गया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gaya
mahabodhi mndir, bodhagaya
vivaran jharakhnd aur bihar ki sima aur phalgu nadi ke tat par basa gaya bihar ka ek pramukh nagar hai.
rajy bihar
zila gaya
bhaugolik sthiti uttar- 24°45′; poorv- 85°01′
marg sthiti gaya bodhagaya se 17 kilomitar, nalnda se 101 kilomitar, rajagir se 78 kilomitar, patana se 135 kilomitar, varanasi se 252 kilomitar, kalakatta se 495 kilomitar doori par sthit hai.
kaise pahunchen havaee jahaj, rel, bas, taiksi
havaee adda gaya havaee adda
relave steshan gaya relave steshan
bas adda gaya bas adda
yatayat taiksi, aauto-riksha, saikil riksha
kahan thaharen hotal, atithi grah, dharmashala
es.ti.di. kod 0-631
e.ti.em lagabhag sabhi
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr
snbndhit lekh bodhagaya, mahabodhi mndir, shraddh
bhasha hindi aur bhojapuri
any janakari kaha jata hai ki shraddh ke samay men yahan phalgu nadi ke tat par pindadan karane se mrit vyakti ko baikunth ki prapti hoti hai.
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait

gaya (angrezi: Gaya) jharakhnd aur bihar ki sima aur phalgu nadi ke tat par basa bihar ka ek pramukh nagar hai. varanasi ki tarah gaya ki prasiddhi mukhy roop se ek dharmik nagari ke roop men hai. pitripaksh ke avasar par yahan hazaron shraddhalu pindadan ke liye jutate hain. gaya sadak, rel aur vayu marg dvara poore bharat se achchhi tarah juda hai. navanirmit 'gaya antarrashtriy havaee adda' dvara yah thailaind se bhi sidhe juda hua hai. gaya se 17 kilomitar ki doori par bodhagaya sthit hai jo bauddh tirth sthal hai aur yahin 'bodhivriksh' ke niche bhagavan buddh ko gyan ki prapti huee thi.

manyata

gaya bihar ke mahattvapoorn tirthasthanon men se ek hai. yah shahar khasakar hindoo tirth yatriyon ke lie kafi mashahoor hai. yahan ka 'vishnupad mndir' paryatakon ke bich lokapriy hai. dntakathaon ke anusar bhagavan vishnu ke panv ke nishan par is mndir ka nirman karaya gaya hai. hindoo dharm men is mndir ko aham sthan prapt hai. gaya pitridan ke lie bhi prasiddh hai. kaha jata hai ki yahan phalgu nadi ke tat par pindadan karane se mrit vyakti ko baikunth ki prapti hoti hai. adhunik kal men bhi sabhi dharmik hinduon ki drishti men gaya ka vilakshan mahattv hai. isake itihas prachinata, puratattv-sambandhi avasheshon, isake chaturdik pavitr sthalon, isamen kiye jane vale shraddh-karmon tatha gaya valon ke vishay men bahut-se maton ka udghosh kiya gaya hai. gaya ke vishay men sabase mahattvapoorn granth hai 'gayamahatmay'.[1] vidvanon ne gayamahatmay ke adhyayon ki prachinata par sandeh prakat kiya hai. rajendralal mitr ne ise tisari ya chauthi shatabdi men pranit mana hai. o' maili ne 'gayasur ki gatha' ka avishkar 14vin ya 15vin shatabdi ka mana hai, kyonki unake mat se gayaval vaishnav hain, jo madhvachary dvara sthapit sampraday ke samarthak hain aur hari narasinhapur ke mahant ko apana guru manate hain kintu yah mat asngat hai.

mahabharat men gaya

daau. barooa ne vyakhya karake yah pratishthapit kiya hai ki gaya-mahatmy 13vin ya 14vin shatabdi ke poorv ka likha hua nahin ho sakata. daau. barooa ka nishkarsh do karanon se asngat thahar jata hai. ve vanaparv, mahabharat men paye jane vale vrittant ki janch karate hain aur usaki tulana gayamahatmy ke apekshakrit adhik poorn vrittant se karake nimn nishkarsh nikalate hain- 'mahabharat men varnit gaya pramukhat: dharmaraj yam, brahma evn shiv shooli ka tirthasthal hai, aur vishnu evn vaishnavavad nam ya bhavana ke roop men isase sambandhit nahin ho sakate. brahmayoop, shivaling evn vrishabh ke atirikt yahan kisi any moorti ya mandir ke nirman ki or snket nahin milata.'

thaee mndir, bodhagaya, bihar

rigved ke do sookton ke rachayita plati ke putr gay the. rigved[2] men aya hai 'astavi jano divyo gayen'.[3] ye rigved ke ek rishi hain. rigved men 'gay' shabd 'a y' arthon men bhi aya hai jinaka yahan ullekh asngat hai. atharvaved[4] men asit evn kashyap ke sath gay namak ek vyakti jadoogar ya aindrajalik ke roop men varnit hai. vaidik snhitaon men asuron, dason evn rakshason ko jadoo evn indrajal men parngat kaha gaya hai.[5] snbhav hai ki 'gay' age chalakar 'gayasur' men parivartit ho gaya ho.

