गौड़पाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(गौडपाद se punarnirdeshit)
gaudapad
gaudapad
any nam shri gaudapadachary
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr adhyatm tatha darshan
mukhy rachanaen 'mandooky karika', 'mandookyon-panishatkarika', 'uttaragitabhashy' adi.
prasiddhi darshanik, snt
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh advaitavad, shnkarachary
vishesh gaudapad ne advait vedant ke mukhy siddhant 'mayavad', 'vivartavad' ya 'ajativad' ka bada hi spasht pratipadan kiya hai. sath hi unhonne keval astik darshanon[1] ka hi nahin apitu bauddh darshanon ka bhi saphal khndan kiya.
any janakari gaudapad advait siddhant ke pradhan udghaghoshak the. inhonne apani karika men jis siddhant ko bijaroop men prakat kiya, usi ko shnkarachary ne apane grnthon men vistrit roop se samajhakar snsar ke samane rakha.

gaudapad ek sankhyakarita vyakhya ke rachiyata evn advait siddhat ke prasiddh achary the. gaudapad sankhyakarita ke padyon evn siddhaton ki thik-thik vyakhya karane men inaki tika mahattvapoorn hai. gaudapadachary ke jivan ke bare men koee vishesh bat nahin milati. achary shnkar ke shishy sureshvarachary ke 'naishkarmyasiddhi' grnth se keval itana pata lagata hai ki ve gaud desh ke rahane vale the. isase pratit hota hai ki unaka janm 'badagl' prant ke kisi sthan men hua tha. shnkar ke jivan charitr se itana gyat hota hai ki gaudapadachary ke sath unaki bhent huee thi, parntu isake any praman nahin milate.

gaudapad ke siddhant

gaudapad advait siddhant ke pradhan udghaghoshak the. inhonne apani karika men jis siddhant ko bijaroop men prakat kiya, usi ko shnkarachary ne apane grnthon men vistrit roop se samajhakar snsar ke samane rakha. karikaon men unhonne jis mat ka pratipadan kiya, use 'ajatavad' kahate hain. srishti ke vishay men bhinn-bhinn sampradayon ke bhinn-bhinn mat hain. koee kal se srishti manate hain aur koee bhagavan ke snkalp se isaki rachana manate hain. is prakar koee parinamavadi hain aur koee arambhavadi. kintu gaudapad ke siddhantanusar jagath ki utpatti hi nahin huee, keval ek akhand chidaghan satta hi mohavnsh prapachchavat bhas rahi hai. yahi bat achary in shabdon men kahate hain-

manodrishyamidn dvaitamadvaitn paramarth:.
manaso hmamanibhave dvaitn naivopalabhyate॥

yah jitana 'dvait' hai, sab man ka hi drishy hai. par marthat: to advait hi hai, kyonki man ke mananashoony ho jane par dvait ki upalabdhi nahin hoti.

achary ne apani karikaon men anek prakar ki yuktiyon se yahi siddh kiya hai ki sath, asath athava sadasath kisi bhi prakar se prapachch ki utpatti siddh nahin ho sakati. at: paramarthat: n utpatti hai, n pralay hai, n baddh hai, n sadhak hai, n mumukshu hai aur n mukt hi hai:

n nirodho n chotpattirn baddho n ch sadhak:.
n mumuksharn vai mukt ityesha paramarthata॥

bas jo samast viruddh kalpanaon ka adhishthan, sarvagat, asng apramey aur avikari atmatattv hai, ek matr vahi sadristu hain. maya ki mahima se rajjoo men sarp, shukti men rajat aur suvarn men abhooshanadi ke saman us sarvasngashoony nirvishesh chittattv men hi samast padarthon ki pratiti ho rahi hai.

gaudapad ki rachanaen

gaudapadachary ka sabase pradhan grnth hai- 'mandookyon-panishatkarika'. isaka shnkarachary ne bhashy likha hai. is karika ki 'mitakshara' namak tika bhi milati hai. unaki any tika hai- 'uttar gita-bhashy'. uttar gita (mahabharat) ka ansh hai, parntu yah ansh mahabharat ki sabhi pratiyon men nahin milata.

mandooky-karika

gaudapad rachit 'mandooky-karika' shnkar poorv vedant ka ek prasiddh grnth hai. gaudapad shnkarachary ke guru govindapad ke guru kahe jate hain. yah nishchit nahin hai ki 'mandooky-karika' ke rachayita gaudapad 'sankhyakarika' par bhashy likhane vale gaudapad hi hain ya koee any. 'mandooky-karika' ko 'gaudapad karika' bhi kaha jata hai. 'mandooky-karika' 'mandookyopanishad' par likhi huee tika ke roop men mani jati hai. gaudapad ki ek kriti 'uttaragitabhashy' bhi hai, parantu unake darshanik siddhant ke lie karika hi prasiddh hai. karika par shnkarachary ka bhashy bhi hai. donon ka hindi anuvad gita pres, gorakhapur men chhapa hai.

