गुजराती भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gujarati varnamala

bharat ki pramukh kshetriy bhashaon men se ek, jise bharatiy snvidhan ki manyata prapt hai. yah mukhyatah gujarat kshetr men tatha bharat ke any pramukh nagaron men lagabhag tin karod se adhik logon ke dvara boli jati hai. gujarati bhasha navin bharatiy–ary bhashaon ke dakshin–pashchimi samooh se sambandhit hai. italavi vidvanh tessitori ne prachin gujarati ko prachin pashchimi rajasthani bhi kaha, kyonki unake kal men is bhasha ka upayog us kshetr men bhi hota tha, jise ab rajasthan rajy kaha jata hai. any navin bharatiy–ary bhashaon ki tarah gujarati ki utpatti bhi ek prakrit bhasha se huee hai. is bhasha ke vikas ko kuchh bhashashastriy visheshataon men parivartan ke adhar par tin charanon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai,

  • prachin gujarati (12vin-15vin shatabdi),
  • madhy gujarati (16vin-18vin shatabdi), aur
  • navin gujarati (19vin shatabdi ke bad).

nagari lipi ka naya pravahi svaroop navin gujarati ko ingit karata hai.

sarvanam

purushavachak
gujarati hindi gujarati hindi gujarati hindi
હું main મેં mainne મને mujhe
આપણે, અમે ham આપણે, અમે hamane આપણને, અમને hamen
તું too તેં toone તને tujhe
તમે tum તમે tumane તમને tumhen
આપ ap આપે apane આપને apako
yah, ye આણે isane, inhonne આને iss, inhen
તે vah તેણે usane તેને usse
તેઓ ve તેઓએ, તેમણે unhonne તેઓન, તેમને unhen

samnjasy pranali

is bhasha men ek jatil samnjasy (samajhauta) pranali hai, jo is tathy par adharit hai ki isamen tin ling hain aur isamen airagetiv kes[1] bhi hai. gujarati bhasha men any navin bharatiy–ary bhashaon ki apeksha karmavachyon ka adhik upayog hota hai aur kridnton ke karan jatil vakay vinyas prastut hota hai.

boliyan

vidvanon ne bhaugolik simaon ke adhar par tin pramukh boligat vargon ka ullekh kiya hai–kathiyavad (saurashtri), uttari gujarati aur dakshini gujarati. dharm, jati, jatiyata, vyavasay, shiksha aur varg men bhinnata ke karan ek jatil boligat sthiti utpann hoti hai, kyonki ye sabhi karak ek-doosare ko achchhadit karate hain aur boli ki koee nishchit vibhajak sima nahin khinchi ja sakati hai. lekin yah ullekhaniy hai ki knth svar yntriy ayam se sambandhit sabase prabal dhvanyayatmak visheshata ne sabhi svar vigyaniyon ko akarshit kiya hai. yah visheshata spasht roop se do pramukh boli samoohon ko ingit karati hai; snsakt dhvani uchcharan boliyan[2] aur badabadahat vali boliyan[3] isake alava gujarati men do spasht jatiy boliyan bhi hain–parasi gujarati aur bohari gujarati. halanki gujarati ka upayog vidyalayon aur vishvavidyalayon men shiksha ke lie hota hai, lekin yah uchch stariy vaigyanik snchar ke upayukt nahin hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jisamen sakarmak kriyaon ke karta v akarmak kriyaon ke karm ko ek hi bhashashastriy svaroop ke zariye ingit kiya jata hai.
  2. jinhen uchch knth ke sath bola jata hai.
  3. jise bolane men bich–bich men knth svar nicha hota hai.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh