चयनित लेख  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mukhaprishth par chayanit alekhon ki soochi

rasakhan ki bhasha
rasakhan ke dohe mahavan, mathura

        rasakhan ki bhasha solahavin shatabdi men brajabhasha ke sahityik asan par pratishthit ho chuki thi. bhakt-kavi sooradas ise sarvadeshik kavy bhasha bana chuke the kintu unaki shakti bhasha saushthav ki apeksha bhav dyotan men adhik rami. isilie baboo jagannathadas 'ratnakar' brajabhasha ka vyakaran banate samay rasakhan, bihari lal aur ghananand ke kavyadhyayan ko sooradas se adhik mahattv dete hain. rasakhan ko 'ras ki khan' kaha jata hai. inake kavy men bhakti, shrringar ras donon pradhanata se milate hain. rasakhan krishn bhakt hain aur prabhu ke sagun aur nirgun nirakar roop ke prati shraddhalu hain. rasakhan ki bhasha ki visheshata usaki svabhavikata hai. unhonne brajabhasha ke sath khilavad n kar usake madhur, sahaj evn svabhavik roop ko apanaya. sath hi bolachal ke shabdon ko sahityik shabdavali ke nikat lane ka saphal prayas kiya. ... aur padhen

maury kal
maury kalin bharat ka manachitr

        maury kal (322-185 eesa poorv) bharat ke itihas men ati mahattvapoorv sthan rakhata hai. eesa poorv 326 men sikandar ki senaen pnjab ke vibhinn rajyon men vidhvnsak yuddhon men vyast thin. madhy pradesh aur bihar men nnd vnsh ka raja dhanannd shasan kar raha tha. sikandar ke akraman se desh ke lie snkat paida ho gaya tha. dhanannd ka saubhagy tha ki vah is akraman se bach gaya. yah kahana kathin hai ki desh ki raksha ka mauqa padane par nnd samrat yoonaniyon ko pichhe hatane men samarth hota ya nahin. magadh ke shasak ke pas vishal sena avashy thi, kintu janata ka sahayog use prapt nahin tha. praja usake atyacharon se pidit thi. asahy kar-bhar ke karan rajy ke log usase asntusht the. desh ko is samay ek aise vyakti ki avashyakata thi, jo magadh samrajy ki raksha tatha vriddhi kar sake. videshi akraman se utpann snkat ko door kare aur desh ke vibhinn bhagon ko ek shasan-sootr men bandhakar chakravarti samrat ke adarsh ko charitarth kare. shighr hi rajanitik mnch par ek aisa vyakti prakat bhi hua. is vyakti ka nam tha- 'chndragupt maury'. chndragupt ki mrityu ke pashchath usaka putr 'bindusar' samrat bana. bindusar ka putr tha 'ashok mahan' jisaka janm lagabhag 304 ee. poorv men mana jata hai. ... aur padhen

holi
holi ke vibhinn drishy

        holi bharat ka pramukh tyohar hai. puranon men varnit hai ki hiranyakashipu ki bahan holika varadan ke prabhav se nity agni snan karati thi. hiranyakashipu ne apani bahan holika se prahlad ko god men lekar agnisnan karane ko kaha. usane samajha ki aisa karane se prahlad agni men jal jaega tatha holika bach jaegi. holika ne aisa hi kiya, kintu holika jal gayi, prahlad bach gaye. is parv ko 'navanneshti ygyparv' bhi kaha jata hai, kyonki khet se aye navin ann ko is din ygy men havan karake prasad lene ki parampara bhi hai. us ann ko 'hola' kahate hai. isi se isaka nam 'holikotsav' pada. sabhi log apasi bhedabhav ko bhulakar ise harsh v ullas ke sath manate hain. holi parasparik saumanasy ekata aur samanata ko bal deti hai. ... aur padhen

vimudrikaran
500-1000-rupee-notes.jpg

          vimudrikaran ek arthik gatividhi hai jisake antargat sarakar purani mudra ko samapt kar nee mudra ko prachalit karati hai. jab desh men kala dhan badh jata hai aur arthavyavastha ke lie khatara ban jata hai to ise door karane ke lie is vidhi ka prayog kiya jata hai. bharat ki azadi ke bad pradhanamntri moraraji desaee ke pradhanamntritv kal men janavari 1978 men ₹1000, ₹5000 aur ₹10000 ke not ko pahali bar vimudrikrit kiya gaya. 8 navnbar, 2016 ko bharatiy pradhanamntri narendr modi ne ₹500 aur ₹1000 ke noton ko usi rat 12 baje se bnd kie jane ki ghoshana ki. bharat men mudra snbndhi kary bharatiy rizarv baink snbhalati hai. bharat sarakar, rizarv baink ki salah par jari kiye jane vale vibhinn moolyavarg ke bainkanoton ke snbndh men nirnay leti hai. ... aur padhen

bharatiy snskriti
Indian-Culture.jpg

          bharatiy snskriti bharat ke vistrit itihas, sahity, vilakshan bhoogol, vibhinn dharmon tatha unaki paramparaon ka sammishran hai. bharatiy snskriti ko 'dev snskriti' kahakar bhi sammanit kiya gaya hai. bharat ke nivasi aur unaki jivan shailiyan, unake nrith‍y aur sngit shailiyan, kala aur hash‍takala jaise anh‍y anek vidhaen bharatiy snsh‍kriti aur virasat ke vibhinh‍n varnon ko prastut karati hain, jo desh ki rashtriyata ka sachh‍cha chitr prash‍tut karate hain. bharatiy snskriti vishv ki pradhan snskriti hai, yah koee garvokti nahin, balki vastavikata hai. hazaron varshon se bharat ki sanskritik prathaon, bhashaon, riti-rivazon adi men vividhata bani rahi hai jo ki aj bhi vidyaman hai aur yahi anekata men ekata bharatiy snskriti ki mahanh visheshata hai. ... aur padhen

