गोवा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

India-flag.gif
gova
Goa-map.jpg
rajadhani panaji
rajabhasha(en) konkani bhasha, marathi bhasha
sthapana 30 mee, 1987
janasnkhya 13,42,998 [1]
· ghanatv 363 /varg kimi
kshetraphal 3,702 varg kimi
bhaugolik nirdeshank 15.493°N 73.818°E
tapaman 28 °C (ausat)
· grishm 35 °C
· sharad 20 °C
zile 2
sabase bada nagar panaji
mahanagar vaskodigama
mukhy paryatan sthal kolava,kalanagute, vagator, baga, haramal, anjuna
ling anupat 1000:960[2] ♂/♀
saksharata 87.32[2]%
· stri 75.51%
· purush 88.88%
rajyapal mridula sinha[3]
mukhyamntri manohar parrikar[4]
vidhanasabha sadasy 40
rajyasabha sadasy 1
rajakiy pashu gaur (Gaur)
rajakiy pakshi pili bulabul (Yellow Bulbul)
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Goa Logo.png

gova, bharatiy prayadvip ke pashchimi tat par sthit hai. gova rajy, uttar men maharashtr rajy, poorv v dakshin men karnatak rajy aur pashchim men arab sagar se ghira hai aur panaji gova ki rajadhani hai. gova ka kshetraphal 3,702 varg kilomitar hai, yah samudr tat ki or ek dvipayukt shahar hai, jo munbee se 400 kilomitar ki doori par dakshin men mukhyabhoomi men sthit hai. gova kshetraphal men bharat ka sabase chhota aur janasnkhya ke hisab se doosara sabase chhota rajy hai. poori duniya men gova apane khoobasoorat samudr ke kinaron aur mashahoor sthapaty kala ke liye jana jata hai.

dona paaula bich, gova
Dona Paula Beach, Goa

gova pahale purtagal ka ek upanivesh tha. purtagaliyon ne gova par lagabhag 450 sal tak shasan kiya aur disnbar, 1961 men yah bharatiy prashasan ko saunp diya gaya. aur sanh 1987 ee. se gova ko rajy ka darja mila. isake uttar men terekhol nadi bahati hai jo gova ko maharashtr se alag karati hai. isake dakshin men karnatak ka uttar kannad zila aur poorv men pashchimi ghat aur pashchim men arab sagar hai. panaji, madaganv, vasko, mapusa, tatha ponda rajy ke pramukh shahar hain.

itihas

gova prachinakal men gomanchal, gopakapattanam, gopapuri, aur gomantak adi kee namon se vikhyat raha hai. is pradesh ki lnbi aitihasik parnpara rahi hai. gova pashchimi samudr tat par sthit bhootapoorv purtagali basti hai, jo 1961 se bharat ka abhinn ang ban gee. gova atiprachin nagar hai.

vasko d gama

vasko d gama ek purtagali navik the. vasko d gama ke dvara ki gee bharat yatraon ne pashchimi yoorop se kep aauf gud hop hokar poorv ke lie samudri marg khol die the. inhonne vishv itihas ke ek ne yug ki shuruat ki thi. yah yooropiy khoj yug ke sabase saphal khojakartaon men se ek hai, aur yah yoorop se bharat sidhi yatra karane vale jahazon ke kamandar the. vasko d gama ne purtagal ko ek vishv shakti banane men bhi madad ki thi.

