गैलिलियो गैलीली  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gaililiyo gailili
gaililiyo gailili
poora nam gaililiyo gailili
janm 15 faravari, 1564
janm bhoomi pisa, itali
mrityu 8 janavari, 1642
mrityu sthan itali
karm-kshetr khagolashastri, bhautik vigyani aur ganitgy
prasiddhi gatiki, doorabin avalokan, khagol vigyan, soory kendriyata
nagarikata italavi
any janakari gaililiyo pahale vyakti the jinhonne khagoliy prekshan, chndrama par kretaron v pahadon ki khoj aur brihaspati ke char upagrahon, prayah gailili upagrahon ke roop men jana jata hai, ke lie doorabin ka upayog kiya tha.

gaililiyo gailili (angrezi:Galileo Galilei) ek italavi khagolashastri, bhautik vigyani aur ganitgy the. gaililiyo pahale vyakti the jinhonne khagoliy prekshan, chndrama par kretaron v pahadon ki khoj aur brihaspati ke char upagrahon, prayah gailili upagrahon ke roop men jana jata hai, ke lie doorabin ka upayog kiya tha. unhonne shukr ke kalaon ka avalokan kiya aur saur dhabbon ke adhyayan se soory ki ghoornan gati ka pata lagaya. gaililiyo ne nishkarsh nikala ki arastu ka vaishvik manachitr, jo apane samay men abhi bhi vyapak roop se vishvasaniy tha, galat tha. isake bajay unhonne kaauparanikas ke 'soory kendriy siddhant' ka samarthan kiya. yah samarthan unhen kaitholik charch ke sath sngharsh men le aya. un par mukadama chalaya gaya aur apane jivan ke antim ath sal ke lie unhen ghar men najarabnd kar diya gaya. gaililiyo pisa men janme the, unake pita vinsenjiyo gailili ek vakil aur sngitakar the. gaililiyo ko pisa aur padua ke vishvavidyalayon men shikshit kiya gaya tha. sabase pahale unhonne aushadhi ka adhyayan kiya, lekin ganit ke lie ise chhod diya. apane kairiyar ke prarnbhik dinon men, gaililiyo ne arastu ke darshan ki alochana ki, balki phir khuleam usaka upahas udaya. prakritik ghatana ki vyakhya ke mamale men arastu ki apani svaynsiddh dharana thi ki prithvi brahmand ke kendr par dridhata se khadi hai. tab antariksh men prithvi ki gati ka koee gyat bhautik praman nahin tha.

jivan parichay

yoorop men ek samay tha jab rom aur yoonan ki sabhyataen apane patan ki or agrasar thin. usake bad poora mahadvip agyanata ke andhakar men chhup gaya. phir samay ne karavat li aur vigyan aur takaniki pragati ne yoorop ko is andhakar se nikalakar raushani ki or moda. is raushani ko paida karane men soory ki tarah jis vaigyanik ne yogadan diya use gaililiyo gailili ke nam se jana jata hai.

janm

adhunik itali ke pisa namak shahar (pisa ki tedhi minar ke lie prasiddh) men 15 pharavari 1564 ko gaililiyo gailili ka janm hua. unake pita unhen chikitsa vigyan padhana chahate the, kintu unaka shauq ganit aur darshan men tha. unhonne chikitsa ki digri hasil kie bina pisa chhod diya tha.

khagol vigyani

adhikansh log gaililiyo ko ek khagolavigyani ke roop men yad karate hain jisane doorabin men sudhar kar use adhik shaktishali tatha khagoliy prekshanon ke lie upayukt banaya aur sath hi apane prekshanon se aise chaunkane vale tathy ujagar kie jisane khagol vigyan ko nee disha di aur adhunik khagol vigyan ki ninv rakhi. par bahut kam log yah janate hain ki khagol vigyani hone ke alava ve ek kushal ganitgy, bhautikividh aur darshanik bhi the jisane yoorop ki vaigyanik kranti men mahattvapoorn yogadan diya. isilie gaililiyo ko 'adhunik khagol vigyan ke janak', 'adhunik bhautiki ka pita' ya 'vigyan ka pita' ke roop men snbodhit kiya jata hai.