svatntrata divas
adhi rat ko svatntrata

        svatntrata divas ek aisa din hai jab ham apane mahanh rashh‍triy netaon aur sh‍vatntrata senaniyon ko apani shraddhanjali dete hain jinh‍honne videshi niyntran se bharat ko azad karane ke lie anek balidan die aur apane jivan nh‍yauchhavar kar die. mee 1857 men dilli ke kuchh samachar patron men yah bhavishyavani chhapi ki plasi ke yuddh ke pashchath 23 joon 1757 ee. ko bharat men jo angrezi rajy sthapit hua tha vah 23 joon 1857 ee. tak samapt ho jaega. yah bhavishyavani sare desh men phail gee aur logon men svatntrata prapt karane ke lie josh ki lahar daud gee. 14 agast, 1947 ko rat ko 11 baje snghatak sabha dvara bharat ki sh‍vatntrata ko manane ki ek baithak arnbh huee, jisamen adhikar pradan kie ja rahe the. jaise hi ghadi men rat ke 12 baje bharat ko azadi mil gee aur bharat ek sh‍vatntr desh ban gaya. pratyek varsh 15 agast ko bharatiy pradhanamntri pratah 7 baje lal qile par jhanda laharate hain aur apane deshavasiyon ko apane desh ki niti par bhashan dete hain. ... aur padhen

bharatiy kranti divas
govaliya taink maidan

        bharatiy kranti divas prativarsh 9 agast ko manaya jata hai. yah din 'agast kranti divas' ke roop men bhi jana jata hai. dvitiy vishv yuddh men samarthan lene ke bavazood jab angrez bharat ko svatntr karane ko taiyar nahin hue to rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ne bharat chhodo andolan ke roop men azadi ki antim jng ka ailan kar diya jisase britaniya huqoomat men dahashat phail gee. 9 agast, sanh 1942 men is andolan ki shuruat huee thi, isilie 9 agast ke din ko itihas men agast kranti divas ke roop men jana jata hai. yah andolan mumbee ke jis park se shuroo hua use ab agast kranti maidan ke nam se jana jata hai. gandhiji ne ahinsak roop se andolan chalane ka ahvan kiya tha lekin angrezon ko bhagane ka deshavasiyon men aisa junoon paida ho gaya ki kee sthanon par bam visphot hue, sarakari imaraton ko jala diya gaya, bijali kat di gee tatha parivahan aur snchar sevaon ko bhi dhvast kar diya gaya. ... aur padhen

hiroshima divas
The-Atomic-bomb-mushroom-cloud-over-Hiroshima.jpg

        hiroshima divas 6 agast ko kaha jata hai. amerika ne 6 agast, 1945 ke din japan ke hiroshima nagar par ‘litil baauy’ namak yooreniyam bam giraya tha. is bam ke prabhav se 13 varg ki.mi. men tabahi mach gayi thi. hiroshima ki 3.5 lakh ki abadi men se ek lakh chalis hazar log ek jhatake men hi mare ge. ye sab sainik nahin the. inamen se adhikansh sadharan nagarik, bachche, boodhe tatha striyan thin. isake bad bhi anek varshon tak anaginat log vikiran ke prabhav se marate rahe. is amanaviy vinash ke tin din bad hi 9 agast ko ‘fait main’ namak plootoniyam bam nagasaki par giraya gaya, jisamen anumanit 74 hazar log visphot v garmi ke karan mare ge. inamen bhi adhikansh nirih nagarik the. ... aur padhen

rng
Rgb-mix.jpg

        rng [shuddh: ranh‌g] athava varn ka hamare jivan men bahut mahattv hai. rng hazaron varshon se hamare jivan men apani jagah banae hue hain. prachinakal se hi rng kala men bharat ka vishesh yogadan raha hai. mugal kal men bharat men rng kala ko atyadhik mahattv mila. rngon se hamen vibhinn sthitiyon ka pata chalata hai. ham apane charon taraf anek prakar ke rngon se prabhavit hote hain. rng, manavi ankhon ke varnakram se milane par chhaya sambndhi gatividhiyon se utpann hote hain. mool roop se indradhanush ke sat rngon ko hi rngon ka janak mana jata hai, ye sat rng lal, narngi, pila, hara, asamani, nila tatha baingani hain. rng se vibhinn prakar ki shreniyan evn bhautik vinirdesh vastu, prakash srot ityadi ke bhautik gunadharm jaise prakash vilayan, samaveshan, paravartan jude hote hain ... aur padhen

sindhu ghati sabhyata
sindh men mohanajodado men hadappa snskriti ke avashesh

        sindhu ghati sabhyata vishv ki prachin nadi ghati sabhyataon men se ek pramukh sabhyata thi. aj se lagabhag 79 varsh poorv pakistan ke 'pashchimi pnjab prant' ke 'mantagomari zile' men sthit 'hariyana' ke nivasiyon ko shayad is bat ka kinchitmatr bhi abhas nahin tha ki ve apane as-pas ki zamin men dabi jin eeton ka prayog itane dhadalle se apane makanon ke nirman men kar rahe hain, vah koee sadharan eeten nahin, balki lagabhag 5,000 varsh purani aur poori tarah vikasit sabhyata ke avashesh hain. is agyat sabhyata ki khoj ka shrey 'rayabahadur dayaram sahani' ko jata hai. unhonne hi puratattv sarvekshan vibhag ke mahanideshak 'sar jaaun marshal' ke nirdeshan men 1921 men is sthan ki khudaee karavayi. lagabhag ek varsh bad 1922 men 'shri rakhal das banarji' ke netritv men pakistan ke sindh prant ke 'larakana' zile ke mohanajodado men sthit ek bauddh stoop ki khudaee ke samay ek aur sthan ka pata chala. ...aur padhen

