गाँधी युग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gandhi yug
mahatma gandhi
vivaran 'rashtrapita' ki upadhi se sammanit mahatma gandhi bharatiy rajanitik mnch par 1919 ee. se 1948 ee. tak chhae rahe. gandhiji ke is karyakal ko 'bharatiy itihas' men 'gandhi yug' ke nam se jana jata hai.
mukhy andolan khilafat andolan, asahayog andolan, baradoli satyagrah, savinay avgya andolan, bharat chhodo andolan
mukhy ghatanaen kakori kand, bhagat sinh, sukhadev aur rajaguru ki shahadat, saiman kamishan ka agaman, dandi march, jaliyanvala bag hatyakand, gandhi-iravin samajhauta, sampradayik nirnay, agast prastav, shimala sammelan, mauntabetan yojana.
sambandhit lekh sabaramati ashram, kastooraba gandhi, gandhi bhavan, dak tikaton men mahatma gandhi, mahatma gandhi ke anamol vachan.
any janakari bharat ki azadi ke lie sada sngharsharat rahane vale mahatma gandhi inglaind se bairistari ki padhaee samapt karane ke bad bharat aye the. yahan se 1893 ee. men afrika gaye or vahan par apane 20 varsh ke pravas ke dauran british sarakar ki rng-bhed ki niti ke viruddh ladaee ladate rahe.

'bapoo' evn 'rashtrapita' ki upadhiyon se sammanit mahatma gandhi apane saty, ahinsa evn satyagrah ke sadhanon se bharatiy rajanitik mnch par 1919 ee. se 1948 ee. tak chhae rahe. gandhi ji ke is karyakal ko bharatiy itihas men gandhi yug ke nam se jana jata hai. je. ech. homs ne gandhi ji ke bare men kaha ki- "gandhi ji ki ganana vigat yugon ke mahanh vyaktiyon men ki ja sakati hai. ve alfred, vashingatan tatha laifte ki tarah ek mahanh rashtr nirmata the. unhonne bilabar fors, gairisan aur linkan ki bhanti bharat ko dasata se mukt karane ka mahattvapoorn kary kiya. ve sent fransis evn taaulastay ki ahinsa ke upadeshak aur buddh, eesa tatha jarathrust ki tarah adhyatmik neta the." gandhi ji bharat ke un kuchh chamakate hue sitaron men se ek the, jinhonne desh ki svatntrata evn rashtriy ekata ke lie apana poora jivan samarpit kar diya. inglaind se bairistari ki padhaee samapt karane ke bad gandhi ji bharat aye the. yahan se 1893 ee. men afrika gaye or vahan par apane 20 varsh ke pravas ke dauran british sarakar ki rng-bhed ki niti ke viruddh ladaee ladate rahe. yahin par gandhi ji ne sarvapratham 'satyagrah andolan' chalaya tha.

gandhi-gokhale bhent

janavari, 1915 ee. men gandhi ji bharat aye aur yahan par unaka sampark gopal krishn gokhale se hua, jinhen unhonne apana rajanitik guru banaya. gokhale ke prabhav men akar hi gandhi ji ne apane ko bharat ki sakriy rajaniti se jod liya. gandhi ji ke bharatiy rajaniti men pravesh ke samay british sarakar pratham vishv yuddh (1914-1918 ee.) men phnsi thi. gandhi ji ne sarakar ko poorn sahayog diya, kyonki vah yah manakar chal rahe the ki british sarakar yuddh ki samapti par bharatiyon ko sahayog ke pratiphal ke roop men svarajy de degi. gandhi ji ne logon ko sena men bharti hone ke lie protsahit kiya. isake phalasvaroop kuchh log unhen "bharti karane vala sarjent" bhi kahane lage the.

nil ki kheti

1916 ee. men gandhi ji ne ahamadabad ke pas 'sabaramati ashram' ki sthapana ki aur aprail, 1917 men bihar men sthit champaran zile men kisanon par kiye ja rahe atyachar ke khilaf andolan chalaya. dakshin afrika men gandhi ji ke sngharsh ki kahani sunakar champaran (bihar) ke anek kisanon, jinamen ramachandr shukl pramukh the, ne gandhi ji ko amntrit kiya. yahan nil ke kheton men kary karane vale kisanon par yooropiy nilahe bahut adhik atyachar kar rahe the. unhen zamin ke kam se kam 3/20 bhag par nil ki kheti karana tatha nilahon dvara tay damon par use bechana padata tha. isi tarah ki paristhitiyon se 1859-1860 ee. ke nil andolan men bngal ke kisanon ne yooropiy bagan malikon se mukti payi thi. gandhi ji, baboo rajendr prasad, majaharool-hak, je. bi. kripalani, narahari parikh aur mahadev desaee ke sath 1917 ee. men champaran pahunche aur kisanon ki sthiti ki janch karane lage. vivash hokar sarakar ko ek janch samiti niyukt karani padi, jisake ek sadasy svny gandhi ji the. gandhi ji ke prayatnon se kisanon ki samasyaon men kami ayi. 1918 ee. men gujarat ke kheda zila men 'kar nahin andolan' chalaya gaya. isi varsh gandhi ji ne ahamadabad ke mazadooron aur mil malikon ke vivad men hastakshep kar mazadooron ki mazadoori men 35% ki vriddhi karayi. apani rajaniti ke prarambhik dinon men gandhi ji ne british sarakar ke snvaidhanik sudharon ki prakriya ki prashnsa ki, par 1919 ee. ke jaliyanvala bag hatyakand ke bad sarakar ke sndarbh men gandhi ji ka poora drishtikon badal gaya.