gova ka aitihasik manachitr

ullekh

mahabharat men gova ka ullekh 'goparashtr' arthath 'gay charane valon ka desh' ke roop men milata hai. dakshin konkan ka ullekh gova rashtr ke roop men milata hai. snskrit ke kuchh prachin sroton men gova ko 'gopakapuri' aur 'gopakapattan' kaha gaya hai jinaka ullekh any grnthon ke alava 'harivnshamh' aur skand puran men prapt hota hai. gova ko bad men kahin kahin 'goanchal' bhi kaha gaya hai. any namon men gove, govapuri, gop ka patan, aur gomnt pramukh hain. taaulami ne gova ka ullekh eesvi sanh 200 ke lagabhag 'gouba' ke roop men kiya hai. arab ke madhyayugin yatriyon ne ise 'chndrapur' aur 'chndaur' ka nam diya hai jo mukhy roop se ek tatiy nagar tha. jis sthan ka nam purtagaliyon ne gova rakha vah aj ka chhota sa samudr tatiy shahar 'goa-velha' hai. kalantar men us kshetr ko gova kaha jane laga jis par purtagaliyon ne qabza kiya.

rachana

janashruti ke anusar gova jisamen konkan kshetr bhi hai aur jisaka vistar gujarat se keral tak mana jata hai, ki rachana parashuram ne ki thi. kahavat hai ki parashuram ne ek ygy ke dauran apane banon ki varsha se samudr ko kee sthanon par pichhe dhakel diya tha. logon ka kahana hai ki isi vajah se aj bhi gova men bahut se sthanon ka nam vanavali, vanasthali ityadi hai. uttari gova men haramal ke pas aj bhi bhoore rng ke ek parvat ko parashuram ke ygy karane ka sthan mana jata hai.

gova mukti divas

'gova mukti divas' prati varsh '19 disambar' ko manaya jata hai. bharat ko yoon to 1947 men hi azadi mil gee thi, lekin isake 14 sal bad bhi gova par purtagali apana shasan jamaye baithe the. 19 disambar, 1961 ko bharatiy sena ne 'aaupareshan vijay abhiyan' shuroo kar gova, daman aur div ko purtagaliyon ke shasan se mukt karaya tha.

bhautik evn manav bhoogol

bhoo-akriti

105 kilomitar samudri tat vale gova men retile tat, muhane v antarip hain. isake bhitari hisse men nichale pathar aur lagabhag 1,220 mitar oonche pashchimi ghaton (sahyadri) ka ek hissa hai. gova ki do pramukh nadiyan, mandovi v juari, ke muhane men gova ka dvip (ilhas) sthit hai. is trikoniy dvip ka shirsh antarip ek chattani muhana hai, jis par do lngaragah hain. yahan par tin shahar marmagav ya marmugav (vasko d gama sahit) madaganv aur panaji (navagova) hain.
doodhasagar jharana, gova
Dudhsagar Waterfall, Goa
purane gova shahar ka zyadatar hissa ab dhvast ho chuka hai, lekin gova ke shesh bharat men vilay ke bad se hi isaki achchhi dekharekh ki jati rahi hai. purane gova ka hi ek upanagar panaji bhi mandovi ke baen tat par sthit hai. yah ek suniyojit shahar hai, jo bhavy charchon, mukhy padari ke mahal, sachivalay, bazar aur konkan relamarg par sthit relave steshan se lage ek vishal bas adde se yukt hai. purane gova men bam jisas ka vishal girajaghar (16vin sadi men nirmit) aur ek vishv smarak sthit hai, jisamen sent fransis zeviyar ke avashesh surakshit rakhe ge hain. yahan par 16vin shatabdi men sthapit dharmapith bhi hai.

jalavayu

gova ki jalavayu ekaroop hai aur yahan par joon se sitambar ke bich dakshini-pashchimi manasoon se varsha hoti hai.

janajivan

gova ki janasnkhya men hinduon v eesaeeyon ki snkhya sarvadhik hai. prashasan v janajivan ki bhasha purtagali thi. purtagali shasan aur arthik sthitiyon ke karan hi govavasiyon ne n keval bhootapoorv purtagali-afriki bastiyon ki or, balki shesh bharat ki or bhi pravas kiya. purtagali snskriti ka prabhav unake namon, upanamon, charchon ki shailiyon v makanon men dikhata hai. gova ka sanskritik paridrishy dilachasp vaishamy prastut karata hai. pashchimi samudri tat aur muhane sadak kinare ki salibon, charchon se chihnit hai aur roman kaithelik eesaee jivan paddhati ke karan vishisht lagate hain; to tiledar v pahadidar poorv hindoo mandiron v vedikaon aur kuchh adivasiyon sahit mukhyatah hindoo abadi se alag dikhate hain. nishchit roop se yahan ek mishrit 'govani' snskriti vikasit huee hai, jo dedipyaman v punarutthanit konkani bhasha men vyakt hoti hai.

movor tat, kevelosim
Mobor Beach, Cavelossim

krishi

gova ke krishi utpadon men mukhy khady fasal chaval hai. isake atirikt dalen, ragi aur any khady fasalen bhi ugaee jati hain. nariyal, kajoo, supari tatha ganne jaisi nakadi fasalon ke sath-sath yahan anannas, am aur kela bhi hota hai. rajy men 1,424 varg kilomitar se adhik kshetr men ghane van hain.[5]
maee de diyooj charch, salaganv, gova
Mae De Deus Church, Saligao, Goa
ye fasalen gova ke jivan v jivika ke lie kafi mahattvapoorn hain. nichale pathar aur pashchimi ghat ke dhalan vanachchhadit hain. sagaun, bans aur kajoo mahattvapoorn arthik utpad hain. yadyapi inhen phir se ugane ke prayas kie ja rahe hain, lekin loh-ayask v mainganiz ki khuli khadanen paryavaran ke lie gambhir khatara paida karati hain.

sinchaee aur bijali

rajy men 'selaulim' aur 'anjunem' jaise bandhon aur any laghu sinchaee pariyojanaon ke hone se sinchit kshetr badhata ja raha hai. in pariyojanaon se ab tak kul 43,000 hekteyar ki sinchaee kshamata upalabdh ho saki hai. gova tatha maharashtr ki snyukh‍t sinchaee pariyojana tilari ka uddeshh‍y gova ki 24618 hekh‍teyar bhoomi ko sinchaee suvidha upalabh‍dh karana hai. rajy ke sabhi ganvon men bijali pahunchaee ja chuki hai aur shat-pratishat vidyutikaran ka lakshy prapt kiya ja chuka hai.[5]

van

gova rajh‍y ke 34 pratishat hish‍se par van hain. yahan lagabhag 30.18 lakh paudhe lagae ge tatha 978.50 hekh‍teyar kshetr par paudhe lagae ge.[5]

arthavyavastha

gova bharat ke ati vikasit rajh‍yon men se ek ke roop men ubhara hai. nivesh vatavaran aur adharabhoot snrachana ke mamalon men bhi gova ne bharat ke shreshh‍thatam rajh‍yon men se ek ka darja hasil kiya hai. yah mahanagaron, vh‍yaparik aur vanijyik kendron ke sath sadak, rel, samudri margon ke alava vayu marg ke dvara bhi bhali prakar juda hua hai. gova ke moramuganv men ek prakritik bndaragah hai aur sath hi kee chhote bndaragah bhi hain, jinamen vh‍yavasayik suvidhaon ke vikas ki apar snbhavanaen vidyaman hain. isake alava isamen poorn vikasit inh‍taranet snyojan aur teliphon ekh‍sachenjon ka vishal netavark bhi hai, jo isake nagarikon ko uchh‍ch gunavath‍ta vale jivan ki suvidha upalabh‍dh karate hain. at: bharatiy arthavh‍yavash‍tha ke vikas men gova agrani rajh‍y hai. yah rajh‍y ghane jngalon aur khanij snpada se snpanh‍n hai. yahan vibhinh‍n prakar krishi phasalon aur udyan krishi ki upaj hoti hai. rajh‍y ne paryatan, ilekh‍traauniki, aushadhi nirman aur krishi rasayanon ke kshetron men ulh‍lekhaniy pragati huee hai. yah rashh‍triy rajakosh men, khanan aur paryatan ke madhh‍yam se videshi mudra ka ulh‍lekhaniy yogadan karata hai. rajh‍y ki arthavh‍yavash‍tha men krishi, udyog aur seva ke kshetr men nivesh ki apar snbhavanaen vidyaman hain.[6]