dipavali
Diya-Diwali-1.jpg

        dipavali athava 'divali' bharat ke pramukh tyoharon men se ek hai. tyoharon ka jo vatavaran dhanateras se prarambh hota hai, vah aj ke din poore charam par ata hai. dipavali ki ratri ko gharon tatha dukanon par bhari snkhya men dipak, momabattiyan aur balb jalae jate hain. prachalit manyataon ke anusar kartik amavasya ko bhagavan shriram chaudah varsh ka vanavas katakar ayodhya laute the, tab ayodhyavasiyon ne shriram ke rajyarohan par dipamalaen jalakar mahotsav manaya tha. is din lakshmi ke poojan ka vishesh vidhan hai. ratri ke samay pratyek ghar men dhanadhany ki adhishthatri devi mahalakshmi, vighn-vinashak ganesh ji aur vidya evn kala ki devi mateshvari sarasvati ki pooja-aradhana ki jati hai. brahm puran ke anusar is ardharatri men mahalakshmi svayn bhoolok men ati hain aur pratyek sadgrihasth ke ghar men vicharan karati hain. jo ghar har prakar se svachchh, shuddh aur sundar tariqe se susajjit aur prakashayukt hota hai, vahan ansh roop men thahar jati hain. ... aur padhen

ramalila
ramalila

        ramalila uttari bharat men paramparagat roop se khela jane vala ram ke charit par adharit natak hai. yah prayah vijayadashami ke avasar par khela jata hai. dashahara utsav men ramalila bhi mahatvapoorn hai. ramalila men ram, sita aur lakshman ke jivan ka vrittant ka varnit kiya jata hai. ramalila natak ka mnchan desh ke vibhinn kshetron men hota hai. yah desh men alag-alag tariqe se manaya jata hai. bngal aur madhy bharat ke alava dashahara parv desh ke any rajyon men kshetriy vishamata ke bavajood ek saman utsah aur shauq se manaya jata hai. ... aur padhen

shraddh
shraddh

        shraddh poorvajon ke prati sachchi shraddha ka pratik hain. hindoo dharm ke anusar, pratyek shubh kary ke prarambh men mata-pita, poorvajon ko namaskar ya pranam karana hamara kartavy hai, hamare poorvajon ki vnsh parampara ke karan hi ham aj yah jivan ji rahe hain. brahm puran ne shraddh ki paribhasha is prakar ki hai- 'jo kuchh uchit kal, patr evn sthan ke anusar uchit (shastranumodit) vidhi dvara pitaron ko lakshy karake shraddhapoorvak brahmanon ko diya jata hai', vah shraddh kahalata hai. shraddh-karm men pake hue chaval, doodh aur til ko mishrit karake pind banate hain, use 'sapindikaran' kahate hain. pind ka arth hai sharir. yah ek parnparik vishvas hai, jise vigyan bhi manata hai ki har pidhi ke bhitar matrikul tatha pitrikul donon men pahale ki pidhiyon ke samanvit 'gunasootr' upasthit hote hain. ... aur padhen

gandhi yug
mahatma gandhi

        'gandhi yug' mahatma gandhi ke apane saty, ahinsa evn satyagrah ke sadhanon se bharatiy rajanitik mnch par 1919 ee. se 1948 ee. tak ke karyakal ko mana jata hai. je. ech. homs ne gandhi ji ke bare men kaha ki- "gandhi ji ki ganana vigat yugon ke mahanh vyaktiyon men ki ja sakati hai. ve alfred, vashingatan tatha laifte ki tarah ek mahanh rashtr nirmata the. unhonne bilabar fors, gairisan aur linkan ki bhanti bharat ko dasata se mukt karane ka mahattvapoorn kary kiya. ve sent fransis evn taaulastay ki ahinsa ke upadeshak aur buddh, eesa tatha jarathrust ki tarah adhyatmik neta the." gandhi ji bharat ke un kuchh chamakate hue sitaron men se ek the, jinhonne desh ki svatntrata evn rashtriy ekata ke lie apana poora jivan samarpit kar diya. ... aur padhen

chaitany mahaprabhu
Chetanya-Mahaprabhu.jpg

          chaitany mahaprabhu bhaktikal ke pramukh snton men se ek hain. inhonne vaishnavon ke gaudiy snpraday ki adharashila rakhi. bhajan gayaki ki ek nayi shaili ko janm diya tatha rajanitik asthirata ke dinon men hindoo-muslim ekata ki sadbhavana ko bal diya, jati-pant, oonch-nich ki bhavana ko door karane ki shiksha di tatha vilupt vrindavan ko phir se basaya aur apane jivan ka antim bhag vahin vyatit kiya. balyavastha men inaka nam vishvnbhar tha, parntu sabhi inhen 'nimaee' kahakar pukarate the. gauravarn ka hone ke karan log inhen 'gaurang', 'gaur hari', 'gaur sundar' adi bhi kahate the. mahaprabhu chaitany ke jivan charit ke lie vrindavanadas dvara rachit 'chaitany bhagavat' aur krishnadas kaviraj dvara 1590 men rachit 'chaitany charitamrit' namak granth pramukh hain. chaitany mahaprabhu ne 'achinty bhedabhedavad' ka pravartan kiya, kintu pramanik roop se inaka koee granth upalabdh nahin hota. inake kuchh shishyon ke matanusar 'dashamool shlok' inake rache hue hain. ... aur padhen

bharatiy snskriti
Indian-Culture.jpg

          bharatiy snskriti bharat ke vistrit itihas, sahity, vilakshan bhoogol, vibhinn dharmon tatha unaki paramparaon ka sammishran hai. bharatiy snskriti ko 'dev snskriti' kahakar bhi sammanit kiya gaya hai. bharat ke nivasi aur unaki jivan shailiyan, unake nrith‍y aur sngit shailiyan, kala aur hash‍takala jaise anh‍y anek vidhaen bharatiy snsh‍kriti aur virasat ke vibhinh‍n varnon ko prastut karati hain, jo desh ki rashtriyata ka sachh‍cha chitr prash‍tut karate hain. bharatiy snskriti vishv ki pradhan snskriti hai, yah koee garvokti nahin, balki vastavikata hai. hazaron varshon se bharat ki sanskritik prathaon, bhashaon, riti-rivazon adi men vividhata bani rahi hai jo ki aj bhi vidyaman hai aur yahi anekata men ekata bharatiy snskriti ki mahanh visheshata hai. ... aur padhen