nirookt men gaya

nirookt[6] ne 'idn vishnurvi chakrame tredha ni dadhe padamh'[7] ki vyakhya karate hue do vishleshan diye hain, jinamen ek prakritik roop ki or tatha doosara bhaugolik ya kinvadanti poorn maton ki or snket karata hai- 'vah[8] apane padon ko tin dhngon se rakhata hai.' shakapooni ke mat se vishnu apane pad ko prithivi, antariksh evn svarg men rakhate hain, aurnavabh ke mat se samarohan, vishnupad evn gay-shirsh par rakhate hain[9] vaidik ukti ka tatpary chahe jo ho, kintu yah spasht hai ki eesa ki kee shatabdiyon poorv isake do vishleshan upasthit ho chuke the, aur yadi buddh ke nirvan ki tithiyan thik man li jayn to yah kahana yuktisngat hai ki aurnavabh evn yask buddh ke poorv hue the.[10]

vibhinn tathy

buddh pratima, bodhagaya, bihar
  • jain evn bauddh granthon men aisa aya hai ki raja gay ka rajy gaya ke charon or tha.
  • uttaradhyayanasootr men aya hai ki vah rajagrih ke raja samudravijay ka putr tha aur gyarahavan chakravarti hua.
  • ashvaghosh ke buddhacharit men aya hai ki rishi gay ke ashram men buddh aye, us sant[15] ne nairanjana nadi ke punit tat par apana nivas banaya aur pun: ve gaya ke kashyap ke ashram men, jo uroobilv kahalata tha, gaye. is granth men yah bhi aya hai ki vahan dharmatavi thi, jahan ve 700 jatil rahate the, jinhen buddh ne nirvan-prapti men sahayata di thi.
  • vishnudharmasootr[16] men shraddh ke lie vishnupad pavitr sthal kaha gaya hai. aisa kaha ja sakata hai ki aurnavabh ne kisi kshetr men kinhin aise tin sthalon ki or snket kiya hai jahan kinvadanti ke adhar par, vishnupad ke chihn dikhaee padate the. [17]inamen do arthath vishnupad evn gayashirsh vikhyat hai; at: aisa kahana tarkahin nahin hai ki 'samarohan' koee sthal hai jo in donon ke kahin pas men hi hai. samarohan ka arth hai. 'oopar chadhana', aisa pratit hota hai ki yah shabd phalgu nadi se oopar uthane vali pahadi ki chadhaee ki or snket karata hai. aisa sambhav hai ki yah gitanadit[18] udyant pahadi hi hai. 'udyant' ka arth hai 'sooryoday ki pahadi'; yah sampoorn aryavart ka dyotak hai. kaha ja sakata hai ki eesa ke 600 varsh poorv arthath buddh ke poorv gaya men vishnupad evn gay-shirsh ke vishay men koee parampara sthir ho chuki thi.
  • daau. barooa vanaparv ke kuchh shlokon par nirbhar rah rahe hain[19] mahabharat, vanaparv[20] ne bhishm ke tirth-sambandhi prashnon ka uttar pulasty dvara dilaya hai. sarvapratham pushkar[21] ka varnan aya hai aur tab bina kram ke jamboomarg, tandulikashram, agasttyasar, mahakal, kotitirth, bhadravat[22], narmada, prabhas evn any tirthon ka vivechan hua hai.
  • vanaparv [23]men dhaumy dvara 57 tirthon (yatha naimish, shakambhari, gngadvar, kanakhal, gnga-yamuna-sngam, kubjabhrak adi) ke nam ginakar gaya ke tirthon ke vishay men vivechan upasthit kiya gaya hai. isase spasht hota hai ki prastut lekhak ko any tirthon ke vishay men adhik varnan karana abhisht nahin tha. padm puran[24] ne vanaparv ko jyon-ka-tyon utara hai, lagata hai, ek-doosare ne donon ko uddhrit kiya hai. vanaparv men naimish ka varnan do sthanon par[25] hua hai aur gaya ka bhi[26] do bar hua hai. gaya ke tirthon ke nam jis dhng se liye gaye hain aur unaka varnan jis dhng se kiya gaya hai usase yah nahin kaha ja sakata ki vanaparv gaya aur usase sambandhit kinvadantiyon ke vishay men vishad varnan karana chahata tha. yah nishkarsh is bat se aur shaktishali ho uthata hai ki anushasanaparv men tin tirthon ka jo ullekh hua hai vah vanaparv men nahin paya jata, yatha- brahmahatya karane vala vyakti gaya men ashmaprasth (pretashila), niravind ki pahadi evn kaunchapadi par vishuddh ho jata hai.[27] ye tinon tirth vanaparv men nahin ate. vayu puran[28] men aravindak ko shilaparvat ka shikhar kaha gaya hai, aur narad puran men kaunchapad (mund-prasth) ki charcha ki hai. spasht hai ki gayamahatmy men ullikhit in tin tirthon ka nam anushasanaparv men bhi aya hai.