udyog

gova men matsy udyog mahattvapoorn hai, sarakari nitiyon v riyayaton ne audyogik kshetr ke zariye gova ke tivr audyogikikaran ko badhava diya hai. urvarak, rasayan, dava, loha aur chini udyog yahan ke bade udyog hain. yahan par madhyam v laghu udyog bhi hain, jinamen paramparik hastashilp udyog bhi shamil hain. audyogik utpadon ka bharat v videsh men achchha bazar hai.

  • rajy men laghu udyogon ki snkhya 7110 hai.
  • 20 audyogik parisar hain. rajy ke khanij utpadon men phairo mainganij, baauksait, lauh-ayask adi shamil hain aur inake niryat se rajy ki arthavastha men mahattvapoorn yogadan milata hai.[5]

math‍sh‍yaki

gova men math‍sh‍yaki ka ek pramukh sh‍than hai kh‍yonki gova ki 90 pratishat janasnkhh‍ya math‍say udyog men lagi hai. ek lakh log lagabhag math‍sh‍y udyog men karyarat hain. 3220 machhuaron ko rajh‍y bima yojana men shamil kiya gaya hai. 718 machhuaron ko seving-kam-riliph phnd yojana men shamil kiya gaya hai.[5]

prashasan evn samajik visheshataen

prashasan

gova ke rajyapal ki niyukti rashtrapati dvara panch varsh ke lie ki jati hai. vah daman v div tatha dadara evn nagar haveli kendrashasit kshetr ka bhi prashasak hota hai. gova vidhanasabha men 40 siten hain. chunav dvara chuni gee gova ki lokapriy sarakar prajatantrik moolyon aur janata ke kalyan ke lie pratibaddh hai.

sh‍vash‍thh‍y

gova men logon ke gharon tak sh‍vash‍th suvidhaen upalabh‍dh karaee ja rahi hain. gova ka sh‍vash‍thh‍y tatha chikith‍sa suvidhaon ke mamale men pradarshan bahut achh‍chha hai. mobail helh‍th keyar tatha 108 enbulens seva shuroo ki gee hain. gova men sarakar dvara chalae ja rahe prathamik sh‍vash‍thh‍y kendron men navajat shishuon ki poori dekhabhal ki vh‍yavash‍tha hai.[5]

shiksha

skool aur vidyalay
loyola haee skool
prejenteshan kaaunvent madagav, gova
phatima kaaunvent, madagav, gova
litil phlaauvar aauf jisas haee skool
sent mairi kaaunvent haee skool, mapusa, gova
sent britto, gova
sharada mndir skool, panaji
shri damodar hayar sekendari skool aauf sains
dip vihar sekendari skool
dip vihar hayar sekendari skool
vishvavidyalay aur mahavidyalay
gova vishvavidyalay
birala instityoot aauf taiknolaauji end vigyan
gova injiniyaring kaaulej
gova instityoot aauf mainejamaint
gova medikal kaaulej
gavarnament kaaulej aauf arts, sains end kaaumars
em.ee.es. (marmoogav ejookeshan sosaiti) kaaulej
padri injiniyaring kaaulej konsiavo
sent jeviyars kaaulej, mapusa, gova
tolani meritaim instityoot