khilafat andolan

'khilafat andolan' (1919-1922 ee.) ka sootrapat bharatiy muslimon ke ek bahusnkhyak varg ne rashtriy star par kiya. gandhi ji ne is andolan ko hindoo tatha muslim ekata ke liy upayukt samajha aur muslimon ke prati apani sahanubhooti prakat ki. mahatma gandhi ne 1919 ee. men 'akhil bharatiy khilafat samiti' ka adhiveshan apani adhyakshata men kiya. unake kahane par hi asahayog evn svadeshi ki niti ko apanaya gaya. 1918-1919 ee. ke madhy bharat men 'khilafat andolan' maulana muhammad ali, shaukat ali evn abul kalam azad ke sahayog se zor pakadata chala gaya.

asahayog andolan

'asahayog andolan' ka snchalan 'svaraj' ki mang ko lekar kiya gaya. isaka uddeshy sarakar ke sath sahayog n karake karyavahi men badha upasthiti karana tha. sitambar, 1920 ee. men 'asahayog andolan' ke karyakram par vichar karane ke lie kalakatta men kangres mahasamiti ke adhiveshan ka ayojan kiya gaya. is adhiveshan ki adhyakshata lala lajapat ray ne ki. isi adhiveshan men kangres ne pahali bar bharat men videshi shasan ke viruddh karyavahi karane, vidhan parishadon ka bahishkar karane tatha 'asahayog savinay avgya andolan' ko prarambh karane ka nirnay liya. is adhiveshan men gandhi ji ne prastav pesh karate hue kaha ki- "angrez sarakar shaitan hai, jisake sath sahayog sambhav nahin hai. angrezi sarakar ko apani bhoolon par koee duahkh nahin hai, atah ham kaise svikar kar sakate hain ki navin vyavasthapikaen hamare svarajy ka marg prashast karengi. svarajy ki prapti ke lie hamare dvara pragatishil ahinsatmak asahayog ki niti apanayi jani chahie." gandhi ji ke is prastav ka virodh karate hue eni besent ne kaha ki- "yah prastav bharatiy svatantrata ko sabase bada dhakka hai."

svarajy parti ki sthapana

'svarajy parti' ki sthapana 1 janavari, 1923 ee. men parivartanavadiyon ka netritv karate hue chitarnjan das aur pndit motilal neharoo ne vitthalabhaee patel, madan mohan malaviy aur jayakar ke sath milakar ilahabad men ki. is parti ki sthapana kangres ke khilaf ki gee thi. isake adhyaksh chitarnjan das tatha sachiv motilal neharoo banaye ge the. svarajy parti ke mukhy uddeshy nimnalikhit the-

  1. shighr-atishighr dominiyan stets prapt karana.
  2. poorn prantiy svayattata prapt karana.
  3. sarakari karyon men badha utpann karana.

svarajyavadiyon ne vidhan mandalon ke chunav ladane v vidhanamandalon men pahunchakar sarakar ki alochana karane ki rananiti banaee. svarajyavadiyon ko vishvas tha ki ve shantipoorn upayon se chunav men bhag lekar apane adhik se adhik sadasyon ko kaunsil men bhejakar us par apana niyntran sthapit kar lenge.

varasad andolan

'varasad andolan' (1923-1924 ee.) ka snchalan saradar vallabh bhaee patel ke netritv men gujarat men kiya gaya tha. angrez british sarakar dvara lagaye ge 'dakaiti kar' ke virodh men is andolan ka snchalan kiya gaya tha.

vayakom satyagrah

'vayakom satyagrah' (1924-1925 ee.) ek prakar ka gandhivadi andolan tha. is andolan ka netritv ti. ke. madhavan, ke. kelappan tatha ke. pi. keshavamenan ne kiya. yah andolan travanakor ke ek mandir ke pas vali sadak ke upayog se sambandhit tha.

krantikari andolan ka doosara charan

aktoobar, 1924 ee. men sabhi krantikari dalon dvara lakhanoo men ek sammelan ayojit kiya gaya. is sammelan men shachindranath sanyal, jagadish chandr chatarji aur ram prasad bismil adi shamil hue. naye netaon men bhagat sinh, shiv varma, sukhadev, bhagavati charan bohara aur chandrashekhar azad adi pramukh the.

kakori kand

1924 ee. men 'hindustan ripablikan esosieshin' ki sthapana huee. isake mukhy karyakarta shachindranath sanyal, ram prasad bismil, yogesh chandr chatarji, ashafakulla khan tatha roshan sinh adi the. uttar pradesh ke krantikariyon ne 9 agast, 1925 ee. ko kakori jane vali gadi men loot-pat ki. is ghatana ko kalantar men 'kakori kand' ke nam se jana gaya. is kand ke mukhy abhiyukt ram prasad bismil, ashafakulla khan, shachindr bakhshi, rajendr lahidi, chandrashekhar azad evn bhagat sinh adi the. in netaon par do varsh tak mukadama chalane ke bad ram prasad bismil aur ashafakulla khan ko phansi tatha bakhshi ko ajivan karavas ki saza mili. chandrashekhar azad ke netritv men sitambar, 1928 ee. ko dilli ke firozashah kotala maidan men 'hindustan soshilist ripablikan esosieshan' ki sthapana huee, jisaka uddeshy bharat men ek 'samajavadi ganatntr' ki sthapana karana tha.