  • daau. barooa ne gaya ki prachinata ke vishay men keval vanaparv [29], agni puran [30] evn vayu puran[31] ka hi sahara liya, unhonne any puranon ko nahin dekha aur unhonne yah bhi nahin dekha ki aurnavabh dvara vyakhyat vishnu ke tin pad snbhavat: gaya ke tirthon ki or snket karate hain. padm puran[32], garud puran[33], narad puran[34] adi men gaya ke vishay men vistrit varnan hai aur unake bahut se shlok ek-se hain. mahabharat[35] ka 'savitryastu padn' [36] men 'savitr padn' aya hai jisaka arth vishnu (savitri) ka pad ho sakata hai. to aisa kahana ki vanaparv men pratima-snket nahin milata, daau. barooa ke bhramak vivechan ka dyotak hai. gaya men dharm ki pratima bhi thi, kyonki vanaparv men aya hai ki yatri dharm ka sparsh karate the (dharm tatrabhisnsprishy). isake atirikt bachhade ke sath 'gopad' evn 'savitr pad' ki or bhi snket milata hai. in udaharanon se soochit hota hai ki vanaparv men pratima-poojan ki or snket vidyaman hain.
  • phahiyan (399-413 ee.) ne likha hai ki usake samay men hindoo dharm ka nagar gaya samapt pray tha. yah sambhav hai ki chauthi shatabdi ke poorv bhookamp ke karan gaya nagar ke mandir adi nasht-bhrasht ho chuke honge. prachin pali granthon evn lalitavistar men gaya ke mandiron ka ullekh hai. gaya kee avasthaon se gujara hai. eesa ki kee shatabdiyon poorv yah ek samriddhishali nagar tha. eesa ke uparant chauthi shatabdi men yah nasht pray tha. kintu satavin shatabdi men hvenasang ne ise bhara-poora likha hai jahan brahmanon ke 1000 kul the. age chalakar jab bauddh dharm ki avanati ho gayi to isake antargat bauddh avasheshon ki bhi pariganana hone lagi. vayu puran men varnan aya hai ki gaya pretashila se mahabodhi vriksh tak vistrit hai.[37]
  • daau. barooa ne daau. kilaharn dvara sampadit shilalekh ke 12ven shlok[38] ka arth thik se nahin kiya hai. shlok ka anuvad yon hai-'us buddhiman (rajakumar yakshapal) ne maunadity evn any devon ki pratimaon ke lie ek mandir banavaya, usane uttar 'manasasar'[39] banavaya aur akshayavat ke pas ek satr (bhojan-vyavastha ke dan) ki yojana ki.' nayapal ke rajyakal ka yah shilalekh lagabhag 1040 ee. men utkirn hua. daau. barooa ka kathan hai ki uttaramanas talab usi samay khoda gaya, aur vah 1040 ee. se prachin nahin ho sakata, at: yah tatha any tirth pashchatkalin hain tatha gayamahatmy, jisamen uttar manas ki charcha hai, 11vin shatabdi ke pashchath likhit hai. kintu daau. barooa ka yah nishkarsh ati doshapoorn hai. yadi talab shilalekh ke samay pahali bar khoda gaya tha to ise khyat (prasiddh) kahana asambhav hai. khode jane ki kee shatabdiyon ke uparant hi talab prasiddh ho sakata hai. uttaramanas talab vayu puran[40] men varnit hai. isase spasht hai ki uttar manas 8vin ya 9vin shatabdi men prakhyat tha. keval itana hi kaha ja sakata hai ki yah talab mitti se bhar gaya tha at: yah pun: sanh 1040 ke lagabhag khoda gaya ya lamba-chauda banaya gaya. isaka koee any tatpary nahin hai.
buddh pratima, bodhagaya, bihar