svastik
Swt red.jpg

          svastik hindoo dharm ka pavitr, poojaniy chihn aur prachin dharm pratik hai. puratan vaidik sanatan snskriti ka param mngalakari pratik chihn svastik apane ap men vilakshan hai. yah mangalik chihn anadi kal se sampoorn srishti men vyapt raha hai. atyant prachin kal se hi bharatiy snskriti men svastik ko mngal-pratik mana jata raha hai. vighnaharta ganesh ki upasana dhan, vaibhav aur aishvary ki devi lakshmi ke sath bhi shubh labh, svastik tatha bahikhate ki pooja ki parampara hai. svastik aryatv ka chihn mana jata hai. vaidik sahity men svastik ki charcha nahin hain. yah shabd ee. sanh ki prarambhik shatabdiyon ke grnthon men milata hai, jabaki dharmik kala men isaka prayog shubh mana jata hai. ... aur padhen

chay
Tea.jpg

          chay ek mahattvapoorn pey padarth hai aur snsar ke adhikansh log ise pasand karate hain. kahate hain ki ek din chin ke samrat 'shain nung' ke samane rakhe garm pani ke pyale men, kuchh sookhi pattiyan akar girin, jinase pani men rng aya aur jab unhonne usaki chuski li to unhen usaka svad bahut pasnd aya. bas yahin se shuroo hota hai chay ka safar. ye bat eesa se 2737 sal pahale ki hai. sanh 350 men chay pine ki parnpara ka pahala ullekh milata hai. sanh 1610 men dach vyapari chin se chay yoorop le ge aur dhire-dhire ye samoochi duniya ka priy pey ban gaya. ... aur padhen

buddh
Buddha1.jpg

          buddh snsar prasiddh bauddh dharm ke snsthapak mane jate hain. bauddh dharm bharat ki shraman parampara se nikala dharm aur darshan hai. buddh ka mool nam 'siddharth' tha. kharavel ke abhilekh, ashok ke sinhasanarohan ki tithi, kaintan ke abhilekh adi ke adhar par mahatma buddh ki janm tithi 563 ee.poo. svikar ki gayi hai. inaka janm shakyavnsh ke raja shuddhodan ki rani mahamaya ke garbh se vaishakh poornima ke din shaky ganarajy ki rajadhani kapilavastu ke nikat lumbini namak gram men hua tha. bodhagaya men bodhavriksh (pipal) ke niche 'siddharth' gyan prapt kar 'gautam buddh' kahalae the. aj bauddh dharm ko paintis karod se adhik log manate hain aur yah duniya ka chautha sabase bada dharm hai. ... aur padhen

navaratr
durga devi

        navaratr hindoo dharm grnth-puranon ke anusar mata bhagavati ki aradhana ka shreshth samay hota hai. bharat men navaratr ka parv, ek aisa parv hai jo hamari snskriti men mahilaon ke garimamay sthan ko darshata hai. manyata hai ki navaratr men mahashakti ki pooja kar shriram ne apani khoee huee shakti paee, isalie is samay adishakti ki aradhana par vishesh bal diya gaya hai. varsh men char navaratr chaitr, ashadh, ashvin aur magh mahine ki shukl pratipada se navami tak nau din ke hote hain, parntu prasiddhi men chaitr aur ashvin ke navaratr hi mukhy mane jate hain. ... aur padhen

shraddh
shraddh

        shraddh poorvajon ke prati sachchi shraddha ka pratik hain. hindoo dharm ke anusar, pratyek shubh kary ke prarambh men mata-pita, poorvajon ko namaskar ya pranam karana hamara kartavy hai, hamare poorvajon ki vnsh parampara ke karan hi ham aj yah jivan ji rahe hain. brahm puran ne shraddh ki paribhasha is prakar ki hai- 'jo kuchh uchit kal, patr evn sthan ke anusar uchit (shastranumodit) vidhi dvara pitaron ko lakshy karake shraddhapoorvak brahmanon ko diya jata hai', vah shraddh kahalata hai. ... aur padhen

yojana ayog
Planning Commission.jpg

        yojana ayog bharat sarakar ki pramukh svatntr snsthaon men se ek hai. isaka mukhy kary 'pnchavarshiy yojanaen' banana hai. is ayog ki sthapana 15 march, 1950 men huee thi. yojana ayog ke paden adhyaksh bharat ke pradhanamntri hote hain. isake bad yojana ayog ka upadhyaksh snstha ke kamakaj ko mukhy roop se dekhata hai. vittamntri aur rakshamntri yojana ayog ke paden sadasy hote hain. yojana ayog kisi prakar se bharat ki snsad ke prati uttaradayi nahin hota hai. ... aur padhen

krishn janmashtami
Vasudev-Krishna.jpg

        krishn janmashtami bhagavan shrikrishn ka janmotsav hai. krishn janmashtami ko bharat men hin nahin balki videshon men base bharatiy bhi poori astha v ullas se manate hain. shrikrishn ne apana avatar bhadrapad mah ki krishn paksh ashtami ko madhyaratri men apane mama kns ka vinash karane ke lie mathura men liya tha. is avasar par desh–videsh se lakhon shraddhaluon ki bhid umadati hai aur poore din vrat rakhakar nar-nari tatha bachche ratri 12 baje mandiron men abhishek hone par pnchamrit grahan kar vrat kholate hain. krishn janmabhoomi ke alava dvarakadhish, banke bihari ji evn any sabhi mandiron men isaka bhavy ayojan hota hai. ... aur padhen

rakshabandhan
rakhi

        rakshabandhan shravan mas ki poornima ko poore bharatavarsh men manaya jata hai. yah bhaee-bahan ke prem v raksha ka pavitr tyohar hai. savan men manae jane ke karan ise 'savani' ya 'saloono' bhi kahate hain. rakshabndhan ka arth hai (raksha+bndhan) arthath kisi ko apani raksha ke lie bandh lena. madhyakalin itihas men chittaud ki hindoo rani karnavati ne dilli ke mugal badashah humayoon ko apana bhaee manakar usake pas rakhi bheji thi. humayoon ne usaki rakhi svikar kar li aur usake samman ki raksha ke lie gujarat ke badashah bahadurashah se yuddh kiya. ... aur padhen