bhagat sinh, sukhadev aur rajaguru ki shahadat

30 aktoobar, 1928 ee. ko lahaur se 'saiman kamishan' ke viruddh pradarshan karate samay pulis lathi charj men ghayal ho jane se lala lajapat ray ki bad men mrityu ho gayi. mrityu ka badala lene ke lie bhagat sinh ke netritv men pnjab ke krantikariyon ne 17 disambar, 1928 ko lahaur ke tatkalin sahayak pulis kaptan saaundars ki goli marakar hatya kar di. 'pablik sephti bil' pas hone ke virodh men 8 aprail, 1929 ee. ko batukeshvar datt evn bhagat sinh ne 'sentral lejisletiv asembali' men khali benchon par bam phenka. is bam kand ka uddeshy kisi ki hatya karana nahin tha., ve to fransisi kratikariyon ke us kathan ko dohara bhar rahe the ki 'baharon ko koee bat sunane ke lie adhik kolahal ki avashyakata padati hai.' bhagat sinh aur batukeshvar datt ko choonki is bam ghatana ke karan phansi nahin di ja sakati thi, isalie unhen 'saaundars hatya kand' evn 'lahaur shadyntr' se jod diya gaya. 23 march, 1931 ee. ko bhagat sinh, sukhadev aur rajaguru ko phansi par lataka diya gaya. subhashachandr bos ne bhagat sinh ke bare men kaha ki- "bhagat sinh zindabad aur inkalab zindabad ka ek hi arth hai."

bngal ke prasiddh krantikari soory sen, jisane aprail, 1930 ee. ko chataganv ke shastragar par akraman kiya tha, ko 12 janavari, 1934 ee. ko phansi di gee. 1935 ee. ke 'bharat sarakar adhiniyam' ke parit hone ke bad krantikari gatividhiyon men kuchh kami ayi, parantu 1940 ee. ke bad ye gatividhiyan punah zor pakadane lagin. gandhi ji ne bhagat sinh ke bare men likha ki "hamare mastak bhagat sinh ki deshabhakti, sahas tatha bharatiy janata ke prati prem tatha balidan ke age jhuk jate hain." bharatiy rashtriy kangres ne 18 agast, 1929 ee. ko sampoorn bharat men 'rajanitik piditon ka din' manaya. is charan men krantikari netaon ka jhukav kuchh-kuchh samajavad ki or ho raha tha. chandrashekhar azad ne 1928 ee. men 'hindustan ripablikan esosieshan' ka nam badal kar 'hindustan soshalist ripablikan esosieshan' rakh diya. isi samay kranti amar rahe ka nara pahali bar lagaya gaya.

pramukh shadayntron ke charchit mamale
mamale varsh vishay
'peshavar shadayntr mamala 1922-1924 ee. soviyat sngh se bharat ane vale samyavadi krantikariyon ka dal, jise samrat ke viruddh shadayntr rachane ke aparadh men bandi banaya gaya tha, un par peshavar men mukadama chalakar in krantikariyon ko lambi sazaen di geen.
'kanapur shadayntr mamala' 1924 ee. kamyunist neta shripad amrit dange, mujaffar ahamad, malini gupta evn shaukat usmani adi ko kanapur men giraphtar kar 'kanapur shadayntr' ke tahat chale mukadamen men 4 varsh ka karavas diya gaya.
'menrath shadayntr mukadama' 1923 ee. 1929 ee. men sarakar ne 32 aise vyaktiyon ko giraphtar kiya, jinamen krantikari rajaniti v tred yooniyan se jude log evn tin angrez kamyunist (filip spret, ven braidale evn lestar hachinsan) adi shamil the, par 'merath shadayntr' ke tahat sadhe tin varsh tak mukadama chala. rashtriy star par yah mukadama khoob charchit raha. abhiyukton ki or se javaharalal neharoo, kailashanath katajoo evn daauktar ansari adi ne pairavi ki.

saiman kamishan

'saiman kamishan' ki niyukti british pradhanamntri ne sar jaaun saiman ke netritv men ki thi. is kamishan men sat sadasy the, jo sabhi briten ki snsad ke manonit sadasy the. yahi karan tha ki ise 'shvet kamishan' kaha gaya. saiman kamishan ki ghoshana 8 navambar, 1927 ee. ko ki gee. kamishan ko is bat ki janch karani thi ki kya bharat is layaq ho gaya hai ki yahan logon ko snvaidhanik adhikar diye jaen. is kamishan men kisi bhi bharatiy ko shamil nahin kiya gaya, jis karan isaka bahut hi tivr virodh hua.

neharoo samiti

'neharoo samiti' ka gathan 28 faravari, 1928 ee. ko ko kiya gaya tha. 'saiman kamishan' ke bahishkar ke bad bharat sachiv laaurd barkan hed ne bharatiyon ke samaksh ek chunauti rakhi ki ve aise snvidhan ka nirman kar british snsad ke samaksh rakhen, jise sabhi dalon ka samarthan prapt ho. kangres ne barkan hed ki is chunauti ko svikar kar liya. pndit motilal neharoo ko is samiti ka adhyaksh banaya gaya tha. samiti ke any sadasyon men, sar ali imam, em.es. ane, tejabahadur saproo, mngal sinh, ji.ar. pradhan, shoeb kureshi, subhashachandr bos, en.em. joshi aur ji.pi. pradhan adi the.