  • gayamahatmy[41] jo sambhavat: vayu puran ke bad ka hai, 13vin ya 14vin shatabdi ka nahin hai arthath kuchh purana hai. kee puranon evn granthon se samagriyan isamen sngrahit ki gayi hain, yatha vanaparv, anushasanaparv, padm puran (1.38), naradiy puran[42]adi. isake bahut se shlok bar-bar duharaye gaye hain. daau. barooa ne is bat par dhyan nahin diya hai ki vayu puran [43] men gaya ke bahut-se upatirthon ka ullekh hua hai. yatha-brahmakoop, prabhas, pretaparvat, uttar manas, udichi, kanakhal, dakshin manas, dharmarany, gadadhar matng. adhyay 70.97-108 men ye nam aye hain- gridhrakoot, bharat ka ashram, matngapad, mundaprishth evn uttar manas. gayamahatmy ke bahut se shlok smritichandrika (lagabhag 1150-1225) dvara shraddh evn ashauch[44] ke vishay men uddhrit hain. in baton ke adhar par yah kaha ja sakata hai ki gayamahatmy 7vin evn 10vin shatabdi ke bich kabhi pranit hua hoga.
  • mahabharat ke vanaparv ke adhyay 87 evn 95 men aya hai ki poorv ki or (kamyak van se, jahan par pandav log kuchh samay tak rahe the) badhate hue yatri naimishavan evn gotami ke pas pahunchenge. tab kaha gaya hai ki gaya namak pavitr parvat hai, brahmakoop namak talab hai. isake uparant vah prasiddh shlok hai, jisaka arth hai ki 'vyakti ko bahut-se putron ki abhilasha karani chahie aur yadi unamen ek bhi gaya jata hai ya ashvamedh karata hai ya nil vrish chhodata hai to pitar log tript ho jate hain.[45]
  • isake uparant vanaparv[46] ne pavitr nadi phalgu (mahanadi), gayashir akshayavat ka ullekh kiya hai, jahan pitaron ko diya gaya bhojan akshay ho jata hai. vanaparv[47] men brahmasar (jahan agasty dharmaraj arthath yam ke pas gaye the, shlok 12), aur akshayavat (shlok 14) ka ullekh hai. isamen aya hai ki amoortaray ke putr raja gay ne ek ygy kiya tha, jisamen bhojan evn dakshina paryapt roop men di gayi thi. [48]
  • vasishthadharmasootr[49] men aya hai ki jab vyakti gaya jata hai aur pitaron ko bhojan deta hai to ve usi prakar prasann hote hain jis prakar achchhi varsha hone se krishakagan prasann hote hain, aur aise putr se pitrigan, sachamuch, putravan ho jate hain. vishnudharmasootr[50] ne shraddh yogy jin 55 tirthon ke nam diye hain, unamen gaya-sambandhi tirth hain- gayashirsh, akshayavat, phalgu, uttar manas, matng-vapi, vishnupad. gaya men vyakti jo kuchh dan karata hai usase akshay phal milata hai. atri-smriti (55-58) men pitaron ke lie gaya jana, phalgu-snan karana pitritarpan karana, gaya men gadadhar (vishnu) evn gayashirsh ka darshan karana varnit hai. shnkh[51] ne bhi gayatirth men kiye gaye shraddh se utpann akshay phal ka ullekh kiya hai.[52]
  • likhitasmriti (12-13) ne gaya ki mahatta ke vishay men yah likha hai- chahe jisake nam se, chahe apane lie ya kisi ke lie gaya-shirsh men pindadan kiya jay tab vyakti narak men rahata ho to svarg jata hai aur svarg vala moksh pata hai.[53]
buddh aur sujata, sujata mndir, bodhagaya
  • koorm puran men aya hai ki kee putron ki abhilasha karani chahie jisase ki yadi unamen koee kisi karyavash gaya jay aur shraddh kare to vah apane pitaron ki raksha karata hai aur svayn paramapad pata hai.
  • kalpataroo (tirth, pri. 163) dvara uddhrit matsy puran[54] men aya hai ki gaya pitritirth hai, sarvotkrisht tirth hai aur vahan brahma rahate hain. matsy puran men 'eshtavya bahav: putr:' namak shlok aya hai. gayamahatmy[55] men lagabhag 560 shlok hain. adhyay 105 men samany baten hain ki shvetavarahakalp men gay ne ygy kiya aur usi ke nam par gaya ka namakaran hua.[56] pitar log putron ki abhilasha rakhate hain, kyonki vah putr jo gaya jata hai vah pitaron ko narak jane se bachata hai.[57] gaya men vyakti ko apane pita tatha anyon ko pind dena chahie, vah apane ko bhi bina til ka pind de sakata hai. gaya men shraddh karane se sabhi mahapatak nasht ho jate hain. gaya men putr ya kisi any dvara nam evn gotr ke sath pind pane se shashvat brahm ki prapti hoti hai.[58]