gova men saksharata ka pratishat 82.32 hai, jo bharat men keral (90.86) aur mizoram (88.80) ke bad tisari sabase adhik hai. gova men purush 88.88 pratishat aur stri 75.51 pratishat sakshar hai. gova men skool se lekar kaaulej v takaniki snsthanon tak vibhinn shreni ke shikshan v prashikshan snsthan hain. panaji ke nazadik hi gova vishvavidyalay sthit hai. ghat aur pot godi gatividhiyon se paripoorn hain aur isase alag miramar tat hai. jahan dakshini dhruv ke bare men apane shodhon v abhiyanon ke lie prasiddh samudr vigyan snsthan sthit hai. antarip par bhavy sarakari bhavan sthit hai. yahan par eshiya ka vishalatam samudr vigyan bhavan banane ki yojana banaee ja rahi hai. yah shahari vikas men vistar hua hai aur mandovi se porvorim tak phaila hai.

gova vishvavidyalay
gova vishvavidyalay 1985 men sthapit hua tha, aur isake antargat bnbee vishvavidyalay ke snatakottar anusndhan kendr ko bhi shamil kiya gaya. taleigao pathar par sthit yah sundar vishvavidyalay, gova rajy men uchch shiksha ka kendr ban gaya hai.[7]

snsh‍kriti

suramy sagaratat par basa gova prant apani prakritik sundarata v anoothi snskriti ke lie prasiddh hai. azadi se pahale yah prant purtagij v phransisiyon ka upanivesh rah chuka hai. is vajah se aj bhi yahan ke rahan-sahan, bhasha v khanapan par pashchimi snskriti ka poora prabhav dikhaee deta hai. 1542 men yahan sent phransis jeviyar ka agaman hua. unhonne yahan rahakar eesaee dharm ka prachar-prasar kiya. gova men 80 pratishat log eesaee hain.

gova vishvavidyalay

kala

rajh‍y ko kala evn snsh‍kriti nideshalay dvara aeeeso 9001-2000 pramanapatr diya gaya hai. gova men tait akadami ki sh‍thapana ki gee hai. sansh‍kritik gatividhiyon ko badhava dene tatha kalakaron ko sahayata dene ke lie kala samh‍man, kalakar kritidanh‍yata nidhi jaisi vibhinh‍n yojanaen chalaee ja rahi hain.

khanapan

gova men samudri bhojan lokapriy hai. gova ka pradhan bhojan chaval, machhali kari ke sath hai. gova men machhali se bane vynjan prasiddh hain. gova men vyapak roop se nariyal aur nariyal tel, mirch, masale, khady siraka ke sath khana pakane men istemal kiye jate hain. gova men sabase lokapriy madak pey pheni, kajoo pheni (jo kajoo ke ped ke phal ke kinvan se banaya jati hai), nariyal pheni hai. yahan ke bhojan men naaunavej shamil hai, par inake pakane ka tarika kaauntinental hota hai. mithaee ke roop men yahan mithaiyon ke bajay zyadatar chaaukalet, kek, pestri jaise yooropiy vynjan prachalit hain.[8]

khel

bharat men jahan kriket sabase lokapriy khel hai, vahin gova ka sabase lokapriy khel phutabaaul hai. gova men kee lokapriy phutabaaul klab bhi sthit hain. phutabaaul ke alava gova ke bahut se khiladi haauki men bhi dilachaspi rakhate hain.

bhasha

gova ki mukhy bhashaen konkani aur marathi hain. konkani gova ki rajabhasha hai. gova men sabase zyada konkani bhasha boli jati hai. konkani ek deshi bhasha ke roop men rajy men logon ke dvara 61.21% boli jati hai. isake alava marathi 27.12%, kannad 3.41%, urdoo 2.81% aur hindi 2.09% boli jati hai.

agonda tat ka ek drishy, gova
A View Of Aguada Beach, Goa

konkani bhasha

konkani gova, maharashtr ke dakshini bhag, karnatak ke uttari bhag, keral ke kuchh kshetron men boli jati hai. bhashayi taur par yah 'ary' bhasha parivar se snbndhit hai aur marathi se isaka kafi nikat ka snbndh hai. rajanitik taur par is bhasha ko apani pahachan ke liye marathi bhasha se kafi sngharsh karana pada hai. ab bharatiy snvidhan ke tahat konkani ko athavin anusoochi men sthan prapt hai.