jinna ke chaudah sootr

'jinna ke chaudah sootr' vale mang patr ko 1929 ee. men prastut kiya gaya tha. muhammad ali jinna muslim lig ke adhyaksh the aur ve 'neharoo samiti' dvara prastut ki gee 'neharoo riport' se asntusht the. yahi karan tha ki unhonne riport ko asvikar kar diya. 'neharoo riport' se sikkh samuday bhi asntusht tha. muslim lig ne neharoo riport ke vikalp ke roop men march, 1929 ee. men jinna ke chaudah sootr vale mang-patr ko prastut kiya, ise hi 'jinna ke chaudah sootr' kaha jata hai.
vallbh bhaee patel

baradoli satyagrah

'baradoli satyagrah' 'bharatiy rashtriy andolan' ka sabase sngathit, vyapak evn saphal andolan raha hai. yah andolan sarakar dvara badhaye ge 30 pratishat kar ke virodh men chalaya gaya tha. baradoli ke 'medata bandhuon' (kalyan ji aur kunvar ji) tatha dayal ji ne kisanon ke samarthan men 1922 ee. se andolan chalaya. bad men isaka netritv saradar vallabh bhaee patel ne kiya. soorat (gujarat) ke baradoli taluke men 1920 ee. men kisanon dvara 'lagan' n adayagi ka andolan chalaya gaya. is andolan men keval 'kunabi-patidar' jatiyon ke bhoo-svami kisanon ne hi nahin, balki 'kaliparaj' (kale log) janajati ke logon ne bhi hissa liya. sarakar dvara niyukt nyayik adhikari broomafild aur rajasv adhikari maiksavel ne mamale ki janch ki aur badhottari ko galat thaharite hue ise ghatakar 6.03 pratishat kar diya. andolan ke saphal hone par vahan ki mahilaon ne patel ko 'saradar' ki upadhi pradan ki.

poorn svaraj divas

chh: varsh ke lambe antaral ke bad 1927 ee. me gandhi ji ne ek bar phir se sakriy rajaniti men bhag lena shuroo kiya. kangres par vam vicharadharaon ke badhate prabhav ko dekhakar unhonne disambar, 1929 ee. men lahaur men ayojit kangres ke etihasik adhiveshan men javaharalal neharoo ko adhyaksh banavaya. ukt adhiveshan men ek prastav parit kar kangres ne 'poorn svarajy' ka apana lakshy ghoshit kiya. 31 disambar, 1929 ko rat ko 12 baje javaharalal neharoo ne ravi nadi ke tat par apar janasamooh ke madhy navagrihit tirnge jhnde ko phaharaya. is avasar par neharoo ji ne kaha ki "british satta ke samane ab adhik jhukana manushy aur eeshvar donon ke lie viruddh aparadh hai." adhiveshan men 26 janavari, 1930 ee. ko 'pratham svadhinata divas' ke roop men manane ka nishchay kiya gaya. isi ke sath pratyek varsh 26 janavari ko 'svatantrata divas' ke roop men manaye jane ki parampara shuroo huee. kangres samiti ko us adhiveshan men 'savinay avgya andolan' prarambh karane ka adhikar mila.

gandhi ji ki gyarah sootri mang

gandhi ji ne laaurd iravin evn raimje maikadonald ke sammukh 31 janavari, 1930 ee. ko 11 sootri prastav rakha, jo is prakar tha-

  1. rupaye ka punarmoolyan vinimay dar men kami ek shiling 4 pens ho.
  2. bhoo-rajasv 1/2 kiya jaye.
  3. madyanishedh lagoo kiya jaye.
  4. namak par laga kar samapt kiya jaye.
  5. sainik vyay men 50 pratishat ki kami ho.
  6. adhik vetan pane vale sarakari padadhikariyon ki snkhya kam ki jaye.
  7. videshi kapade par vishesh ayat kar lagaya jaye.
  8. tatakar vidheyak laya jaye.
  9. sabhi rajanitik bandi chhod diye jayen.
  10. guptachar vibhag ko samapt kiya jay.
  11. bharatiyon ko atm-raksha ke lie hathiyar rakhane ka adhikar pradan kiya jay.

mahatma gandhi ne kaha ki yadi 12 march, 1930 ee. tak mange nahin svikar ki gayin to ve namak qanoon ka ullnghan karenge. gandhi ji ke uparyukt mang-patr par sarakar ne koee sakaratmak rukh nahin apanaya. isake phalasvaroop 14 faravari, 1930 ee. ko sabaramati men kangres ki ek baithak men gandhi ji ke netritv men 'savinay avgya andolan' ko chalane ka nishchay kiya gaya.

savinay avgya andolan

saiman kamishan ki asaphalata, neharoo riport ko asvikar kiya jana, kangres ka 'lahaur adhiveshan' evn adhiveshan men parit kiye gaye poorn svarajy ke prastav se svatntrata andolan snbndhi ghatanaon ka kram kafi tej ho gaya. gandhi ji dvara vayasaray ke sammukh rakhe gaye gyarah sootri mang-patr par vichar n karane ke karan savinay avgya andolan avashyak ho gaya tha. savinay avgya andolan shuroo karane se pahale jab gandhi ji vayasaray irvin se bat ki to vayasaray ne kangres ki baton par dhyan nahin diya. us samay gandhi ji ne kaha tha ki- "kangres ne roti ki mang ki aur use mila patthar." usake bad yah andolan prarambh ho gaya. gandhi ji ne is ahinsatmak dhng se sarakar ke prati asahayog ka ravaiya apanaya. kalantar men ise hi 'savinay avgya andolan' kaha gaya.

dandi march

gandhi ji aur unake svayn sevakon dvara 12 march, 1930 ee. ko dandi yatra prarambh ki gee. isaka mukhy uddeshy tha angrezon dvara banaye ge 'namak qanoon ko todana'. gandhi ji ne apane 78 svayn sevakon, jinamen veb milar bhi ek tha, ke sath sabaramati ashram se 358 ki.mi. door sthit dandi ke lie prasthan kiya. lagabhag 24 din bad 6 aprail, 1930 ee. ko dandi pahunchakar unhonne samudratat par namak qanoon ko toda. gandhi ji ki dandi yatra ke bare men subhashachandr bos ne likha hai- "mahatma ji ki dandi march ki tulana 'ilba' se lautane par nepaliyan ke 'peris march' aur rajanitik satta prapt karane ke lie musolini ke 'rom march' se ki ja sakati hai." charon taraf phaili is asahayog ki niti se angrez british hukoomat buri tarah se jhalla gayi. 5 mee, 1930 ee. ko gandhi ji ko giraphtar kar liya gaya. andolan ki prachandata ka ahasas kar tatkalin vayasaray laaurd iravin ne gandhi ji se samajhauta karana chaha.