bhautikividh

gaililiyo ne bhautik vigyan men gatiki ke samikaran sthapit kie. unaka jadatv ka niyam jagaprasiddh hai. unhonne pisa ki minar ke apane prasiddh prayog dvara siddh kiya ki vastuon ke girane ki gati unake dravyaman par nirbhar nahin karati. unhonne pahali bar siddh kiya ki nirvat men prakshepy ka path parvalayakar hota hai. gaililiyo ne uchch koti ka kampas banaya jo samudri yatriyon ke lie kafi upayogi siddh hua. usake any avishkaron men tharmamitar, sookshmadarshi, pendulam ghadi ityadi hain. bhautik niyamon ke bare men bataya ki ve un sabhi nikayon men, jo niyat gati se chalate hain, saman roop se lagoo hote hain. yah sapekshata ke siddhant ki prarnbhik jhalak thi.

ganitgy

gaililiyo ko sookshm ganitiy vishleshan karane ka kaushal snbhavat: apane pita vinsainjo gailili se virasat men anuvanshik roop men tatha kuchh unaki karyashaili ko qarib se dekh kar mila hoga. vinsainjo ek jane-mane sngit visheshgy the aur ‘lyoot’ namak vady yntr bajate the jisane bad men gitar aur bainjo ka roop le liya. unhonne bhautiki men pahali bar aise prayog kie jinase 'araikhik snbndh' ka pratipadan hua. tab yah gyat tha ki kisi vady yntr ki tani huee dor (ya tar) ke tanav aur usase nikalane vali avritti men ek snbndh hota hai, avritti tanav ke varg ke samanupati hoti hai. is tarah sngit ke siddhant men ganit ki thodi bahut paith thi. isase prerit hokar gaililiyo ne pita ke kary ko age badhaya. mana jata hai ki gaililiyo ne hi pahali bar kaha ki sabhi prakritik niyam ganitiy niyamon ka palan karate hain. usane ek jagah likha, 'philosophi ki is vishal kitab ko brahmand ne likhi hai aur yah ganitiy bhasha men hai (bhagavan ki bhasha ganit hai). isake patr vritt, tribhuj aur doosare jyamiti akar hain.

darshanik

gaililiyo ne darshan shastr ka bhi gahan adhyayan kiya tha sath hi ve dharmik pravritti ke bhi the. par ve apane prayogon ke parinamon ko kaise nakar sakate the jo purani manyataon ke viruddh jate the aur ve inaki poori eemanadari ke sath vyakhya karate the. unaki charch ke prati nishtha ke bavajood unaka gyan aur vivek unhen kisi bhi purani avadharana ko bina prayog aur ganit ke tarajoo men tole manane se rokata tha. charch ne ise apani avgya samajha. par gaililiyo ki is soch ne manushy ki chintan prakriya men naya mod la diya. svayn gaililiyo apane vicharon ko badalane ko taiyar ho jate yadi unake prayogon ke parinam aisa ishara karate. apane prayogon ko karane ke lie gaililiyo ne lnbaee aur samay ke manak taiyar kie taki yahi prayog anyatr jab doosari prayogashalaon men duharae jaen to parinamon ki punaravritti dvara unaka satyapan kiya ja sake.

prakash ki gati napane ka prayas

gaililiyo ne prakash ki gati napane ka bhi prayas kiya aur tatsnbndhi prayog kie. gaililiyo v unaka ek sahayak do bhinn parvat shikharon par kapat lagi lalaten lekar rat men chadh ge. sahayak ko nirdesh diya gaya tha ki jaise hi use gaililiyo ki lalaten ka prakash dikhe use apani lalaten ka kapat khol dena tha. gaililiyo ko apane kapat kholane v sahayak ki lalaten ka prakash dikhane ke bich ka samay antaral mapana tha- pahadon ke bich ki doori unhen gyat thi. is tarah unhonne prakash ki gati gyat ki. par gaililiyo – gaililiyo thahare – ve itane se kahan sntusht hone vale the. apane prayogik nishkarsh ko duharana jo tha. is bar unhonne aisi do pahadiyon ka chayan kiya jinake bich ki doori kahin zyada thi. par ashchary, is bar bhi samay antaral pahale jitana hi aya. gaililiyo is nishkarsh par pahunche ki prakash ko chalane men lag raha samay unake sahayak ki pratikriya ke samay se bahut kam hoga aur is prakar prakash ka veg napana unaki yukti ki snvedanashilata ke pare tha. par gaililiyo dvara brihaspati ke chndramaon ke brihaspati ki chhaya men a jane se un par padane vale grahan ke prekshan se ol romar namak haaulaind ke khagolavigyani ko ek vichar aya. unhen laga ki in prekshanon ke dvara prakash ka veg gyat kiya ja sakata hai. sanh 1675 men unhonne yah prayog kiya jo is tarah ka pratham prayas tha. is prakar yantrik balon par kie apane mukhy kary ke atirikt gaililiyo ke in any karyon ne unake prabhav kshetr ko kahin adhik vistrit kar diya tha jisase lnbe kal tak prabuddh log prabhavit hote rahe.