moksh

moksh char prakar ka hota hai (arthath moksh ki utpatti char prakar se hoti hai)—

  • brahmgyan se
  • gayashraddh se
  • gauon ko bhagaye jane par unhen bachane men maran se
  • kurukshetr men nivas karane se, kintu gaya shraddh ka prakar sabase shreshth hai.[59] gaya men shraddh kisi samay bhi kiya ja sakata hai. adhik mas men bhi, apani janm-tithi par bhi, jab brihaspati evn shukr n dikhaee paden tab bhi ya jab brihaspati sinh rashi men hon tab bhi brahma dvara pratishthapit brahmanon ko gaya men samman dena chahie. kurukshetr, vishala, viraja evn gaya ko chhodakar sabhi tirthon men mundan evn upavas karana chahie.[60] snnyasi ko gaya men pindadan nahin karana chahie. use keval apane dand ka pradarshan karana chahie aur use 'vishnupad' par rakhana chahie.[61] sampoorn gaya kshetr panch koson men hai. gayashir ek kos men hai aur tinon lokon ke sabhi tirth in donon men kendrit hain.[62]

gaya men pitri-pind

mahabodhi mndir, bodhagaya, bihar

braj men gaya ki bahut manyata hai, brajavasi gaya men hi pitri-pind ka dan karate hain. gaya men pitri-pind nimn vastuon se diya ja sakata hai; payas (doodh men pakaya hua chaval), paka chaval, jau ka ata, phal, kandamool, til ki khali, mithaee, ghrit ya dahi ya madhu se mishrit gud. gayashraddh men jo vidhi hai, vah hai pindasan banana, pindadan karana, kush par pun: jal chhidakana, (brahmanon ko) dakshina dena evn bhojan dene ki ghoshana ya snkalp karana; kintu pitaron ka avahan nahin hota, digbandh (dishaon se krity ki raksha) nahin hota aur n (ayogy vyaktiyon evn pashuon se) dekhe jane par dosh hi lagata hai. [63] jo log (gaya jaise) tirth par kiye gaye shraddh se utpann poorn phal bhogana chahate hain unhen vishayabhilasha, krodh, lobh chhod dena chahie, brahmachary ka palan karana chahie, keval ek bar khana chahie, prithvi par sona chahie, saty bolana chahie, shuddh rahana chahie aur sabhi jivon ke kalyan ke lie tatpar rahana chahie. prasiddh nadi vaitarani gaya men ayi hai, jo vyakti isamen snan karata hai aur godan karata hai vah apane kul ki 21 pidhiyon ki raksha karata hai. akshayavat ke niche jana chahie aur vahan (gaya ke) brahmanon ko sntusht karana chahie. gaya men koee bhi aisa sthal nahin hai jo pavitr n ho.[64]

ek katha

106ven adhyay men gayasur ki gatha ayi hai. gayasur ne, jo 125 yojan lamba evn 60 yojan chauda tha, kolahal namak parvat par sahastron varshon tak tap kiya. usake tap se pidit evn chintit devata raksha ke lie brahma ke pas gaye. brahma unhen lekar shiv ke pas gaye, jinhonne vishnu ke pas jane ka prastav kiya. brahma, shiv evn devon ne vishnu ki stuti ki aur unhonne prakat hokar kaha ki ve log apane-apane vahanon par chadhakar gayasur ke pas chalen. vishnu ne usase kathin tap ka karan poochha aur kaha ki vah jo varadan chahe mang le. usane var manga ki vah devon, rishiyon, mantron, sannyasiyon adi se adhik pavitr ho jay. devon ne 'tathastu' arthath 'aisa hi ho' 'kaha aur svarg chale gaye. jo bhi log gayasur ko dekhate the ya usake pavitr sharir ka sparsh karate the, ve svarg chale jate the. yam ki rajadhani khali pad gayi aur ve brahma ke pas chale gaye. brahma unhen lekar vishnu ke pas gaye. vishnu ne brahma se usase prarthana karane ko kaha ki vah ygy ke lie apane sharir ko de de. gayasur sannaddh ho gaya aur vah dakshin-pashchim hokar prithvi par is prakar gir pada ki usaka sir kolahal parvat par uttar ki or aur pair dakshin ki or ho gaye. brahma ne samagriyan ekatr kin aur apane man se utpann ritvijon (jinamen 40 ke nam aye hain) ko bhi bulaya aur gayasur ke sharir par ygy kiya. usaka sharir sthir nahin tha, hil raha tha, at: brahma ne yam se gayasur ke sir par apane ghar ki shila ko rakhane ko kaha. yam ne vaisa hi kiya. kintu tab bhi gayasur ka sharir shila ke sath hilata raha. brahma ne shiv evn any devon ko shila par sthir khade hone ko kaha.
mahabodhi mndir, bodhagaya, bihar
unhonne vaisa kiya, kintu tab bhi sharir hilata-dolata raha. tab brahma vishnu ke pas gaye aur unase sharir evn shila ko adig karane ko kaha. is par vishnu ne svayn apani moorti di jo shila par rakhi gayi, kintu tab bhi vah hilati rahi. vishnu us shila par janardan, pundarik evn adi-gadadhar ke tin roopon men baith gaye, brahma panch roopon (prapitamah, pitamah, phalgvish, kedar evn kanakeshvar) men baith gaye, vinayak hathi ke roop men aur soory tin roopon men, lakshmi (sita ke roop men), gauri (mngala ke roop men), gayatri evn sarasvati bhi baith gayin. hari ne pratham gada dvara gayasur ko sthir kar diya, at: hari ko adi gadadhar kaha gaya. gayasur ne poochha- 'main pravnchit kyon kiya gaya hoon? main brahma ke ygy ke lie unhen apana sharir de chuka hoon. kya main vishnu ke shabd par hi sthir nahin ho sakata tha (gada se mujhe kyon pida di ja rahi hai)?' tab devon ne usase varadan mangane ko kaha. usane var manga; 'jab tak prithvi, parvat, soory, chandr evn tare rahen, tab tak brahma, vishnu evn shiv evn any dev shila par rahen. yah tirth mere nam par rahe, sabhi tirth gaya ke madhy men kendrit hon, jo panch koson tak vistrit hai aur sabhi tirth gayashir men bhi rahen jo ek kos vistrit hai aur sabhi logon ka kalyan karen. sabhi dev yahan vyakt roopon (moortiyon) men evn avyakt roopon (padachihn adi) men achanak nasht ho jaen.' devon ne 'tathastu' kaha. isake uparant brahma ne ritvijon ko panch koson vala gaya-nagar, 55 ganv, susajjit ghar, kalpavriksh evn kamadhenu, dugdh ki ek nadi, sone ke koop, paryapt bhojan adi saman diye, kintu aisi vyavastha kar di ki ve kisi se kuchh mangen nahin. kintu lobhi brahmanon ne dharmarany men dharm ke lie ygy kiya aur usaki dakshina mangi. brahman ne vahan akar unhen shap diya aur unase sab kuchh chhin liya. jab brahmanon ne vilap kiya ki unase sab kuchh chhin liya gaya aur ab unhen jivika ke lie kuchh chahie, tab brahma ne kaha ki ve gaya-yatriyon ke dan par jienge aur jo log unhen sammanit karenge ve mano unhen (brahma ko) hi sammanit karenge.