gandhi-iravin samajhauta

'gandhi-iravin samajhauta' 5 march, 1931 ee. ko hua tha. mahatma gandhi aur laaurd iravin ke madhy hue is samajhaute ko 'dilli paikt' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. gandhi ji ne is samajhaute ko bahut mahattv diya tha, jabaki pndit javahar lal neharoo aur netaji subhashachandr bos ne isaki kadi alochana ki. kangresi bhi is samajhaute se poori tarah asntusht the, kyonki gandhi ji bharat ke yuva krantikariyon bhagat sinh, rajaguru aur sukhadev ko phansi ke phnde se bacha nahin pae the.

  • is samajhaute ki sharten nimnalikhit thin-
  1. kangres v usake karyakartaon ki jabt ki gee sampatti vapas ki jaye.
  2. sarakar dvara sabhi adhyadeshon evn apoorn abhiyagon ke mamale ko vapas liya jaye.
  3. hinsatmak karyon men lipt abhiyukton ke atirikt sabhi rajanitik qaidiyon ko mukt kiya jaye.
  4. aphim, sharab evn videshi vastr ki dukanon par shantipoorn dhng se dharane ki anumati di jaye.
  5. samudr ke kinare basane vale logon ko namak banane v use ekatrit karane ki chhoot di jaye.

golamej sammelan

'golamej sammelan' 1930 se 1932 ee. ke bich lndan men ayojit hua. is sammelan ka ayojan tatkalin vaisaray laaurd iravin ki 31 agast, 1929 ee. ki ghoshana ke adhar par hua tha. is sammelan men laaurd iravin ne saiman kamishan ki riport prakashit ho jane ke uparant bharat ke naye snvidhan ki rachana ke lie lndan men 'golamej sammelan' ka prastav rakha. navambar, 1931 ee. men lndan men 'golamej sammelan' ka ayojan hua, jisamen bharat aur inglaind ke sabhi rajanitik dalon ke pratinidhiyon ko amntrit kiya gaya. is sammelan ki adhyakshata inglaind ke tatkalin pradhanamntri raimje maikdonald ne ki aur tin sammelan ayojit kiye-

  1. pratham golamej sammelan - 12 sitambar, 1930 ee. se 29 janavari, 1931 ee. tak
  2. dvitiy golamej sammelan - 7 sitambar, 1931 ee. se 2 disambar, 1931 ee. tak
  3. tritiy golamej sammelan - 17 navambar, 1932 ee. se 24 disambar, 1932 ee. tak

savinay avgya andolan ki punaravritti

gandhi ji ke inglaind pravas ke samay is andolan ko sarakar ne barbarata se dabana chaha. bngal evn uttar pashchimi sima pradesh men andolan ko buri tarah dabaya gaya. bharat men ate hi gandhi ji ne punah andolan ki bagador snbhali. sarakar ne kangres ko avaidh ghoshit kar gandhi ji evn saradar patel sahit lagabhag 1 lakh, 20 hazar logon ko jelon men bhar diya. doosari bar yah andolan 3 janavari, 1932 ee. ko prarambh hua. logon men andolan ke prati utsah men kami dekhkar gandhi ji 'savinay avgya andolan' ko 7 aprail, 1934 ee. ko sthagati kar diya. subhashachandr bos evn saradar patel jaise netaon ne gandhi ji ke is krity ki alochana ki. unhonne kaha- "gandhi ji ne pichhale 13 varsh ki mehanat tatha kurbaniyon par pani pher diya." phalasvaroop gandhi ji kuchh dinon ke lie kangres se alag ho gaye.

sampradayik nirnay

'sampradayik nirnay' 4 agast, 1932 ee. ko british pradhanamntri remje mekadonald ke dvara diya gaya. isi nirnay ke adhar par naya bharatiy shasan-vidhan banane vala tha, jis par us samay landan men golamej sammelan men vichar-vimarsh chal raha tha aur jo bad men 1935 ee. men pas hua. sampradayik nirnay 1909 ee. ke bharatiy shasan-vidhan men nihit sampradayik pratinidhitv ke siddhant par adharit tha. 1906 ee. men jab yah spasht ho gaya ki desh ke prashasan men bharatiyon ko adhik pratinidhitv dene ke lie prachalit shasan-vidhan men shighr snshodhan kiya jaega, tab bharat sthit kuchh angrez adhikariyon ne vaisaray laaurd minto dvitiy ki sath-ganth se musalamanon ko prerit kiya ki ve 'hij haeenes' sar aga khan ke netritv men ek pratinidhimandal vaisaray ke pas le jaen.

poona samajhauta

'poona samajhauta' 24 sitambar, 1932 ee. ko hua. yah samajhauta rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ki rogashaiya par hua. british pradhanamntri raimje maikadonald ke 'sampradayik nirnay' ke dvara n keval muslimon ko, balki dalit jati ke hinduon ko savarn hinduon se alag karane ke lie bhi prithakh pratinidhitv pradan kar diya gaya tha.