jaisalamer
jaisalamer nagar ka ek drishy

        jaisalamer anupam vastushilp, madhur lok sngit, vipul sanskritik evn aitihasik virasat ko apane men snjoye hue 'svarn nagari' ke roop men vikhyat hai. pile bhoore pattharon se nirmit bhavanon ke lie vikhyat jaisalamer ki sthapana 1156 ee. men rajapooton ke saradar raval jaisal ne ki thi. raval jaisal ke vnshajon ne yahan bharat ke ganatntr men parivartan hone tak bina vnsh kram ko bhng kie hue 770 varsh satat shasan kiya, jo apane ap men ek mahattvapoorn ghatana hai. saltanat kal ke itihas se gujarata hua yah rajy mugal samrajy men bhi lagabhag 300 varshon tak apane astitv ko banae rakhane men saksham raha. bharat men angrezi rajy ki sthapana se lekar samapti tak bhi isane apane vnsh, gaurav aur mahattv ko yathavat rakha. ... aur padhen

holi
holi ke vibhinn drishy

        holi bharat ka pramukh tyohar hai. puranon men varnit hai ki hiranyakashipu ki bahan holika varadan ke prabhav se nity agni snan karati thi. hiranyakashipu ne apani bahan holika se prahlad ko god men lekar agnisnan karane ko kaha. usane samajha ki aisa karane se prahlad agni men jal jaega tatha holika bach jaegi. holika ne aisa hi kiya, kintu holika jal gayi, prahlad bach gaye. is parv ko 'navanneshti ygyparv' bhi kaha jata hai, kyonki khet se aye navin ann ko is din ygy men havan karake prasad lene ki parampara bhi hai. us ann ko 'hola' kahate hai. isi se isaka nam 'holikotsav' pada. sabhi log apasi bhedabhav ko bhulakar ise harsh v ullas ke sath manate hain. holi parasparik saumanasy ekata aur samanata ko bal deti hai. ... aur padhen

basnt pnchami
sarasvati devi

        basnt pnchami prasiddh bharatiy tyohar hai. is din vidya ki devi sarasvati ki pooja ki jati hai. yah pooja sampoorn bharat men bade ullas ke sath ki jati hai. is din striyan pile vastr dharan karati hain. basnt pnchami ke parv se hi 'basnt ritu' ka agaman hota hai. basnt ko 'rituon ka raja' arthath sarvashreshth ritu mana gaya hai. shant, thndi, mnd vayu, katu shit ka sthan le leti hai tatha sab ko navapran v utsah se sparsh karati hai. basnt pnchami ke din vagdevi sarasvati ji ko pila bhog lagaya jata hai aur gharon men bhojan bhi pila hi banaya jata hai. is din visheshakar mitha chaval banaya jata hai jisamen badam, kishamish, kajoo adi dalakar khir adi vishesh vynjan banaye jate hain. ... aur padhen

ganatntr divas
ganatntr divas ke vibhinn drishy

        ganatntr divas bharat men 26 janavari ko manaya jata hai aur yah bharat ka ek rashtriy parv hai. 26 janavari, 1950 ko bharatiy snvidhan lagoo hone ke bad sarakar ke snsadiy roop ke sath ek snprabhutashali samajavadi lok‍tantrik ganatntr ke roop men bharat desh samane aya. sabase pahali bar 21 topon ki salami ke sath bharatiy rashh‍triy dhh‍vaj ko daau. rajendr prasad ne phaharakar 26 janavari, 1950 ko bharatiy ganatntr ke aitihasik janh‍m ki gho‍shana ki thi. yah ayojan hamen desh ke sabhi shahidon ke ni:sh‍varth balidan ki yad dilata hai, jinh‍honne azadi ke sngharsh men apane jivan balidan kar die aur videshi akramanon ke viruddh anek ladaiyan jiti. ... aur padhen

rasakhan
rasakhan ke dohe

        saiyyad ibrahim 'rasakhan' ka hindi sahity men krishn bhakt tatha ritikalin kaviyon men mahattvapoorn sthan hai. rasakhan ko 'ras ki khan(qan)' kaha jata hai. inake kavy men bhakti, shrringar ras donon pradhanata se milate hain. unhonne apane kavy ki simit paridhi men in asimit lilaon ka bahut sookshm varnan kiya hai. bharatendu harishchandr ne jin muslim haribhakton ke liye kaha tha, in musalaman harijanan par kotin hindoo varie unamen "rasakhan" ka nam sarvopari hai. rasakhan ki kavitaon ke do sngrah prakashit hue hain- 'sujan rasakhan' aur 'premavatika'. 'sujan rasakhan' men 139 savaiye aur kavitt hai. 'premavatika' men 52 dohe hain, jinamen prem ka bada anootha niroopan kiya gaya hai. ... aur padhen

alam ara
Alam-Ara-Poster.jpg

        alam ara bharat ki pahali bolati film hai jisaka nirdeshan 'ardeshir eerani' ne kiya tha. alam ara ka pradarshan 14 march 1931 ko hua tha. film ke nayak ki bhoomika mastar vitthal aur nayika ki bhoomika zubaida ne nibhaee thi. film men prithviraj kapoor ki bhi ek mahattvapoorn bhoomika thi. rajakumar aur bnjarin ki prem kahani par adharit yah film ek parasi natak se prerit thi. isaki lnbaee 2 ghnte 4 minat ki thi. bharat men kahin bhi ab is film ka koee print nahin bacha hai. alam ara ka akela print 2003 men pune ke neshanal film arkaiv men lagi ag men bhasm ho gaya. ... aur padhen