pratham prakaran

mandookyopanishad men kul barah mntr hain, kintu ve bade hi mahattv ke hain. unamen advait vedant ke sabhi mool tattv pae jate hain. karika ka pratham prakaran (agam prakaran) chhathe mntr ke bad prarambh hota hai. in chhah mntron men kaha gaya hai ki atma char vedon vala hai, thik vaise hi jaise 'onkar' men char pad hote hain. onkar ke a, u, m ke anuroop sthool (jagrat), sookshm (svapn) aur karan (sushupti) sharir hai aur tadanuroop jagrat, svapn, sushupti ke tin devata (samishtiroop) vishv, tejash evn pragy hain. inhin ko vaishvanar, hiranyagarbh evn eeshvar kaha jata hai. is prakar vyashti evn samashti men anuroopata hai. parantu uparyukt tin ke atirikt atma ka ek chautha pad hai, jo onkar ka amatraroop hai. vah pratham tin se vilakshan, unamen anugat, unaka adhishthan tatha unaka sakshi hai. atma ki vah turiyavastha avyavahary, prapnchopasham, shiv evn advait hai. jigyasu ke lie vahi gyatavy hai. vah atma, alakshan, agrahy, achinty, avyapadeshy tatha ekatmapratyayasar hai. vah n ant:prgy hai, n bahishprgy hai, n ubhayat:prgy hai aur n prgyanaghan hai. upanishad ke bad vale mntron men pratham tin avasthaon ki upasana ka phal batalaya gaya hai aur kaha gaya hai ki turiyavastha ko janane vala vyakti hi paramarthatattv ki prapti karata hai.

mandookyopanishad ki isi shiksha ko adhar banakar karika ki rachana ki gee hai, jo chhathe mntr ke bad se prarambh hoti hai. karika men char prakaran hain. agam prakaran, vaitathy prakaran, advait prakaran tatha alatashanti prakaran. pratham prakaran men agam ya shruti ko adhar banaya gaya hai. gaudapad ka kahana hai ki tinon avasthaon men jo tin prakar ke bhojy aur bhokta hain (sthool-vishv, sookshm-taijash, anand-pragy) unako janane vala vyakti sabhi bhogon ko bhogate hue bhi bhog men lipt nahin hota (karika 5). srishti karane ki bhala kyon ichchha ho sakati hai. isi se advait vedant men srishti vishayak charcha ka vishesh mahattv nahin hai. usaki upayogita keval advait siddhant ke sthapan men hi hai. advait hi paramarth hai aur dvait maya hai. turiyavastha ka anubhav ya advait ka bodh maya se mukt hone par hi hota hai. turiyavastha ya samadhi ki avastha jagrat evn svapn se hi nahin balki nidravastha se bhi bhinn hai, kyonki atma sarvada sarvadrikh hai (karika 12. 13). anadimaya se mukt hokar jiv in tinon se pare jata hai, kyonki gyan ho jane par kisi prakar ka dvait nahin rah jata hai.[2]

oopar onkar aur atma ki jo chatushpadavishayak anuroopata batalaee gee hai, usi ke adhar par onkar ko hi par aur oopar brahm kaha gaya hai aur onkar ki upasana ka upadesh hai. onkar ka upasak chinta aur bhay se mukt ho jata hai, kyonki vah antat: atm gyani ho jata hai.

dvitiy prakaran

vaitathy ka arth mithyatv hai. at: dvitiy prakaran ya vaitathy prakaran men dvait ka mithyatv yukti ya tark dvara dikhalaya gaya hai. is prakaran ki mukhy yukti yah hai ki jagrat aur svapnik padarthon men vastav men koee bhed nahin hai, arthath jaise svapnik jagath kalpanik ya mithya hai, vaise hi jagrat jagath bhi kalpanik ya mithya hai.[3] sadharanataya svapn aur jagrat men yah bhed kiya jata hai ki jagrat jagath adhik sthayi hai, adhik vistar vala hai, sarv pratyaksh tatha svapn ko badhit karane vala hai. kintu vicharapoorvak dekha jaye to yah tark thik gyan nahin padata, kyonki vistar, sthayitv, sarvapratyakshatv adi gun jagrat aur svapn men prakar ka bhed nahin siddh karate hain. balki keval matra ka bhed siddh karate hain. yah bhi kaha ja sakata hai ki jaise jagrat padarthon men svapn jagath badhit ho jata hai, vaise hi svapn men bhi jagrat padarthon ki viparitata dekhi jati hai.[4] udaharanarth pani pikar soye vyakti ko pyas ka svapn hota hai. jis prakar prakar jagrat avastha men saty aur asaty ka bhed kiya jata hai, vaise hi svapnavastha men bhi satyasaty ka bhed kiya jata hai, yadyapi poora svapn hi asaty hota hai. is prakar jagrat jagath aur svapn jagat-prakarat: saman jan padate hain. sare drishy padarth chahe ve svapn ke hon chahe jagrat ke, svaynprakash-atma ki maya ya kalpana hai. antarik ya bahy sabhi padarth mithya hain, chahe ve chitkalik hon ya dvikalik. jo vastu adi aur ant men nahin hai, vah madhy kal ya drishy kal men nahin hai.[5] padarthon ka bhed keval indriyon ke karan hai. agyan ke karan jaise rajju men sarp ka abhas hota hai, vaise hi sare padarth atma men kalpit hain. jaise rajju ka gyan hone par sarp ke mithyatv ka nishchay ho jata hai, vaise hi atma ka gyan ho jane par jagath ka mithyatv gyan padata hai. mool tattv ke vishay men[6] kee vad hain, parantu ve sabhi vad is atmatattv men hi kalpit hain. vastav men n pralay hai, n utpatti, n sadhak hain, n mumukshu hain aur n mukt hi. aisa gyan hi paramarthata hai.[7] brahm se prithakh ya aprithakh koee any vastu nahin hai. is advait tattv ko janakar gyani jagath men jadavath vyavahar karata hai.

tritiy prakaran

karika tritiy prakaran advait prakaran hai, jisamen tark aur drishtant ki sahayata se advait siddhant ka pratipadan kiya gaya hai. yahan atma ki tulana akash se ki gee hai. jaise akash sarvavyapi, saman, avikari tatha ek hai, vaise hi atma hai. jiv ghatakash ke saman hai n ki atma ka vika ya avayav.[8] jaise ghat ke phoot jane par ghatakash aur bahyakash ki ekata spasht ho jati hai, vaise hi agyan ke nasht ho jane par atma aur brahm ki ekata spasht ho jati hai. jaise moorkh vyakti ko akash malin jan padata hai, vaise hi agyani ko atma vikari maloom padati hai. dehadi samast snghat mayajany svapn ke saman hain. shruti men utpatti bodhak vaky gaun hain.[9] mrittika, lauh, visphuling adi ke udaharan brahm aur atma ki ekata dikhane ko hain. vibhinn staron ke adhikariyon ko dhyan men rakhakar upanishadon men vibhinn prakar ki upasanaon ki shiksha hai. kintu advait tattv to keval gyanagamy hi hai. matavishesh par agrah karane ke karan dvaitavadiyon ka apas men virodh hota hai, unase advaitavad ka kya virodh ho sakata hai, jabaki advaitavad ke lie sabhi prakar ke bhed mithya hain.[10] dvait to vyavahar kshetr ka vishay hai. vah keval maya ke karan abhasit hota hai. atma ka n janm hai, n mrityu hai aur atma ek hai. is siddhant ko drishti men rakhakar hi shruti ke srishti vishayak vaky samajhane chahie. kisi bhi vastu ka janm maya se ho sakata hai, tatvat: nahin.[11] jo log janm aur maran manate hain, unake mat men bhi jo utpattishil aur maranashil hai, usi ka janm-maran hota hai. ajanma aur anashvar ka nahin.

ajativad ka siddhant

isi prakaran men gaudapad ne apane prasiddh siddhant ajativad ka pratipadan kiya hai. karika 48 men ve kahate hain ki koee bhi jiv utpann nahin hota, kyonki usaka koee karan nahin hai. jis ajanma brahm men kisi ki utpatti nahin hoti, vahi sarvottam saty hai. yah pahale kaha ja chuka hai ki shruti men srishti vishayak vakyon ka arth yah nahin hai ki srishti vastavik hai. aise vaky bhavishyadh vatti se gaun hain.[12] vastuv men shruti to ajativad ka hi upadesh karati hai, kyonki upanishadon men spasht kaha gaya 'neh nanasti kinchan', - 'neti-neti' tatha 'nayn kutashchinn babhuv kashchith' adi. isi prakar tarkat: bhi yah kaha ja sakata hai ki asath (akashakusum) ki to kisi bhi prakar utpatti nahin ho sakati. utpatti sath-roop ki hi ho sakati hai, kintu vah bhi mayajany hi ho sakati hai, tatvat: nahin. tatv ki utpatti nahin ho sakati. n to ek tatv doosare tatv ki utpatti kar sakata hai aur n usaki utpatti asath se ho sakati hai. maya se jab tak man ka spandan hota rahata hai, tab tak dvait dikhata hai.[13] at: jab apane bhav ki prapti hati hai, tab dvait ki upalabdhi nahin hoti.[14] isi prasng men gaudapad ne apane bhav[15] tatha asparsh-yog ka varnan[16] kiya hai. brahm ki prapti chitt ke lay ho jane par ya manonash se hi hoti hai. usaka sadhan asparsh yog hai, jisaka arth hai, mayajany ya jagath se sarvatha achhoota ya aspasht rahana ya maya ke pare jana.

chautha prakaran

alatashanti prakaran chautha prakaran hai. is prakaran ke bare men vivad hai ki gaudapad dvara rachit hai ya kisi bauddh dvara, kyonki isamen buddh shabd[17] ka hi nahin apitu bauddh darshan ke anek shabdon ka prayog hai. iparampara ke anusar gaudapad rachit mana gaya hai. is prakaran men pun: dvaitavadiyon ka khndan karate hue kaha gaya hai ki kisi bhi vastu ke svabhav ka viparyay nahin hota, at: ajati hi param saty hai. sankhy ke satkaryavad ka khndan karate hue kaha gaya hai.[18] ki yadi karyakaran abhinn hai to kary bhi ajanma ho jata hai. ajanma se kisi ki utpatti ho, isake lie koee praman ya drishtant nahin hai.[19] isi prakar hetu aur phal ke anaditv ko bhi siddh nahin kiya ja sakata. hetu phal ke poorva par ka agyan siddh karata hai ki vastav men utpatti ka karan agyan hi hai arthath usase ajati hi siddh hoti hai. utpatti n svat: ho sakati hai aur n parat:.[20] yahan par kuchh log gaudapad ka nagarjun se samy dikhate hain. chitt se vigyan ki utpatti hoti hai. is vigyanavadi siddhant ka bhi khndan kiya gaya hai. vastav men chitt tatv ka sparsh nahin kar sakata. jaise vigyan mithya hai, vaise hi chitt bhi mithya hai. yahan phir jagath ko svapnik bataya gaya hai. asath se n to asath ki utpatti hoti hai aur n hi sath ki. vaise hi sath se n sath ki utpatti hoti hai aur n asath ki.[21] jagath ki satta to keval upalabdhi aur vyavahar ke adhar par mani gee hai.[22] paramarth saty to ajati hi hai, jaise alat spandan se sidha, tedha bhinn bhinn roopon men dikhaee padata hai, vaise hi vigyan ka bhi skuran hota hai, isamen dravyatv nahin hota hai. jab tak hetu phal par agrah hai, tabhi tak utpatti aur nash dekhe jate hain. jab hetu phal par agrah kshin ho jata hai, tabhi snsar ka bhi abhav ho jata hai.[23] paramarthataya sab kuchh aj hi hai.[24] atma jo aj bhi vyavaharik drishti se kaha jata hai. paramarthat: to vah shabd se pare hai, at: use aj bhi nahin kaha ja sakata.[25] mnd buddhi vale log hi atma ke vishay men kahate hain ki vah hai, nahin hai, hai aur nahin hai, vah nahin hai nahin hai. vastav men atma madhyamikon ki chatushkoti se pare hai.[26] dvaitavadi vasvat men kripan hain, ve abhay roop advait tatv men bhay dekhane vale hote hain (abheyebhayadarshin:). atmgyani hi akripan hai, vahi nirbhay hai. bauddhon men yah siddhant nahin paya jata hai.

oopar ke vivechan se yah spasht ho jata hai ki gaudapad ne advait vedant ke mukhy siddhant mayavad, vivartavad ya ajativad ka bada hi spasht pratipadan kiya hai. sath hi unhonne keval astik darshanon (sankhy, nyay adi) ka hi nahin apitu bauddh darshanon ka bhi saphal khndan kiya hai. isake atirikt unhonne upalabdhi ki shiksha men dikhakar usaki sngati ko tark se bhi siddh kiya hai. is drishti se gaudapad karika-advaitavad vedant ka anupam grnth hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

tripathi, pro. ramakant vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 193.

  1. sankhy, nyay adi
  2. karika 16-18
  3. yatha tatr tatha svapne-karika 4
  4. karika 7
  5. karika 6
  6. karika 20-28
  7. karika 32
  8. karika 7
  9. karika 14
  10. karika 17
  11. karika 27
  12. karika 14
  13. karika 29
  14. karika 38
  15. karika 34-38
  16. karika 39-47
  17. karika 1
  18. karika 11-12
  19. karika 13
  20. karika 22
  21. karika 40
  22. karika 44
  23. karika 55-56
  24. karika 57 tatha karika 71
  25. karika 74
  26. karika 83-84

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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