gandhi ji aur harijan utthan

gandhi ji ne harijanon ke utthan ke lie apana bahumooly yogadan diya. prasiddh 'poona samajhaute' ke bad gandhi ji ne apane apako poori tarah se harijanon ki seva men samarpit kar diya. jel se chhootane ke bad unhonne 1932 ee. men 'akhil bharatiy chhuachhoot virodhi lig' ki sthapana ki.

kangres samajavadi dal

chunav parinam (1937 ee.)
prant kul siten kangres ko prapt siten
bngal 250 60
uttar pradesh 228 134
madras 215 159
bambee 175 87
pnjab 175 18
bihar 152 95
setral pravins (si.pi.) 112 70
asam 108 35
udisa 60 36
sindh 60 08
uttar-pashchim prant 50 19
kul 1585 721

'kangres samajavadi dal' ki sthapana 1934 ee. men achary narendr dev, jayaprakash narayan, minoo masani evn ashok mehata ke prayatnon se ki gayi thi. is dal ka pratham sammelan 1934 ee. men patana me hua. is parti ki sthapana ka uddeshy ye mange thin- desh ki arthik vikas ki prakriya rajy dvara niyojit evn niyntrit ho, rajaon aur zamindaron ka unmoolan bagair muavaje ke kiya jae. julaee, 1931 ee. men bihar men samajavadi dal ki sthapana jayaprakash narayan, phoolan prasad varma evn kuchh any logon ne milakar ki.

prantiy vidhanasabha chunav

'bharat sarakar adhiniyam' 1935 ke dvara bharatiyon ko prantiy shasan prabandh ka adhikar mil gaya. isake parinamasvaroop 1937 ee. men prantiy vidhanasabhaon ke chunae hue. kangres ko snyukt prant, madras, madhy pradesh, barar, udisa tatha bihar men poorn bahutamat prapt hua, jabaki kendriy vyavasthapika sabha men vah sabase bade dal ke roop men ubhar kar ayi. kangres ne is ashvasan par ki gavarnar bina vajah hastakshep nahin karengen, 8 pranton men apani sarakar banayi tatha sindh, uttar-pashchim sima prant tatha asam men mila-jula mntrimandal bana. gair-kangresi mntrimandal bngal evn pnjab bana. pnjab men 'yooniyanist parti' ne aur bngal men 'krishak praja parti' aur muslim lig ne milakar sarakar banayi. 1937 ee. men prantiy vidhanasabha chunavon ke sath hi vidhan parishadon ke lie bhi chunav snpann karaye gaye. panch pranton, bambee, madras, bngal, bihar aur uttar pradesh ke vidhan parishadon ke lie snpann chunav men kangres ko anshik saphalata prapt huee.

is samay muslim lig ne yah prachar karana prarambh kar diya ki muslimon ka hit kangres ke hath men surakshit nahin hai. 1939 ee. men dvitiy vishvayuddh ke prarambh hone par tatkalin vayasaray laaurd linalithago ne bharatiy vidhanamandal ki sahamati ke bina bharat ko yuddh men shamil kar liya tatha desh men apatakal ki ghoshana kar di. kangres kary samiti ne yuddh ke uddeshyon ki ghoshana karane ki mang ki tatha yah bhi mang rakhi ki yuddh ke bad bharat ko svatntr kar diya jaye. sarakar ne is mang ki upeksha ki. vayasaray ne 'aupaniveshik svarajy' ka rata-rataya snvad bol diya. kangres karyakarini ke adesh par 15 navambar, 1939 ee. ko prantiy kangres mntrimandalon ne istipha de diya. kangres mntrimandal ke tyagapatr diye jane ke bad muslim lig ne 22 disambar, 1939 ee. ko 'mukti divas' ke roop men manaya.

vidhanaparishad chunav parinam (1937 ee.)
prant kul siten kangres ko prapt siten
bngal 57 09
uttar pradesh 52 08
madras 46 26
bambee 26 13
bihar 26 08

gandhi ji ne 17 aktoobar, 1940 ee. ko 'vyaktigat satyagrah andolan' shuroo kiya. yah andolan ek tarah se 'vyaktigat savinay avgya andolan' tha. is andolan ke pahale satyagrahi vinoba bhave the. unhonne 17 aktoobar, 1940 ee. ko pavanar men satyagrah shuroo kiya. doosare satyagrahi javaharalal neharoo the. is andolan ko 'dilli chalo andolan' bhi kaha gaya. is satyagrah ka mukhy uddeshy british sarakar ke us dave ko khokhala sabit karana tha ki bharat ki janata dvitiy vishvayuddh men sarakar ke sath hai.

agast prastav

'agast prastav' ki ghoshana 8 agast, 1940 ee. ko bharat ke tatkalin vayasaray laaurd linalithago ne ki thi. in prastavon ke dvara bharat men rahane vale alp-snkhyakon ko adhikanshat: ve chize prapt ho geen, jinaki unhen apeksha bhi nahin thi. muslim lig ne agast prastav ke us bhag ka, jisamen yah pratigya thi ki "bhavi snvidhan unaki anumati se hi banega", ka svagat kiya, jabaki kangres ne 'agast prastav' ko poori tarah asvikar kar diya.