dipavali
lakshmi, ganesh, sarasvati

        dipavali athava 'divali' bharat ke pramukh tyoharon men se ek hai. tyoharon ka jo vatavaran dhanateras se prarambh hota hai, vah aj ke din poore charam par ata hai. dipavali ki ratri ko gharon tatha dukanon par bhari snkhya men dipak, momabattiyan aur balb jalae jate hain. prachalit manyataon ke anusar kartik amavasya ko bhagavan shriram chaudah varsh ka vanavas katakar ayodhya laute the, tab ayodhyavasiyon ne shriram ke rajyarohan par dipamalaen jalakar mahotsav manaya tha. is din lakshmi ke poojan ka vishesh vidhan hai. ratri ke samay pratyek ghar men dhanadhany ki adhishthatri devi mahalakshmi, vighn-vinashak ganesh ji aur vidya evn kala ki devi mateshvari sarasvati ki pooja-aradhana ki jati hai. brahm puran ke anusar is ardharatri men mahalakshmi svayn bhoolok men ati hain aur pratyek sadgrihasth ke ghar men vicharan karati hain. jo ghar har prakar se svachchh, shuddh aur sundar tariqe se susajjit aur prakashayukt hota hai, vahan ansh roop men thahar jati hain. ... aur padhen

vijay dashami
dashahara, ramalila maidan, mathura

        vijay dashami athava 'dashahara' bharat ka rashtriy tyohar hai. yah ashvin shukl dashami ko badi dhoomadham se manaya jata hai. is din bhagavan shriram ne sita ka haran karane vale ravan ka vadh kiya tha. vijay dashami ke avasar par poore bharat men jagah–jagah ayojit ramalila men ravan dahan ka pradarshan hota hai. is din nilaknth ka darshan bahut shubh mana jata hai. vijay dashami sabhi jatiyon ke logon ke lie mahattvapoorn din hai, kintu rajaon, samnton evn kshatriyon ke lie yah vishesh roop se shubh din hai. ... aur padhen

shraddh
shraddh

        shraddh poorvajon ke prati sachchi shraddha ka pratik hain. hindoo dharm ke anusar, pratyek shubh kary ke prarambh men mata-pita, poorvajon ko namaskar ya pranam karana hamara kartavy hai, hamare poorvajon ki vnsh parampara ke karan hi ham aj yah jivan ji rahe hain. brahm puran ne shraddh ki paribhasha yon di hai, 'jo kuchh uchit kal, patr evn sthan ke anusar uchit (shastranumodit) vidhi dvara pitaron ko lakshy karake shraddhapoorvak brahmanon ko diya jata hai', vah shraddh kahalata hai. ... aur padhen

hindi
hindi varnamala

        hindi bharatiy ganaraj ki rajakiy evn madhy bharatiy ary bhasha hai. hindi shabd ki vyupatti bharat ke uttar–pashchim men pravahaman sindhu nadi se sambandhit hai. hindi ki pramukh boliyon men avadhi, bhojapuri, braj bhasha, chhattisagadhi, gadhavali, hariyanavi, kumanooni, magadhi aur maravadi shamil hain. hindi ki adi janani snskrit hai. snskrit pali, prakrit bhasha se hoti huee apabhrnsh tak pahunchati hai. 'kendriy hindi nideshalay' ne lipi ke manakikaran par adhik dhyan diya aur 'devanagari lipi' tatha 'hindi vartani ka manakikaran' ka prakashan kiya. .... aur padhen

svatntrata divas
15 agast 1947 svatntrata divas ka avasar

        svatntrata divas bharatavasiyon ke lie ek aisa din hai jab ham apane mahanh rashh‍triy netaon aur sh‍vatntrata senaniyon ko apani shraddhanjali dete hain jinh‍honne videshi niyntran se bharat ko azad karane ke lie anek balidan die aur apane jivan nh‍yauchhavar kar die. 15 agast 1947 ko bharat ke nivasiyon ne lakhon kurbaniyan dekar british shasan se svatantrata prapt ki thi. yah rashtriy parv bharat ke gaurav ka pratik hai. isi mahanh din ki yad men bharat ke pradhanamntri pratyek varsh lal qile ki prachir par rashtriy dhvaj tirnga phaharakar desh ko sambodhit karate hain. ... aur padhen

kalidas
Poet-Kalidasa.jpg

        kalidas snskrit bhasha ke sabase mahanh kavi aur natakakar the. kalidas apani alnkar yukt sundar saral aur madhur bhasha ke liye vishesh roop se jane jate hain. unake ritu varnan advitiy hain aur unaki upamaen bemisal. sngit unake sahity ka pramukh ang hai aur ras ka srijan karane men unaki koee upama nahin. kalidas shiv ke bhakt the. kalidas nam ka shabdik arth hai, 'kali ka sevak'. kalidas dikhane men bahut sundar the aur vikramadity ke darabar ke navaratnon men ek the. lekin kaha jata hai ki prarnbhik jivan men kalidas anapadh aur moorkh the. kalidas ki shadi vidyottama nam ki rajakumari se huee. ... aur padhen

mevad
kumbhalagadh durg, udayapur

     mevad rajasthan ke dakshin madhy men sthit ek prasiddh riyasat thi. saikadon salon tak yahan rajapooton ka shasan raha. gahalaut tatha sisodiya vnsh ke rajaon ne 1200 sal tak mevad par raj kiya tha. 17vin aur 18vin shatabdi men mevad ki chitrakala bharatiy laghu chitrakala ki mahattvapoorn shailiyon men se ek hai. mevad ki jatigat samajik vyavastha paramparagat roop se oonch-nich, pad-pratishtha tatha vnshotpann jatiyon ke adhar par sngathit thi. mevadi samaj men striyon ko adhik svatntrata prapt thi. isake sath hi nirnay adi ke kee mahattvapoorn adhikar bhi unhen prapt the. ... aur padhen

braj
braj ke vibhinn drishy

     braj shabd ka prayog vedon, ramayan aur mahabharat ke kal men goshth- 'go-sthan’ jaise laghu sthal ke liye hota tha, vahin pauranik kal men ‘gop-basti’ jaise kuchh bade sthanon ke liye kiya jane laga. bhagavat men ‘braj’ kshetr vishesh ko ingit karate hue hi prayukt hua hai. vahan ise ek chhote gram ki sngya di gee hai. usamen ‘pur’ se chhota ‘gram’ aur usase bhi chhoti basti ko ‘braj’ kaha gaya hai. 16vin shatabdi men ‘braj’ pradesh ke arth men hokar ‘brajamndal’ ho gaya aur tab usaka akar chaurasi kos ka mana jane laga tha. aj jise ham braj kshetr manate hain usaki dishaain, uttar men palaval, hariyana, dakshin men gvaliyar, madhy pradesh, pashchim men bharatapur, rajasthan aur poorv men eta uttar pradesh ko chhooti hain. ... aur padhen