shila ki gatha

bodhagaya ka bazar, bihar

107ven adhyay men us shila ki gatha hai jo gayasur ke sir par use sthir karane ke lie rakhi gayi thi. dharm ki dharmavrata namak kanya thi. usake gunon ke anuroop dharm ko koee var nahin mil raha tha, at: unhonne use tap karane ko kaha. dharmavrata ne sahastron varshon tak keval vayu pikar kathin tap kiya. marichi ne, jo brahma ke manas putr the, use dekha aur apani patni banane ki ichchha prakat ki. dharmavrata ne isake lie unhen pita dharm se prarthana karane ko kaha. marichi ne vaisa hi kiya aur dharm ne apani kanya marichi ko de di. marichi use lekar apane ashram men gaye aur usase ek sau putr utpann kiye. ek bar marichi shramit hokar so gaye aur dharmavrata se pair dabane ko kaha. jab vah pair daba rahi thi to usake shvasur brahma vahan aye. vah apane pati ka pair dabana chhodakar unake pita ki avabhagat men uth padi. isi bich men marichi uth pade aur apani patni ko vahan n dekhakar use shila ban jane ka shap de diya. kyonki pair dabana chhodakar usane unaki agya ka ullnghan jo kar diya tha. vah nirdosh thi at: krodhit hokar shap dena chaha, kintu rookakar usane kaha- 'mahadev tumhen shap denge.' usane garhapaty agni men khade hokar tap kiya aur marichi ne bhi vaisa hi kiya. indr ke sath sada ki bhanti devagan vichalit ho gaye aur ve vishnu ke pas gaye. vishnu ne dharmavrata se var mangane ko kaha. usane pati ke shap ko mitane ka var manga. devon ne kaha ki marichi aise mahanh rishi ka shap nahin toot sakata, at: vah koee doosara var mange. is par usane kaha ki vah sabhi nadiyon, rishiyon, devon se adhik pavitr ho jay, sabhi tirth us shila par sthir ho jayen, sabhi vyakti jo us shila ke tirthon men snan karen ya pindadan evn shraddh karen, brahmalok chale jayen aur gnga ke saman sabhi pavitr nadiyan usamen avasthit hon. devon ne usaki bat man li aur kaha ki vah gayasur ke sir par sthir hogi aur ham sabhi us par khade honge. [65]

shila gayasur ke sir par rakhi gayi aur is prakar do ati punit vastuon ka snyog hua, jis par brahma ne ashvamedh kiya aur jab dev arpit ki gee ahutiyon men se apana bhag lene ke lie aye to shila ne vishnu evn any logon se kaha- pran kijie ki ap log shila par avasthit rahenge aur pitaron ko mukti denge.
gaya havaee adda, gaya
dev man gaye aur akritiyon evn padachihnon ke roop men shila par avasthit ho gaye. shila asur ke sir ke prishth bhag men rakhi gayi thi at: us parvat ko 'mundaprishth' kaha gaya, jisane pitaron ko brahmalok diya. isake uparant prabhas namak parvat ka, prabhas parvat evn phalgu ke milan-sthal ke samip ramatirth, bharat ke ashram ka, yamaraj evn dharmaraj tatha shyam evn shabal namak yam ke kutton ko di jane vali bali ka, shila ki vam disha ke pas avasthit udyant parvat ka, agatsy kund ka tatha grindhrakoot parvat, chyavan ke ashram, punapuna nadi, kraunchapad evn bhasmakoot par sthit janardan ka varnan aya hai.