pakistan ki mang

'muslim lig' ke 'lahaur adhiveshan' ki adhyakshata karate hue muhammad ali jinna ne 23 march, 1940 ee. ko bharat se alag muslim rashtr pakistan ki mang ki. jinna ne adhiveshan men bhashan dete hue kaha ki ve alag muslim rashtr ke atirikt kuchh bhi nahin svikar karenge. apane nirnay par tab tak atal rahenge, jab tak ki pakistan ke nirman ki mang ko poornatah svikar nahin kar liya jata. musalamanon ke lie prithakh rajy ke vichar ka pravartak kavi evn rajanitik chintak mohammad iqabal ko mana jata hai. 1930 ee. men muslim lig ke 'ilahabad adhiveshan' men mohammad iqabal ne sarvapratham prithakh muslim desh ki sthapana ki bat kahi. musalamanon ke prithakh rajy ka nam 'pakistan' ho, yah vichar 1933 ee. kaimbrij vishvavidyalay ke ek anusnatak vidyarthi rahamat ali ke mastishk men aya, jisane ek parcha kaimbrij pampalet jari kiya. usane socha ki pnjab, uttar-pashchimi prant, kashmir, sindh aur baloochistan ko bharatiy musalamanon ka rashtriy desh hona chahie, jise usane 'pakistan' ki sngya di. pakistan ki mang ka prastav khalikujjama ne taiyar kiya tha.

faravard blaauk ki sthapana

'faravard blaauk' nam ki ek nee parti ka gathan netaji subhashachandr bos dvara aprail, 1939 ee. men kiya gaya tha. 'bharatiy rashtriy kangres' ke 'haripura adhiveshan' men 19 faravari, 1938 ee. ko subhashachandr bos ko adhyaksh chuna gaya. kangres ke 'tripura adhiveshan' men subhashachandr bos punah kangres ke adhyaksh chune gaye the, parantu gandhi ji ke virodh ke chalate unhonne tyagapatr de diya tatha aprail, 1939 ee. me 'faravard blaauk' nam ki ek nee parti ka gathan kiya. ullekhaniy hai ki subhashachandr bos ke tyag patr ke pashchath daau. rajendr prasad ko kangres ka adhyaksh banaya gaya tha.

krips prastav

'krips prastav' 30 march, 1942 ee. ko prastut kiya gaya tha. 1942 ee. men japan ki faujon ke rngoon (vartaman yangoon) par qabza kar lene se bharat ke simant kshetron par sidha khatara paida ho gaya tha. ab briten ne yuddh men bharat ka sakriy sahayog pane ke lie yuddhakalin mntrimandal ke ek sadasy staiford krips ko ghoshana ke ek masavide ke sath bharat bheja. krips prastavon men bharat ke vibhajan ki rooparekha ka snket mil raha tha, atah bharatiy rashtriy kangres ne antarim prabndh, raksha se sambndhit yojana evn pranton ke atmanirnay ke adhikar ko asvikar kar diya.

bharat chhodo andolan

'bharat chhodo andolan' 9 agast, 1942 ee. ko sampoorn bharat men rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ke ahvan par prarambh hua tha. bharat ki azadi se sambandhit itihas men do padav sabase zyada mahattvapoorn nazar ate hain- pratham '1857 ee. ka svatntrata sngram' aur dvitiy '1942 ee. ka bharat chhodo andolan'. bharat ko jald hi azadi dilane ke lie mahatma gandhi dvara angrez shasan ke viruddh yah ek bada 'nagarik avgya andolan' tha. 'krips mishan' ki asaphalata ke bad gandhi ji ne ek aur bada andolan prarambh karane ka nishchay le liya tha. is andolan ko 'bharat chhodo andolan' ka nam diya gaya.

si.ar. farmoola

chakravarti rajagopalachari, jo madras prant ke ek prabhavashali neta the, kangres evn muslim lig ke samajhaute ke poorn pakshadhar the. ye 10 aprail, 1942 ee. ko pas kiye gaye 'kangres varkig kameti' ke prastav men 'bharat vibhajan' ke prastav ko apratyaksh roop se pas karana chahate the. is vishay par matabhed hone par unhonne 'kangres varking kameti' tatha kangres se tyagapatr de diya. desh ki sanpradayik samasya sulajhane ke uddeshy se 10 julaee, 1944 ee. ko gandhi ji ki svikrit se unhonne kangres tatha muslim lig ke bich samajhaute ki ek yojana prastut ki jo is prakar thi-

  1. 'muslim lig' bharatiy svatantrata ki mang ka samarthan kare v asthayi sarakar ke gathan men kangres ke sath sahayog ki bhoomika ada kare.
  2. dvitiy vishv yuddh ke khatm hone par bharat ke uttar-pashchimi v poorvi bhagon men sthit muslim bahusnkhyak kshetron ki sima ka nirdharan karane ke lie ek kamishan niyukt kiya jay, phir vayask matadhikar pranali k adhar par in kshetron ke nivasiyon ki mataganana karake bharat se unake sambandh vichchhed ke prashn ka nirnay kiya jay.
  3. mataganana ke poorv sabhi rajanitik dalon ko apane drishtikon ke prachar ki poori svatantrata ho.
  4. desh vibhajan ki sthiti men raksha, yatayat ya any anivary vishayon par apasi samajhaute ki vyavastha ki jaye.
  5. uparyukt sharten tabhi mani ja sakati hain, jab briten bharat ko poorn svatantrata pradan kare.

muhammad ali jinna ne is farmoole ko asvikar kar diya. kalantar men isi farmoole ke adhar par bharat ka vibhajan kiya gaya. gandhi ji ne 'si.ar. farmoola' ke adhar par jinna se bat ki. pahali bar mahatma gandhi ne jinna ko 'kayad-e-ajam' (mahan neta) kaha aur unake samman ko badhaya, lekin jinna ne pakistan ki mang par atal rahakar varta ko asaphal kar diya.

vevel yojana

'vevel yojana' 14 joon, 1945 ee. ko prastut ki gee thi. dvitiy vishvayuddh mitr rashtron ki vijay ke sath hi samapt hua. tatkalin bharatiy vayasaray vevel bharat men vyapt gatirodh ko door karane ke lie march, 1945 ee. men inglaind gaya. vahan usane british pradhanamntri charchil evn bharatamntri emari se bharat ke bare men salah mashavira kiya.