nishkarsh

gaililiyo ne aj se bahut pahale ganit, saiddhantik bhautiki aur prayogik bhautiki ke paraspar snbndh ko samajh liya tha. paravalay ya pairabola ka adhyayan karate hue ve is nishkarsh par pahunche the ki ek saman tvaran (uniform acceleration) ki avastha men prithvi par phenka koee pind ek paravalayakar marg par chal kar vapas prithvi par a girega – basharte hava ke gharshan ka bal upekshaniy ho. yahi nahin, unhonne yah bhi kaha ki unaka yah siddhant zaroori nahin ki kisi grah jaise pind par bhi lagoo ho. unhen is bat ka dhyan tha ki unake mapan men gharshan (friction) tatha any balon ke karan avashy trutiyan aee hongi jo unake siddhant ki sahi ganitiy vyakhya men badha utpann kar rahin thin. unaki isi antardrishti ke lie prasiddh bhautikividh ainstain ne unhen 'adhunik vigyan ka pita' ki padavi de dali. kathan men kitani sachaee hai pata nahin – par mana jata hai ki gaililiyo ne pisa ki tedhi minar se alag-alag snhati (mass) ki genden girane ka prayog kiya aur yah paya unake dvara girane men lage samay ka unaki snhati se koee sambandh nahin tha – sab saman samay le rahin thin. ye bat tab tak chhaee arastoo ki vicharadhara ke ekadam viparit thi – kyonki arastoo ke anusar adhik bhari vastuen teji se girani chahie. bad men unhonne yahi prayog gedon ko avanat talon par ludhaka kar duharae tatha pun: usi nishkarsh par pahunche. gaililiyo ne tvaran ke lie sahi ganitiy samikaran khoja. unhonne kaha ki agar koee sthir pind saman tvaran ke karan gatishil hota hai to usaki chalit doori samay antaral ke varg ke samanupati hogi.

S = ut + ½ft2, if u = 0 then S = ½ft2 or S ∝ t2

jadatv ka siddhant

gaililiyo ne hi 'jadatv ka siddhant' hamen diya jisake anusar 'kisi samatal par chalayaman pind tab tak usi disha v veg se gati karega jab tak use chheda n jae'. bad men yah jakar nyootan ke gati ke siddhanton ka pahala siddhant bana. pisa ke vishal kaithedral (charch) men jhoolate jhoomar ko dekh kar unhen khyal aya kyon n isaka dolan kal napa jae – unhonne apani nabj ki dhap-dhap ki madad se yah kary kiya – aur is prakar saral lolak ka siddhant bahar aya – ki lolak ka avarttakal usake ayam (amplitude) par nirbhar nahin karata (yah bat keval chhote ayam par lagoo hoti hai – par ek ghadi ka nirman karane ke lie itani parishuddhata kafi hai). sanh 1632 men unhonne jvar-bhate ki vyakhya prithvi ki gati dvara ki. isamen unhonne samudr ki talahati ki banavat, isake jvar ki tarngon ki oonchaee tatha ane ke samay men snbndh ki charcha ki – halanki yah siddhant sahi nahin paya gaya. bad men kepalar v any vaigyanikon ne ise sudhara aur sahi karan – chndrama ko bataya.

apekshikata siddhant ki ninv

jise aj ham apekshikata (Relativity) ka siddhant kahate hain usaki ninv bhi gaililiyo ne hi dali thi. unhonne kaha hai 'bhautiki ke niyam vahi rahate hain chahe koee pind sthir ho ya saman veg se ek saral rekha men gatiman. koee bhi avastha n param sthir ya param chal avastha ho sakati hai'. isi ne bad men nyootan ke niyamon ka adharagat dhancha diya. sanh 1609 men gaililiyo ko doorabin ke bare men pata chala jisaka halaind men avishkar ho chuka tha. keval usaka vivaran sunakar unhonne usase bhi kahin adhik parishkrit aur shaktishali doorabin svayn bana li.

