anuman

gngeshopadhyay ne anuman praman tatha usase utpann gyan anumiti ke vishleshan ko atyadhik mahattv diya hai. pratyek anumiti ke tin anivary ang hote hain- hetu, sadhy evn paksh. udaharanarth, 'parvat par agni hai, kyonki vahan dhoom hai', is anumiti men dhoom hetu hai, agni sadhy hai tatha parvat paksh hai. parvat par se uthate hue dhoom ka pratyaksh hone par 'parvat par agni hai', yah anumiti hoti hai. spasht hai ki yah anumiti dhoom evn agni ke bich niyat sahachar sambandh ke gyan par nirbhar hai. is sambandh ko 'vyapti' kahate hain, jisake gyan ke bina anumiti asambhav hai. is sambandh men mukhyat: do prashn uthate hain-

  1. vyapti ka lakshan kya hai.
  2. vyapti ka gyan kaise hota hai.

gngesh ne vyapati ke anek poorv-pravritt lakshanon ka vichar karane ke bad unhen is adhar par asvikrit kar diya ki ve avyapati dosh se grast hain, kyonki kevalanvayi-anumiti men ye vyaptiyan sambhav nahin ho sakatin. kevalanvayi-anumiti usako kahate hain, jisamen hetu evn sadhy aise padarth hote hain, jo sarvabhaum athava sarvavyapi hon. udaharanarth, 'ghat abhidhey (shabd vaky) hai, kyonki vah pramey (yatharth anubhav ka vishay) hai', yah anumiti. isamen hetu 'prameyatatv' tatha sadhy 'abhidheyatv' nyay ke anusar aise dharm hain, jo sabhi padarthon men rahate hain aur is karan inaka abhav asiddh hai. at: vyapti ka koee lakshan jisamen hetu athava sadhy ka abhav samavisht ho ukt kevalanvayi men snbhav nahin ho sakega. isi karan gngesh ne poorv pradatt vyapti ke lakshanon ko jinamen hetu athava sadhy ka abhav kisi n kisi roop men samavisht tha asvikrit kar diya aur vyapti ka navin lakshan prastut kiya, jisako 'siddhantalakshan' kaha jata hai. is lakshan ki visheshata yah hai ki isamen hetu athava sadhy ka abhav samavisht nahin hota aur is karan vah kevalanvayi men bhi lagoo ho sakata hai.

gngesh dvara pradatt vyapti ka lakshan is prakar hai : hetu ka aise sadhy ke sath ek adhikaran (ashray) men rahana jo us adhikaran men rahane vale abhav ka pratiyogi n ho. pratiyogi us vastu ko kahate hain, jisaka abhav vichar men liya ja raha ho. yahan par hetu ke adhikaran men rahane vale abhav se tatpary samanyabhav se hai n ki visheshabhav se. udaharanarth, dhoom men agni ki vyapti hai, kyonki dhoom aise agni ke sath ek adhikaran men rahata hai, jo usamen rahane vale kisi bhi samanyabhav (ghatabhav-patabhav ityadi) ka pratiyogi nahin hai. kisi vishesh sthal ke dhoom ke sath kisi vishesh agni ka abhav bhale hi rahata ho, parantu agni ka samanyabhav (agnimatr ka abhav) nahin rahata. isalie dhoom men agni ki vyapti hai. vyapti ka uparyukt lakshan sabhi doshon se rahit hone ke karan nyay ki parampara men sarvamany hai.