gayasur ki gatha se daau. mitr evn pashchatkalin lekhakon ke man men duvidhaen utpann ho gayi hain. daau. rajendralal mitr ne gayasur ki gatha ko chitr-vichitr evn moorkhatapoorn mana hai. unaka kahana hai ki vah rakshas ya dusht pishach nahin hai, pratyut ek bhakt vaishnav hai.[66] gayasur ki gatha vilakshan nahin hai. puranon men aisi gathaen hain jo adhunik logon ko vyarth evn kalpit lagengi. prahlad ban[67] evn bali[68] aise asur the, jo rakshas ya pishach ke vyavahar se door bhakt vyakti the, kintu unhonne devon se yuddh avashy kiya tha. koorm puran[69] men varnan aya hai ki prahlad ne nrisinh se yuddh kiya tha; padm puran [70] men aya hai ki usane sarvapratham vishnu se yuddh kiya aur vaishnavi tanu men pravesh kiya[71]; vaman puran[72] ne usake nar-narayan ke sath hue yuddh ka ullekh kiya hai. pali granthon[73] men vah 'paharad' evn 'asurind'[74] kaha gaya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. vayupuran, adhyay 105-112
  2. rigved 10.63.17 evn 10.64.17
  3. daivi purohit gay dvara prashnsit hue
  4. atharvaved, 1.14.4
  5. rigved 7.99.4, 7.104.24—25 evn atharvaved 4.23.5
  6. nirookt 12.19
  7. rigved 1.22.17
  8. vishnu
  9. tredha nidhatte padamh. prithivyamantarikshe diviti shakapooni:. samarohane gayashirasi-iti aurnavabh:. nirookt (12.19).
  10. adhikansh snskrit-vidvanh nirookt ko kam-se-kam ee.poo. panchavin shatabdi ka manate hain. aurnavabh nirookt ke poorvakalin hain. vintaranitj ka histri aauph snskrit litarechar, bhag 1, pri0 69, angrezi snskaran. gayashirsh ke vastavik sthal evn vistar ke vishay men vidvanh ekamat nahin hain. daau. rajendralal mitr krit 'buddh-gaya' (pri. 19), daau. barooa (bhag 1,pri. 246) evn saiked buk aauph di eest, jild 13, pri. 134, jahan kaningham ne 'gayasis' ko bahmayoni mana hai
  11. mahabharat, vanaparv 87.11 evn 95.9
  12. vishnudharmasootr 85.4, yahan 'gayashirsh' shabd aya hai
  13. vishnu puran 22.20, jahan ise brahma ki poorv vedi kaha gaya hai
  14. mahavagg 1.21.1, jahan yah aya hai ki uravela men rahakar buddh sahastron bhikshuon ke sath gayasis arthath gayashirsh men gaye
  15. bhavishy ke buddh
  16. vishnudharmasootr 85.40
  17. maharauli dehali se 9 mil uttar, ke lauh-stambh ke lekh ka antim shlok yon hai- 'tenayn pranidhay bhoomipatina.... pranshurvishnupade girau bhagavato vishnordhvaj: sthapit:' (guptabhilekh, sn. 32, pri. 149). yah stambhabhilekh kisi chandr namak raja ka hai. isase prakat hota hai ki 'vishnupad' namak koee parvat tha. kintu yah nahin prakat hota ki isake pas koee 'gayashirash' namak sthal tha. at: 'vishnupad' evn 'gayashir' sath-sath gaya ki or snket karate hain. abhilekh men koee tithi nahin hai, kintu isake aksharon se prakat hota hai ki yah samudragupt ke kal ke as-pas ka hai. at: vishnupad chauthi shatabdi men dehali ke pas ke kisi parvat par raha hoga. usi samay ya usake poorv men yah varnan aya hai ki vipasha nadi ke dakshin men ek vishnupad tha.
  18. pakshiyon ke svar se gnjit
  19. mahabharat, vanaparv 84.82-103 evn 95.9-21
  20. mahabharat, vanaparv adhyay 82
  21. shlok 20-40
  22. sthanutirth
  23. mahabharat, vanaparv (84.1.89)
  24. padm puran (adi, 38.2-19)
  25. yatha 84.59-64 evn 87.6-7
  26. yatha 85.82-103 evn 87.8-12
  27. mahabharat (anushasan parv 25.42)
  28. vayu puran (109.15)
  29. mahabharat, vanaparv adhyay 84 evn 95
  30. agni puran adhyay 114-116
  31. vayu puran adhyay 105-111
  32. padm puran adi, 38.2-21
  33. garud puran 1, adhyay 82-86
  34. narad puran uttar, adhyay 44-47
  35. mahabharat van 82.81
  36. padm. adi, 38.13
  37. lagabhag-13 mil
  38. maunadityasahastralingakamalardhaginnanarayan,-- dvisomeshvaraphalgunathavijayadityahvayanan kriti. s prasadamachikaradh divishadan kedaradevasy ch, khyatasyottaramanasasy khanann satrn tatha chakshaye॥ indiyan aintikveri, jild 16, pri. 63
  39. (manas sarovar)
  40. vayu puran 77.108, aur yah shlok kalpataroo dvara 1110 ee. men uddhrit kiya gaya hai, pun: vayu puran (82.21) evn agni puran (115.10)
