ग्रीष्म ऋतु  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(गर्मी se punarnirdeshit)
grishm ritu
grishm ritu
vivaran grishm ritu bharat ki pramukh 4 rituon men se ek ritu hai. bharatiy ganana ke anusar jyeshth-ashadh ke mahinon men grishm ritu hoti hai. grishm ritu men manoosan ke agaman ke poorv pashchimi tatiy maidani bhagon men bhi kuchh varsha prapt hoti hai, jise 'maingon shavar' kaha jata hai.
samay jyeshth-ashadh (mee-joon)
mausam uttar pashchimi bharat ke shushk bhagon men is ritu men chalane vali garm evn shushk havaon ko 'loo' kaha jata hai. rajasthan, pnjab, hariyana tatha pashchimi uttar pradesh men prayah sham ke samay dhool bhari andhiyan chalati hain.
chay varsha grishm ritu men asam tatha pashchim bngal rajyon men bhi tivr evn ardr havaen chalane lagati hain, jinase garaj ke sath varsha ho jati hai. yah varsha asam men 'chay varsha' kahalati hai.
any janakari grishm ritu men uttar-pashchimi bharat men sthit thar marusthal par milane vala nyoonatam vayudab kshetr badhakar sampoorn chhota nagapur pathar ko bhi avrit kar leta hai, jisake karan sthaniy evn sagariy ardr havaon ka parisncharan is or prarambh ho jata hai aur sthaniy prabal toophanon ka janm hota hai.

grishm ritu (angrezi: Summer Season) bharat ki pramukh 4 rituon men se ek ritu hai. bharatiy ganana ke anusar jyeshth-ashadh ke mahinon men grishm ritu hoti hai. grishm ritu men manoosan ke agaman ke poorv pashchimi tatiy maidani bhagon men bhi kuchh varsha prapt hoti hai, jise 'maingon shavar' kaha jata hai. isake atirikt asam tatha pashchim bngal rajyon men bhi tivr evn ardr havaen chalane lagati hain, jinase garaj ke sath varsha ho jati hai. yah varsha asam men 'chay varsha' kahalati hai. in havaon ko 'naravestar' athava 'kal vaishakhi' ke nam se jana jata hai. yah varsha poorv-manasoon varsha kahalati hai.

grishm ritu ka samay

bharat men samanyataya 15 march se 15 joon tak grishm mani jati hai. is samay tak soory bhoomadhy rekha se kark rekha ki or badhata hai, jisase sampoorn desh men tapaman men vriddhi hone lagati hai. is samay soory ke kark rekha ki or agrasar hone ke sath hi tapaman ka adhikatam bindu bhi kramashah dakshin se uttar ki or badhata jata hai aur mee ke ant men desh ke uttari-pashchimi bhag men yah 480 sen.ge. tak pahunch jata hai. is samay uttari bharat adhikatam tapaman tatha nyoonatam vayudab ke kshetr men parivartit hone lagata hai. uttar-pashchimi bharat men sthit thar marusthal par milane vala nyoonatam vayudab kshetr badhakar sampoorn chhota nagapur pathar ko bhi avrit kar leta hai, jisake karan sthaniy evn sagariy ardr havaon ka parisncharan is or prarambh ho jata hai aur sthaniy prabal toophanon ka janm hota hai. moosaladhar varsha evn olon ke girane yahan tivr gati vale prachand toophan bhi ban jate hain, jinaka karan sthaliy garm evn shushk vayu ka sagariy ardr vayu se milana hai.

mausam

uttar pashchimi bharat ke shushk bhagon men is samay chalane vali garm evn shushk havaon ko 'loo' kaha jata hai. rajasthan, pnjab, hariyana tatha pashchimi uttar pradesh men prayah sham ke samay dhool bhari andhiyan ati hai, jinake karan drishyata tak kam ho jati hai. dhool ki prakriti evn rng ke adhar par inhen kali athava pili andhiyan kaha jata hai. samudrik prabhav ke karan dakshin bharat men in garm pavanon tatha andhiyon ka abhav paya jata hai.

sahityik ullekh

kal-kram se basant ritu ke bad grishm ritu ati hai. is ritu ke prarambh hote hi basant ki komalata aur madakata samapt ho jati hai aur mausam garm hone lagata hai. dhire-dhire garmi itani badh jati hai ki prat: 8 baje ke bad hi ghar se bahar nikalana kathin ho jata hai. sharir pasine se nahane lagata hai, pyas se gala sookhata rahata hai, sadakon par kolatar pighal jata hai, subah se hi loo chalane lagati hai, kabhi–kabhi to rat ko bhi loo chalati hai. garmi ki dopahar men sari srishti tadap uthati hai, chhaya bhi dhoondhati hai.
kavi bihari kahate hain-
baithi rahi ati sahan ban, paithi sadan tan manh,
dekhi dupahari jeth ki, chhaahau chahati chhanh .

ek aur dohe men kavi bihari kahate hain ki grishm ki dopahari men garmi se vyakul prani vair-virodh ki bhavana ko bhool jate hain. paraspar virodh bhav vale jantu ek sath pade rahate hain. unhen dekhakar aisa pratit hota hai mano yah snsar koee tapovan men rahane vale praniyon men kisi ke prati durbhavana nahin hotin. bihari ka doha is prakar hai-

kahalane ekat vasat, ahi mayoor mrig-bagh.
jagat tapovan son kiyo, diragh dagh nidagh.