holi
Kolaz-Holi.jpg

     holi bharat ka pramukh tyohar hai. holi jahan ek or samajik evn dharmik hai, vahin rngon ka bhi tyohar hai. bal-vriddh, nar-nari sabhi ise bade utsah se manate hain. isamen jatibhed-varnabhed ka koee sthan nahin hota. snskrit shabd holakka se holi shabd ka janm hua hai. vaidik yug men 'holakka' ko aisa ann mana jata tha, jo devon ka mukhy roop se khady-padarth tha. basnt ki anandabhivyakti rngin jal evn lal rng, abir-gulal ke parasparik adan-pradan se prakat hoti hai. kuchh pradeshon men yah rng yukt vatavaran 'holika ke din' hi hota hai, kintu dakshin bharat men yah panchaven din (rng pnchami) tak manaee jati hai. ... aur padhen

kumbh mela
kumbh mela, ilahabad

     kumbh mela hindoo dharm ka ek mahattvapoorn parv hai, jisamen karodon shraddhalu kumbh parv sthal- haridvar, prayag, ujjain aur nasik men snan karate hain. inamen se pratyek sthan par prati barahaven varsh men is parv ka ayojan hota hai. prayag (ilahabad) men sngam ke tat par hone vala ayojan sabase bhavy aur pavitr mana jata hai. is mele men karodon ki snkhya men shraddhalu sammilit hote hai. aisi manyata hai ki sngam ke pavitr jal men snan karane se atma shuddh ho jati hai. ... aur padhen

maisoor
tipoo sultan

     maisoor shahar ka itihas atynt prachin hai. isake prachinatam shasak kadamb vnsh ke the, jinaka ullekh prakhyat bhoogolavetta taaulami ne kiya hai. kadambon ko cheron, pallavon aur chalukyon se yuddh karana pada tha. 12vin shatabdi men jakar maisoor ka shasan kadambon ke hathon se hoyasalon ke hathon men aya, jinhonne dvarasamudr athava adhunik halebid ko apani rajadhani banaya tha. 18vin shatabdi men angrezon aur maisoor ke shasakon ke bich char sainy muthabhed huee thin. angrezon aur haidar ali tatha usake putr tipoo sultan ke bich samay-samay par yuddh hue jo maisoor yuddh nam se jane jate hain. ... aur padhen

dilli
bharat ki rajadhani dilli ke vibhinn drishy

     amir khusaro aur galib ki rachanaon ko gunagunati huee dilli nadirashah ki loot ki chikhon se saham bhi jati hai. chandani chauk-jama masjid ki sakari galiyon se guzarakar chaude rajapath par 26 janavari ki pared ko niharati huee dilli 30 janavari ko un tin goliyon ki avaz ko nahin bhula pati jo rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ke sine men dhns gayi thi. dilli ne daulatabad jane ke tugalaki faramanon ko bhi suna aur lal qile se pradhanamntri ke abhibhashanon par taliyan bhi bajayi. kabhi raghuray ne dilli ki rayasina pahadi ko apane kaimare men qaid kar liya to kabhi husain ke rngon ne dilli ko rng diya. dilli kabhi kutubaminar ki mnzilon ko chadhane men pasina bahati rahi to kabhi humayoon ke maqabare men pattharon ko tarashati rahi. nau bar loote jane se bhi dilli ke shrringar men koee kami nahin ayi. ... aur padhen

ashok
bharatiy snvidhan ki mool sulekhit pratilipi men pradarshit ashok ke chitr ki pratilipi

ashok mahanh ne kaha hai:-
     har dasha men doosare sampradayon ka adar karana hi chahie. aisa karane se manushy apane sampraday ki unnati aur doosare sampradayon ka upakar karata hai. isake viparit jo karata hai, vah apane sampraday ki jad katata hai aur doosare sampradayon ka bhi apakar karata hai ... .
... isalie samavay (paraspar melajol se rahana) hi achchha hai, arthath log ek-doosare ke dharm ko dhyan dekar sunen aur usaki seva karen -samrat ashok mahan ... aur padhen