shimala sammelan

'shimala sammelan' 25 joon, 1945 ee. ko hua tha. yah shimala men hone vala ek sarvadaliy sammelan tha, jisamen kul 22 pratinidhiyon ne hissa liya. is sammelan men bhag lene vale pramukh neta the- javaharalal neharoo, muhammad ali jinna, ismail khan, saradar vallabh bhaee patel, abul kalam azad, khan abdul gaffar khan, tara sinh adi. british bharat ki pramukh rashtriy partiyon men se ek 'muslim lig' ki zid ke karan yah sammelan asaphal ho gaya.

prantiy chunav

1945-1946 ee. men kendriy tatha prantiy chunav sampann hue. is chunav men simit matadhikar ka prayog kiya gaya, jisake phalasvaroop kendriy vyavasthapika ke lie chunav men kul janasnkhya ka keval ek pratishat bhag hi matadhikar ke yogy paya gaya. jabaki prantiy chunavon men kul janasnkhya ke keval das pratishat hisse ne hi apane matadhikar ka prayog kiya. in chunavon men kangres ki sarakar gathit huee. uttari-pashchimi simant prant tatha asam men bhi kangres ko bahumat mila. in donon hi pranton ke bare men 'muslim lig' yah dava kar rahi thi ki ye pakistan ke hisse men hai. chunavon men muslim lig ko bhi abhootapoorv saphalata prapt huee. use kul muslim voton ka 86.6 pratishat mat prapt hua. kendriy vidhan parishad ki sabhi 30 arakshit siton par vah vijayi rahi. pranton men 509 muslim siton men 442 muslim lig ko prapt hueen. yadyapi muslim lig ne musalamanon ke atyadhik sthanon par vijay prapt ki, kintu vah keval sindh aur bngal men hi mntrimndal bana saki. pnjab men yadyapi muslim lig sabase bade dal ke roop men ubhari, paratu hindoo, sikkh aur yooniyanist dal ke hindoo aur muslim vidhayakon ne ek mila-jula mantrimandal malik khijar hayat khan ke netritv men banaya, jabaki asam, bihar, uttar pradesh uttari pashchimi sima prant, bambee, madras, madhy prant aur udisa men kangres mantrimandal banaye gaye.

nausena vidroh

'nausena vidroh' (1945-1946 ee.) british jahaz par kary karane vale karmachariyon dvara kiya gaya tha. 18 faravari, 1946 ee. ko 'en.es. talavar' namak jahaz ke karmachariyon ne british sarakar ke samaksh kharab khana milane ki shikayat ki. is par british adhikariyon ka javab tha ki "bhikhamngon ko chunane ki chhoot nahin ho sakati." nausena karmachariyon ne sarakar ki is vibhedatmak niti ke khilaf vidroh kar diya.

kaibinet mishan

briten men 26 julaee, 1945 ee. ko kliment etali ke netritv men british mntrimandal ne satta grahan ki. pradhanamntri etali ne 15 faravari, 1946 ee. ko bharatiy snvidhan sabha ki sthapana evn tatkalin jvalant samasyaon par bharatiyon se vichar-vimarsh ke lie 'kaibinet mishan' ko bharat bhejane ki ghoshana ki. is samay etali ne kaha ki- "british sarakar bharat ke poorn svatantrata ke adhikar ko manyata pradan karati hai tatha yah usaka adhikar hai ki british samrajy ke antargat rahe ya nahi." isi ghoshana ke dauran ek vad-vivad men apana vichar vyakt karate hue etali ne kaha ki- "ham alpasnkhyakon ke adhikaron ke prati bhali-bhanti jagaruk hain aur chahate hain ki alpasnkhk bina bhay ke rah saken, parantu ham yah bhi nahin sahan karenge ki alpasnkhyak log bahutasnkhyak logon ki unnati men ade ayen."

mauntabetan yojana

24 march, 1947 ee. ko laaurd maunt baitan bharat ke vayasaray banakar aye. pad grahan karate hi unhonne 'kangres' evn 'muslim lig' ke netaon se tatkalik samasyaon par vyapak vichar vimarsh kiya. 'muslim lig' pakistan ke atirikt kisi bhi vikalp par sahamat nahin huee. maunt betan ne kangres se desh ke vibhajan roopi katu saty ko svikar karane ka anurodh kiya. kangres neta bhi paristhitiyon ke dabav ko mahasoos kar is saty ko svikar karane ke lie taiyar ho gaye. vibhajan ko svikar karane ki kangresiyon ki vivashata saradar vallabh bhaee patel ke is vaktavy se zahir hoti hai- "yadi kangres vibhajan svikar n karati to ek pakistan ke sthan par kee pakistan banaten." sikkhon ne bhi is yojana ko anamane dhng se svikriti de di.

'mauntabetan yojana' svikar karane ke bad desh ke vibhajan ki taiyari arnbh ho gayi. bngal aur pnjab men zilon ke vibhajan tatha sima nirdharan ka kary ek kamishan ke adhin saunpa gaya, jisaki adhyakshata 'redaklif' ne ki. isilie bharat aur pakistan ke bich vibhajan karane vali rekha ko raidaklif rekha kaha gaya. vibhajan ke bad 15 agast, 1947 ee. ko bharat tatha pakistan nam ke do naye rashtr astitv men a gaye. javaharalal neharoo svatntr bharat ke pahale pradhanamntri evn laaurd maunt betan pratham gavarnar-janaral bane tatha pakistan ka gavarnar-janaral muhammad ali jinna evn pradhamntri liyakat ali ko banaya gaya.


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