gyan

vyapti ke sambandh men doosara mahattvapoorn prashn hai ki vyapti ka gyan kaise hota hai. gngesh ke anusar hetu evn sadhy ke bich sahachar darshan ke sath sath vyabhichar darshan ka abhav vyapti ke gyan men karanibhoot hota hai. udaharanarth, dhoom men agni ki vyapti hai, kyonki dhoom sarvada agni ke sath rahata hai aur agni ke abhav men nahin rahata. isi adhar par dhoom ka pratyaksh hone par agni ki anumiti hoti hai. parantu prashn uthata hai ki uparyukt prakar se dhoom-vishesh evn agni-vishesh ke bich vyapti ka grahan hone par bhi sabhi dhoom tatha sabhi agni ke bich vyapti ka nishchay kaise hoga, kyonki hamara pratyaksh simit hai aur bina sarvabhaum vyapti gyan ke anumiti sambhav nahin hogi. is samasya ke samadhan ke lie gngesh 'samanyalakshana' namak alaukik pratyaksh ka siddhant pratipadit karate hain. jab hamen kisi vishesh dhoom tatha vishesh agni ka pratyaksh hota hai, tab usake sath hi unamen sthit samany dharm 'dhoomatv' tatha 'agnitv' ka bhi pratyaksh hota hai. in samany dharmon ke madhyam se hamen sabhi dhoom tatha sabhi agni ka alaukik pratyaksh hota hai. yahi alaukik pratyaksh dhoom evn agni ke bich sarvabhaum vyapti grahan ka adhar hai aur isi karan dhoom ke pratyaksh hone par agni ki nishchit anumiti sambhav hoti hai. gngesh ne anuman praman ka prayog eeshvar ki satta siddh karane ke lie bhi kiya hai. anuman khnd ke ant men gngesh ne hetu ke doshon ka bhi vishad vivechan kiya hai, jisake karan anumiti ayatharth hoti hai.  

upaman

gngesh ne upaman ko svatntr praman siddh kiya hai. upaman us praman ko kaha jata hai, jisake adhar par kisi sngya ke usake vachy padarth ke sath sambandh ka gyan hota hai. isake ek udaharan ke dvara samajha ja sakata hai. kisi vyakti ko 'gavay' shabd ka arth gyat nahin hai aur usako apane mitr se gyat hota hai ki 'gavay' jngal men rahane vale ek prani ka nam hai, jo gay ke sadrish hota hai. taduparant jab vah jngal men jata hai to vahan gay ke sadrish ek prani ko dekhakar use apane mitr ke kathan ka smaran hota hai aur vah is nishkarsh par pahunchata hai ki yah gavay hai. is gyan ko upamiti kahate hain tatha isaka srot (praman) upaman kahalata hai. is praman ko pratyaksh athava anuman ke antargat nahin laya ja sakata hai, kyonki n to isamen indriyasannikarsh matr prayojak hai aur n vyapti gyan hi. upamiti men sadrishy gyan tatha atidesh vaky (mitr ke kathan) ka smaran prayojak hai. isamen ek sngya ka usake sngyi (vachy) ke sath sambandh ka gyan hota hai. at: upaman ko svatntr praman manana avashyak hai.  

shabd

gngesh ne shabd ko bhi gyan ka svatntr sadhan (praman) siddh kiya hai. aise vyakti ke dvara uchcharit shabd jo usake arth ka gyan rakhata hai, praman hai. bharatiy darshanik parampara men kuchh darshan, jaise bauddh dharm evn jain, shabd ko praman nahin manate aur isi karan ve ved athava shruti ke pramany ko asvikar kar dete hain. gngesh tark karate hain ki shabd pramany ka nishedh karane par nishedh karane vale ke shabd ka pramany bhi asiddh ho jayega aur usaka prayog kisi paksh ke viruddh nahin kiya ja sakega. is karan sabhi ke lie shabd ko praman manana avashyak hi hai. shabd praman ko pratyaksh athava anuman ke antargat nahin laya ja sakata hai, kyonki shabd gyan n to indriy sannikarsh hai aur n hi vyaptijany. is karan shabd ko svatntr praman manana ati avashyak hai. is khnd men gngesh ne shabd gyan ke hetu, shabdarth tatha usake prakar ka bhi vistar se vichar kiya hai aur is sambandh men apane siddhanton ki sthapana bhi ki hai.

gngesh ne pranalitntr ka unake dvara pratipadit darshanik siddhanton ka uparyukt niroopan ati snkshipt hai aur vah unake gnbhir evn yugantarakari chintan ki ek sthool roop rekha matr prastut karata hai. gngesh ke chintan ki mahatta ko unake granth 'tatvachintamani' tatha us par likhi gee tikaon ke adhyayan se hi samajha ja sakata hai. gngesh ki chintan pranali evn pratipadan shaili ne unake uttar kalin pray: sabhi bharatiy darshanon ko prabhavit kiya. gngesh ka pranalitntr keval nyay darshan ke lie hi nahin balki pray: sabhi bharatiy darshanon ke lie adarsh ho gaya aur unake dvara rachit tarkik shabdavali ka prayog nyoonadhik matra men pray: sabhi darshanon ke dvara kiya jane laga.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

dravid, rajaram vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 179.

snbndhit lekh