marathi bhasha

marathi bhasha pashchimi aur madhy bharat men boli jane vali bharatiy-ary bhasha hai. isaka kshetr munbee ke uttar se gova ke pashchimi tat aur poorv men dakkan tak phaila hua hai. bhashaee star par yah ek ary bhasha hai jisaka vikas snskrit se apabhrnsh tak ka saphar poora hone ke bad arnbh hua. marathi bharat ki pramukh bhashaon men se ek hai.

manornjan

dooradarshan

  • 19 navnbar, 1982 men 1 kilovat ke transamitar ne gova men dooradarshan karyakramon ko rile karana arnbh kiya tha.
  • 28 navnbar, 1986 men snpoorn gova ko kavar karate hue is transamitar ko 10 kilovat ki kshamata men apagred kiya gaya.
basilik charch, gova
Basilica Church, Goa
  • 23 joon, 1990 men dooradarshan kendr, panaji ne karyakram nirman suvidha kendr ki haisiyat se somavar se shukravar tak 30 minat ki avadhi ke sthaniy karyakram prasarit karane arnbh kie.
  • aprail, 1994 men sthaniy karyakram nirman tatha prasaran ki avadhi ko 30 minat se badhakar 60 minat kar diya gaya tha.
  • aktoobar, 1996 men marathi karyakram arnbh kie ge. (marathi karyakramon ke prasaran ke sath prasaran avadhi badhakar 75 minat kar di gee)
  • 19 faravari, 2003 men bhookendr sthapit kiya gaya.
  • 19 disnbar, 2008 men atirikt studiyo suvidhaen arnbh ki geen.[9]

zile

gova rajy 2 zilon men vibhajit hai, jinaka kshetraphal, janasnkhya is prakar hai-

  1. uttari gova - kshetraphal 1,736 varg kilomitar- janasnkhya 758,573 (2001 janaganana ke anusar) aur mukhyalay panaji hai.
  2. dakshini gova - kshetraphal 1,966 varg kilomitar- janasnkhya 589,095 (2001 janaganana ke anusar) aur mukhyalay madagav hai.

yatayat aur parivahan

dabolim havaee adda, gova
Dabolim Airport, Goa

gova men 31 disnbar, 2008 tak 4,40,152 draiving laisens die ge tatha 6,59,012 vahanon ka pnjikaran kiya gaya.

sadak marg

rajh‍y men rashh‍triy rajamargon ki lnbaee 224 kilomitar tatha prantiy rajamargon ki lnbaee 232 kilomitar hai. isake alava 815 kilomitar zila marg hain.

rel marg

gova konkan relave ke madhh‍yam se munbee, mngalaur aur tiruvanntapuram se juda hai. is relamarg par anek tej-raftar relagadiyan shuroo ki gee hain. vash‍ko dakshin madhh‍y relave ke bngalaur aur belaganv sh‍teshanon se juda hai. is marg ka ish‍temal philahal mal yatayat ke lie ho raha hai.

havaee marg

dabolim havaee adde se munbee, dilli, tiruvanntapuram, kochchi, chennee, agati aur bngalaur ke lie niyamit viman sevaen upalabdh hain.

gova paryatan ka manachitr
bndaragah

marmagav rajh‍y ka pramukh bndaragah hai. yahan malavahak jahajon ke lie suvidhaen upalabh‍dh hain. isake alava panaji, tirakol, chapora betool aur talapona men bhi chhote bndaragah hain, magar inamen se panaji pramukh vh‍yash‍t bndaragah hai. yahan jahajon ke lie hal men hi ek path‍tan (port) chaloo hua hai. antarip se parilakshit aur adhunik jalarodhi v ghat se susajjit marmagav munbee v koshikod (bhootapoorv kalikat, keral) ke bich sabase shreshth bndaragah hain. yah loh-ayask v mainganiz ke niryat ke sarvatha anukool hai. vasko d gama shahari kshetr v mndaganv se guzarane vali relave lain ise karnatak men londa hokar jane vali mukhy dakshin relave se jodati hai. uttar se dakshin ko jane vali nee konkan relave gova ke atirikt arthik vikas men sahayata karati hai.