doorabin ka upayog

25 agast 1609 ko gaililiyo ne apane adhunik dooradarshi ka sarvajanik pradarshan kiya. phir shuroo hua khagoliy khojon ka ek adbhut adhyay. gaililiyo ne chand ko dekha usake oobad-khabad gandhe dekhe. phir unhonne doorabin chamakile shukr grah par sadhi – ek aur nee khoj – shukr grah bhi (chndrama ki tarah) kala (phases) ka pradarshan karata hai. jab unhonne brihaspati grah ko apani doorabin se nihara, phir jo dekha aur usase unhonne jo nishkarsh nikala usane sauramndal ko thik-thik samajhane men badi madad ki. gaililiyo ne dekha ki brihaspati grah ke pas tin chhote-chhote 'tare' jaise dikhaee de rahe hain. kuchh ghnte bad jab dubara use dekha to vahan tin nahin balki char 'tare' dikhaee die. gaililiyo samajh ge ki brihaspati grah ka apana ek alag snsar hai. usake gird ghoom rahe ye pind any grahon ki tarah prithvi ki parikrama karane ke lie badhy nahin hain. unhonne apane teliskop se jupitar grah ke char chndramaon ki khoj ki. yahin se tolemi aur arastoo ki parikalpanaon ki niv hil gee. jinamen grah aur soory sabhi pindon ki gatiyon ka kendr prithvi ko bataya gaya tha. gaililiyo ki is khoj se sauramadnl ke soory kendrit siddhant ko bahut bal mila. halanki nikolas kaauparanikas gaililiyo se pahale hi yah kah chuke the ki grah soory ki parikrama karate hain n ki prithvi ki, par ise manane vale bahut kam the. halanki yah parikalpana bharatiy tatha muslim vaigyanikon men pahale se maujood thi kintu yoropiyan charch isase sahamat n hokar arastoo ki thyori par hi vishvas rakhate the.

antim samay

gaililiyo ne kaauparanikas ke siddhant ko khula samarthan dena shuroo kar diya. ye bat tatkalin vaigyanik aur dharmik manyataon ke viruddh jati thi. is karan gaililiyo ke kathan ko kaitholik charchon ke virodh ka samana karana pada. gaililiyo ne khndan karate hue kaha ki usane kahin bhi baibil ke viruddh kuchh nahin kaha hai. gaililiyo ke jivanakal men ise unaki bhool hi samajha gaya. sanh 1633 men charch ne gaililiyo ko adesh diya ki ve sarvajanik roop se kahen ki ye unaki badi bhool hai. unhonne aisa kiya bhi. phir bhi gaililiyo ko apane jivan ke antim din roman samrajy ki kaid men bitane pade. bad men unake bigadate svasthy ke maddenajar saza ko grih-kaid men tabdil kar diya gaya. apane jivan ka antim din bhi unhonne isi kaid men guzara. kahin varsh 1992 men jakar vaitikan shahar sthit eesaee dharm ki sarvochch snstha ne yah svikara ki gaililiyo ke mamale men unase galati huee thi. yani unhen tin sau se adhik sal lag ge asaliyat ko samajhane aur svikarane men. jab gaililiyo pisa ke vishvavidyalay men khagol vigyan ke pradhyapak the to unhen apane shishyon ko yah padhana padhata tha ki grah prithvi ki parikrama karate hain. bad men jab ve paduva namak vishvavidyalay men ge tab unhen jakar nikolas kaauparanikas ke ne siddhant ka pata chala tha. khud apani doorabin dvara kie ge prekshanon se (visheshakar brihaspati ke chndrama dekh kar) ve ab poori tarah ashvast ho chuke the ki kaauparanikas ka soory-kendrit siddhant hi sauramndal ki sahi vyakhya karata hai. 72 sal ki avastha ko pahunchate-pahunchate gaililiyo apani ankhon ki roshani poori tarah kho chuke the. bahut se log yah manate hain ki unaka andhapan apani doorabin dvara sanh 1613 men soory ko dekhane (jisake dvara unhonne saur-kalnk ya sanaspaauts bhi khoje the) ke karan utpann hua hoga. par janch karane par pata chala ki aisa motiyabind ke a jane aur ankh ki glaukoma namak bimari ke karan hua hoga.

mrityu

sanh 1642 men grih-kaid jhel rahe gaililiyo ki 8 janavari ko mrityu ho gee. kuchh mas bad usi varsh nyootan ka janm hua. is tarah kah sakate hain ki tab ek yug ka ant aur ek aur ne krantikari yug ka shubharnbh hua. is tarah gaililiyon ne yoorop ki vaigyanik pragati men masiha ki tarah kary kiya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh