चंद्रकीर्ति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

chndrakirti (utkarsh 600 se 650 ee.) bauddh tarkashastr ke prasngik mat ke mukhy pratinidhi the. inhonne bauddh sadhu nagarjun ke vicharon par 'prasannapad' namak prasiddh tika likhi thi. halanki nagarjun ki vyakhya men pahale se kee tikaen thin, lekin chndrakirti ki tika inamen sabase pramanik ban gee. mool roop se snskrit men snrakshit yah ekamatr tika hai.[1]

janm tatha shiksha

tibbati itihas lekhak taranath ke kathananusar chndrakirti ka janm dakshin bharat ke kisi 'samnt' namak sthan men hua tha. chndrakirti balyakal se hi ye bade pratibhashali the. bauddh dharm men dikshit hokar inhonne tripitakon ka gnbhir adhyayan kiya. theravadi siddhant se asntusht hokar ye mahayan darshan ke prati akrisht hue the. usaka adhyayan inhonne achary kamalabuddhi tatha achary dharmapal ki dekharekh men poorn kiya tha. kamalabuddhi 'shoonyavad' ke pramukh achary buddhapalat tatha achary bhavavivek (bhavavivek ya bhavy) ke patt shishy the.[2]

'shoonyavad' ke pratinidhi

achary dharmapal nalnda mahavihar ke kulapati the, jinake shishy shilabhadr ne chini yatri hvenasang ko mahayan ke pramukh grnthon ka adhyapan karaya tha. chndrakirti ne nalnda mahavihar men hi adhyapak ke gauravamay pad par arudh hokar apane darshanik grnthon ka pranayan kiya. chndrakirti ka samay eesvi shashth shatak ka uttarardh hai. yogachar mat ke achary chndragomi se inaki spardha ki kahani bahut prasiddh hai. ye 'shoonyavad' ke prasngik mat ke pradhan pratinidhi mane jate hain.

rachanaen

chndrakirti ki tin rachanaen ab tak gyat hain-

  1. madhyamikavatar - is rachana ka keval tibbati anuvad hi upalabdh hai, mool snskrit ka pata nahin chalata. yah 'shoonyavad' ki vyakhya karane vala maulik grnth hai.
  2. chatu: shatak tika - isaka bhi keval arnbhik ansh hi mool snskrit men upalabdh hai. samagr grnth tibbati anuvad men milata hai, jisake uttarardh[3] ka vidhushekhar shastri ne snskrit men pun: anuvad kar 'vishvabharati sirij'[4] men prakashit kiya.
  3. prasannapada - yah snskrit men poornat: upalabdh atynt prakhyat grnth hai, jo nagarjun ki 'madhyamikakarika' ki nitant praudh, vishad tatha vidvattapoorn vyakhya hai.[2]

'madhyamikakarika' ki rahasyamayi karikaon ka goodharth 'prasannapada' ke anushilan se badi sugamata se abhivyakt hota hai. nagarjun ka yah grnth karikabaddh hone par bhi yayarthat: sootragrnth ke saman snkshipt, gnbhir tatha goodh hai, jise subodh shaili men samajhakar yah vyakhya namat: hi nahin, pratyut vastut: bhi 'prasannapada' hai. chndrakirti ne ne tarkon ki udvabhavana kar 'shoonyavad' ke pratipakshi tarko ka khndan badi gnbhirata tatha praudhi ke sath kiya hai. badarayan ke brahmasootron ke rahasy samajhane ke liye jis prakar achary shnkar ke bhashy ka anushilan avashyak hai, usi prakar 'madhyamikakarika' ke goodh tatv samajhane ke liye achary chndrakirti ki 'prasannapada' ka anusndhan ni:sndeh avashyak hai.

darshanik vichar

  • achary chndrakirti prasngik madhyamik mat ke prabal samarthak rahe the. bhavavivek ne buddhapalit dvara keval prasng vakyon ka hi prayog kiye jane par anek akshep kiye. unaka (bhavavivek) kahana tha ki keval prasng vakyon ke dvara paravadi ko shoonyata ka gyan nahin karaya ja sakata, at: svatantr anuman ka prayog nitant avashyak hai. is par chndrakirti ka kahana hai ki asali madhyamik ko svatantr anuman ka prayog nahin hi karana chahie. svatantr anuman ka prayog tabhi sambhav hai, jabaki vyavahar men vastu ki svalakshanasatta svikar ki jae.
  • chndrakirti ke matanusar svalakshanasatta vyavahar men bhi nahin hai. yahi nagarjun ka bhi abhipray hai. unaka kahana hai ki paramarthat: shunyata manate hue vyavahar men svalakshanasatta manakar bhavavivek ne nagarjun ke abhipray ke viparit acharan kiya hai. chndrakirti ke anusar bhavavivek nagarjun ke sahi mantavy ko nahin samajh sake.
  • chndrakirti prasng vakyon ka prayojan paravadi ko anuman virodh dikhalana matr manate hain. prativadi jab apane mat men virodh dekhata hai to svayn usase hat jata hai. yadi virodh dikhalane par bhi vah nahin hatata hai to svatantr hetu ke prayog se bhi use nahin hataya ja sakata, at: svatantr anuman ka prayog vyarth hai. svatantr anuman nahin manane par bhi chndrakirti prasiddh anuman manate hain, jisake dharmi, pakshadharmata adi pratipaksh ko many hote hain.
  • nyay parampara ke anusar paksh-pratipaksh donon dvara many ubhay prasiddh anuman ka prayog uchit mana jata hai. arthath drishtant adi vadi evn prativadi donon ko many hona chahie. kintu chndrakirti yah avashyak nahin manate. unaka kahana hai ki yah ubhay prasiddhi svatantr hetu manane par nirbhar hai. svatantr hetu svalakshanasatta manane par nirbhar hai. svalakshanasatta manana hi sari gadabadi ka mool hai. at: chndrakirti ke anusar bhavavivek ne svalakshanasatta manakar nagarjun ke darshan ko vikrit kar diya hai. keval prasng ka prayog hi paryapt hai aur usi se parapratigya ka nishedh ho jata hai.
  • vidvanon ki ray men chndrakirti ne achary nagarjun ke abhipray ko yathartharoop men prastut kiya.
  • achary chndrakirti ki anek rachanaen hain, jinamen nagarjun pranit 'mulamadhyamikakarika' ki tika 'prasannapada', aryadev ke 'chatu:shatak' ki tika 'madhyamakavatar' aur usaki svavritti pramukh hai. in rachanaon ke dvara chndrakirti ne nagarjun ke madhyamik darshan ki sahi samajh paida ki hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. any tikaen sirf tibbati anuvadon men upalabdh hain
  2. 2.0 2.1 chndrakirti (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 19 aprail, 2014.
  3. 8ven parichchhed se lekar 16ven parichchhed tak
  4. snkhya 2, kalakatta, 1951

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