garmi men din lambe aur raten chhoti hoti hain. dopahar ka bhojan karane par sone v aram karane ki tabiyat hoti hai. pakki sadakon ka tarakol pighal jata hai. sadaken tave ke saman tap jati hain-
barasa raha hai, ravi anal bhootal tava-sa jal raha.
hai chal raha san-san pavan, tan se pasina dhal raha॥

retile pradeshon jaise rajasthan v hariyana men ret ud-udakar ankhon men padati hai. jab tej andhi ati hai to sarvanash ka drishy upasthit ho jata hai. dhani log is bhaynkar garmi ke prakop se bachane ke liye pahadon par jate hain. kuchh log gharon men pnkhe aur koolar lagakar garmi ko door bhagate hain.[1]

pauranik ullekh

bhagavat puran men grishm ritu men krishn dvara kaliya nag ke daman ki katha ati hai jisako uparokt adhar par samajha ja sakata hai. bhagavat puran ka dvitiy skandh srishti se sambandhit hai jisaki vyakhya apekshit hai. shatapath brahman men grishm ka stanayan/garjan se tadatmy kaha gaya hai jisaki vyakhya apekshit hai.

jaiminiy brahman[2] men vakh ya agni ko grishm kaha gaya hai.

taittiriy snhita men grishm ritu yav prapt karati hai. taittiriy brahman men grishm men rudron ki stuti ka nirdesh hai. taittariy snhita men rituon evn mason ke nam bataye gaye hain. jaise- basnt ritu ke do mas- madhu madhav, grishm ritu ke shukr-shuchi, varsha ke nabh aur nabhasy, sharad ke ish oorj, hemant ke sah sahasy aur shishir ritu ke do mah tapas aur tapasy bataye gaye hain.

charak snhita men kaha gaya hai- shishir ritu uttam balavali, vasant ritu madhyam balavali aur grishm ritu daurbalyavali hoti hai. grishm ritu men garam jalavayu pitt ekatr karati hai. prakriti men hone vale parivartan sharir ko prabhavit karate hain. isalie vyakti ko sadharan roop se bhojan tatha achar-vyavahar ke sath prakriti aur usake parivartanon ke sath samnjasy sthapit karana chahie. tapaman badhane par pitt uttejit hota hai tatha sharir men jama ho jata hai. vyadhiyon se bachav ke lie ritu ke anukool ahar tatha gatividhiyon ka palan jaroori hai.[3]

hindi kavy men grishm ritu

grishm ka atap badhate hi chahal–pahal kam ho jati hai. vrikshon ke sath hamari nikatata badh jati hai‚ vriksh hamen jivanadata se pratit hone lagate hain. log gharon men kaid hone lagate hain. aise men grishm ki anubhooti ka ek bada hissa to pasina banakar hi nikal jata hai phir bhi kuchh rah jata hai jise kavitaon ke madhyam se abhivyakt kiya jata raha hai. vasant aur pavas ki tulana men grishm par kam kavitaen likhi gee hain. grishm ki abhivyakti sabhi prakar ki kavitaon men milati hai chahe ve bal kavitaen ho ya praudh kavitaen. adhikanshatah grishm se utpann sabhi sthitiyon ko pratikon men prayukt kiya hai parantu anek kavitaon men abhidha men bhi inaka prayog dekhane ko milata hai. ritikal men to ritu varnan par n jane kitana shreshth aur vishad sahity likha gaya hai. adhunik sahity men bhi grishm par kendrit kavitaen khoob likhi ja rahi hain. kuchh kavitaen jinamen grishm ke vividh kshanon ki anubhooti kaviyon ne ki hai. sooraj hamari prithvi par jivan banae rakhane ke lie anivary hai parantu usaka atishay tap hamare man men jhunjhalahat hi paida karata hai. daau. ramadarash mishr ki kavitaon men grishm ke soory ko kashton ko pratik banakar prastut kiya gaya hai-

kisane baitha diya hai mere kndhe par sooraj
ek jalata hua asahy bojh kab se dho raha hoon

hamare jivan men dukh aur sukh ate jate rahate hain yahi jivan hai‚ dukh ke samay ham ghabaraen nahin aur sukh ke samay abhimani n ho jaen isalie yah parivartan hota rahata hai. grishm ke atap ke uparant tapt vyom ke hriday par meghon ki mala sushobhit ho jati hai. yah ashavadi drishti grishm ka atap hamen bhi de jata hai ki ham ashavadi rahen. sooryakant tripathi nirala ke shabdon men-

jala hai jivan yah
atap men dirghakal
sookhi bhoomi‚ sookhe taru
sookhe sikt al bal
band hua gunj‚ dhooli
dhoosar ho ge kunj
kintu padi vyom–ur
bandhu‚ nil megh–mal.[3]

ritikalin sahity men ullekh

ritikalin kaviyon men senapati ka grishm ritu varnan atyant prasiddh hai–

vrish ko tarani tej sahasaun kiran kari
jvalan ke jal bikaral barakhat hain.

tachati dharani, jag jarat jharani, siri
chhanh ko pakari pnthi pnchhi biramat hain॥

senapati naiku dupahari ke dharat, hot
dhamaka visham, jo napat kharakat hain.

mere jan paunon siri thaur kau pakari konon
ghari ek baithi kahoon ghamain bitavat hain॥[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. grishm (garmi) ritu (hindi) anush (blaaug). abhigaman tithi: 23 janavari, 2018.
  2. jaiminiy brahman 2.51
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 grishm ritu (hindi) kibord ke patrakar. abhigaman tithi: 25 janavari, 2018.

bahari kadiyan

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