  41. vayu puran, adhyay 105-112
  42. uttar, adhyay 44-47
  43. vayu puran 82.20-24
  44. (bhojan, ahar)
  45. eshtavya bahav: putra yadhekopi gayan vrajeth. yajet vashvamedhen niln va vrishamutsujeth॥ mahanadi ch tatraiv tatha gayashiro nrip. yatrasau kortyate viprairakshayyakarano vat:॥ yatr dattn pitribhyonnamakshayyn bhavati prabho. sa ch puchyajala tatr phalgunama mahanadi॥ mahabharat, vanaparv (87.10-12); rajarshina punyakrita gayenanupamadyute. nago gayashiro yatr punya chaiv mahanadi॥...rishiygyen mahata yatrakshayavato mahan. akshaye devayajane akshayn yatr vai phalamh॥ vanaparv aur eshtavya... namak shlok ke lie vishnudharmasootr (85. antim shlok), matsy puran (22.6), vayu puran (105.10), koorm puran (2.35.12), padm puran padm puran (1.38.17 evn 5.11.62) tatha naradiy puran (uttar 44.5-6) (vanaparv 87.10-12)
  46. vanaparv (adhyay 87)
  47. vanaparv adhyay 95
  48. yah gyatavy hai ki ramayan (1.32.7) ke anusar dharmarany ki snsthapana brahma ke pautr, kush ke putr asoortaray (ya amoortaray) dvara huee thi.
  49. vasishthadharmasootr (111.42)
  50. vishnudharmasootr (85.65-67)
  51. shnkh 14.27-28
  52. yah kuchh ashcharyajanak hai ki daau. barooa (gaya evn buddhagaya, jild 1, pri. 66) ne shnkh ke shlok 'tirthe vamarakantake ' men 'vamarakantak' tirth padha hai n ki 'va' ko prithakh kar 'amarakantak'!
  53. agni puran 115.46-47
  54. matsy puran 22.4-6
  55. vayupuran, adhyay 105-112
  56. vayu. (105.7-8) evn agn. (114.41)-- 'gayopi chakarodyarg bahvannn bahudakshinamh. gayapuri ten namna, tristhalisetu (pri. 340-341) men yah pady uddhrit hai.
  57. yahin par "eshtavya bahav: putra yadyekopi gayan vrajeth.... utsrijeth" (vayu puran 105.10) namak shlok aya hai. tristhali (pri. 319) men ek shlok uddhrit kiya hai jisamen yogy putr ki paribhasha di huee hai-- 'jivato vakyakaranath..... tribhi: putrasy putrata॥'
  58. atmajovanyajo vapi gayabhoomau yada yada. yannamna patayetpindn tannayedh brahm shashvatamh॥ namagotre samuchchary pindapatanabhishyate. (vayu. 105.14-15); adha pad 'yannamna... shashvatamh' agni puran (116.21) men bhi aya hai.
  59. brahmgyann gayashraddhn gograhe marann tatha. vas: pusan kurukshetre muktiresha chaturvidha॥ brahmgyanen kin kary... yadi putro gayan brajet॥ gayayan sarvakaleshu pindn vadyadvichakshan:. vayu puran (105.16-18). agni puran (115.8) 'n kaladi gayatirthe dadyatpindanshch nityash:.' naradiy puran (uttar, 44.20), agni puran (115.3-4 evn 5-6) evn vaman puran (33.8)
  60. mundann chopavasashch... virajan gayamh॥ vayu puran 105.25
  61. dandn pradarshayedh bhikshurgayan gatva n pindad:. dandn nyasy vishnupade pitribhi: sahamuchyate॥ vayu puran 105.26, naradiy puran evn tirthaprakash (pri. 390)
  62. pnchakoshn gayakshetrn koshamekn gayashir:. tanmadhye sarvatirthani trailokye yani santi vai॥ vayu puran (105.29-30 evn 106.653; tristhali.,pri. 335; tirthapr.,pri. 391). aur agni puran (115.42) evn naradiy puran (uttar, 44.16). prasiddh tirthon ke lie panch koson ka vistar manana ek niyam-sa ho gaya hai.
  63. pindasann pindadann pun: pratyavanejanamh. dakshina channasnkalpastirthashraddheshvayn vidhi:॥ navahann n digbandho n dosho drishtisambhav:.... anyatravahita: kale pitaro yantyamun prati. tirthe sada vasantyete tasmadavahann n hi॥ vayu puran (105.37-39).'navahann...vidhi:' phir se duharaya gaya hai (vayu puran 110.28-29)
  64. gayayan n hi tatsthann yatr tirth n vidyate. vayu puran 105.46, agni puran 116.28
  65. agni puran (114.8-22) men bhi shila ki gatha snkshep men kahi gayi hai. bahut-se shabd ve hi hain jo vayu puran men paye jate hain.
  66. bodhagaya, pri. 15-16
  67. shiv ka bhakt
  68. jo shreshth raja evn vishnu-bhakt tha
  69. koorm puran 1.16.59-60 evn 91-92
  70. padm puran bhoomikhand, 1.8
  71. is puran ne use mahabhagavat kaha hai
  72. vaman puran adhyay 7-8
  73. anguttaranikay, bhag 4, pri. 197-204
  74. asurendr

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