sthaniy sadhan

  • taiksi- gova men bina mitar aur mitar vali taiksiyan paryatakon ko ek sthan se doosare sthan le jane ka sabase lokapriy sadhan hain. yahan bina mitar vali taiksiyon men yatri pahale se bhade ke bare men tay karate hain.
  • bas- gova men zyadatar base praeevet chalakon dvara chalaee jati hain. yahan bason men kafi bhid hoti hai. gova sarakar dvara yahan kadamb bas sarvis chalaee jati hai jinamen dhire chalane vali bason se lekar drut seva ki lnbi doori ki basen shamil hoti hain.
  • nav- gova men yatriyon ke lie ek sthan se doosare sthan tak jane ke lie nav bhi ek behatarin sadhan hai.

janasnkhya

kalangut tat, gova
Calangute Beach, Goa

2001 ki janaganana ke anusar gova rajy ki kul janasnkhya 13,43,998 hai, jisamen-

  • gramin kshetr ki janasnkhya 6,75,129
  • shahar ki janasnkhya 6,68,869 .

paryatan

gova men paryatan ek phalata-phoolata udyam hai. isake lambe retile tat, tatiy vanaspatiyon v nariyal ke paudhon se bhare samudri kinare, purane hotal aur dabolim havaee adda bhari snkhya men videshi paryatakon, balki ab to bharatiy paryatakon ko bhi akarshit karata hai.
se kaithedral girajaghar, gova
Se Cathedral Church, Goa
lekin isase gova ke prakritik paryavaran ke lie khatara bhi paida hota hai. prakriti ki god men basa ‘gova’ apane kudarati drishyon, prachin dharoharon v itihas ko samete hue khoobasoorat paryatan sthal hai.

krisamas aur naya sal

gova prakartik saundary se se bharapoor sthal hai, yah apane samudri taton ki vajah se duniya bhar men prasiddh hai. gova ek saf suthara shahar hai. gova jane ke lie poora sal upayukt hai kintu aktoobar se mee tak ka samay gova jane ke lie sabase sahi rahata hai aur disambar men to gova jane ka alag hi maja hai kyonki gova men krisamas aur naya sal badi dhoomadham ke sath manaya jata hai naya sal manane ke lie gova men jagah-jagah se log ate hain isilie is samay yahan ki raunak dekhate layaq hoti hai.[10]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

pololem tat
pololem tat ka vihngam drishy
baga tat, gova
Baga Beach, Goa

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar
  2. 2.0 2.1 mukhyaprishth gova ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 13 mee, 2012.
  3. rajyapal (hindi) bharat ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 30 agast, 2014.
  4. manohar parrikar ne 14 march, 2017 ko chauthi bar mukhyamntri pad ki shapath li.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 gova (hindi) bharat ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 8 janavari, 2011.
  6. gova (hindi) (pi.ech.pi.) vyapar gyan snsadhan. abhigaman tithi: 11 joon, 2011.
  7. Goa University (angrezi) (pi.ech.pi) gova vishvavidyalay ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 9 janavari, 2011.
  8. gova ki rasoee (hindi) jagaran yahoo. abhigaman tithi: 8 janavari, 2011.
  9. gova men dooradarshan (hindi) (ech ti em) dooradarshan kendr, gova. abhigaman tithi: 8 janavari, 2011.
  10. gova (hindi) (ech ti em el) bharat yatra. abhigaman tithi: 8 janavari, 2011.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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