shravasti
jetavan math, shravasti
  • shravasti n keval bauddh aur jain dharmon ka ek mahattvapoorn kendr tha apitu yah brahman dharm evn ved vidya ka bhi ek mahattvapoorn kendr tha.
  • buddh ke jivan kal men shravasti koshal desh ki rajadhani thi. ek bauddh granth ke anusar vahan 57 hazar kul rahate the aur kosal-nareshon ki amadani sabase zyada isi nagar se hua karati thi.
  • gautam buddh ke samay men bharat ke 6 bade nagaron men shravasti ki ganana hua karati thi. ... aur padhen
shraddh
shraddh
  • shraddh poorvajon ke prati sachchi shraddha ka pratik hain. hindoo dharm ke anusar, pratyek shubh kary ke prarambh men mata-pita, poorvajon ko namaskar ya pranam karana hamara kartavy hai, hamare poorvajon ki vnsh parampara ke karan hi ham aj yah jivan ji rahe hain.
  • brahm puran ne shraddh ki paribhasha yon di hai, 'jo kuchh uchit kal, patr evn sthan ke anusar uchit (shastranumodit) vidhi dvara pitaron ko lakshy karake shraddhapoorvak brahmanon ko diya jata hai', vah shraddh kahalata hai. ... aur padhen
rng
lal hara v nila rng pratiroop
  • rng hazaron varshon se hamare jivan men apani jagah banae hue hain. prachinakal se hi rng kala men bharat ka vishesh yogadan raha hai.
  • ullekhaniy hai ki mohanajodado aur hadappa ki khudaee men sindhu ghati sabhyata ki jo chizen milin unamen aise bartan aur moortiyan bhi thin, jin par rngaee ki gee thi. unamen ek lal rng ke kapade ka tukada bhi mila. ... aur padhen
varanasi
varanasi ke vibhinn drishy
  • varanasi ke vyapari samudri vyapar bhi karate the. kashi se samudr yatra ke lie naven chhootati thin.
  • is nagar ke dhani vyapariyon ka vyapar ke uddeshy se samudr par jane ka ullekh hai. jatakon men bhi vyapar ke uddeshy se bahar jane ka ullekh milata hai. ek jatak men ullekh hai ki banaras ke vyapari dishakak lekar samudr yatra ko ge the. ... aur padhen
bagh
bagh
  • rashtriy pashu 'bagh' pile rngon aur dharidar lomacharm vala ek pashu hai.
  • bagh ki ath prajatiyon men se bharat men paee jane vali prajati ko raauyal bngal taigar ke nam se jana jata hai.
  • desh ke sabhi abhayarany men lagatar inaki snkhya kam hoti ja rahi hai. baghon ki is tarah girati snkhya par kendr sarakar ne 1973 men nau taigar rizarv ilaqon men 'bagh bachao yojana' shuroo ki.
  • vany jivon ke lie kam karane valon ka manana hai ki sal 2025 tak baghon ke vilupt ho jane ka khatara hai. baghon ki kul abadi ke 40 fisadi bagh bharat men pae jate hain. bharat ke 17 pradeshon men baghon ke 23 snrakshit kshetr hain. .... aur padhen
hindi bhasha
hindi varnamala
  • hindi bharatiy ganaraj ki rajakiy aur madhy bharatiy ary bhasha hai.
  • san 2001 ee. ki janaganana ke anusar, 25.79 karod bharatiy hindi ka upayog matribhasha ke roop men karate hain, jabaki lagabhag 42.20 karod log isaki 50 se adhik boliyon men se ek istemal karate hain.
  • hindi ki pramukh boliyon men avadhi, bhojapuri, braj bhasha, chhattisagadhi, gadhavali, hariyanavi, kumanooni, magadhi aur maravadi shamil hain.
  • hindi ki adi janani snskrit hai. snskrit pali, prakrit bhasha se hoti huee apabhrnsh tak pahunchati hai.
  • kendriy hindi nideshalay ne lipi ke manakikaran par adhik dhyan diya aur 'devanagari lipi' tatha 'hindi vartani ka manakikaran' (1983 ee.) ka prakashan kiya. .... aur padhen
braj
braj ke vibhinn drishy
  • braj shabd ka prayog vedon, ramayan aur mahabharat ke kal men goshth- 'go-sthan’ jaise laghu sthal ke liye hota tha, vahin pauranik kal men ‘gop-basti’ jaise kuchh bade sthanon ke liye kiya jane laga.
  • bhagavat men ‘braj’ kshetr vishesh ko ingit karate hue hi prayukt hua hai. vahan ise ek chhote gram ki sngya di gee hai. usamen ‘pur’ se chhota ‘gram’ aur usase bhi chhoti basti ko ‘braj’ kaha gaya hai. 16vin shatabdi men ‘braj’ pradesh ke arth men hokar ‘brajamndal’ ho gaya aur tab usaka akar chaurasi kos ka mana jane laga tha.
  • aj jise ham braj kshetr manate hain usaki dishaain, uttar men palaval, hariyana, dakshin men gvaliyar, madhy pradesh, pashchim men bharatapur, rajasthan aur poorv men eta uttar pradesh ko chhooti hain. mathura-vrindavan braj ke kendr hain.
  • braj ke van–upavan, kunj-nikunj, shri yamuna v giriraj atyant mohak hain. pakshiyon ka madhur svar ekanki sthali ko madak evn manohar banata hai. moron ki bahutayat tatha unaki pioo-pioo ki avaz se vatavaran gunjayaman rahata hai.
  • braj ke prachin sngitgyon ki pramanik janakari 16vin shatabdi ke bhaktikal se milati hai. is kal men anekon sngitgy vaishnav snt hue. sngit shiromani svami haridas ji, inake guru ashudhir ji tatha unake shishy tanasen adi ka nam sarvavidit hai.
  • brajabhoomi parvon evn tyoharon ki bhoomi hai. yahan ki snskriti utsav pradhan hai. yahan har ritu mah evn dinon men parv aur tyohar chalate hain. holi braj ka vishesh tyohar hai. isamen ygy roop men navin ann ki balen bhooni jati hai. .... aur padhen
kolakata
kolakata ke vibhinn drishy
  • jaaub charanak ne 1690 ee. men tin ganvon; kolikata, sutanati tatha govinh‍dapuri namak jagah par kolakata ki ninv rakhi thi.
  • kolakata shahar, pashchim bngal rajy ki rajadhani hai aur britishakalin bharat (1772-1912) ki rajadhani tha.
  • kolakata bharat ke sabase bade nagaron aur pramukh bndaragahon men se ek hain. pauranik manyataon ke anusar hinduon ki devi kali ke nam se 'kolakata' shahar ke nam ki utpatti huee hai.
  • 19 vin sadi ke uttarardh aur 20 vin shatabdi ke prarnbh men prakhyat bangla sahityakar bnkimachndr chaitarji, jinaka likha 'anndamath' ka git 'vande mataramh' aj bharat ka rashtr git hai. netaji subhashachndr bos jaise neta aur gurudev ravindranath taigor jaise mahanh rachanakar se lekar saikadon svadhinata ke sipahiyon ka ghar hone ka gaurav prapt hai.
  • 1814 men sthapit kolakata ka 'indiyan myooziyam' bharat ka sabase purana aur apani tarah ka sabase bada sngrahalay hai. puratattv aur mudra vishayak khandon ka yahan sabase moolyavan sngrah hain.
  • kolakata men sthit viktoriya memoriyal mugal sthapaty aur pashchimi shastriy prabhav ke mishran ke prayas ko pradarshit karata hai. .... aur padhen
bharat rath‍n
bharat rath‍n
  • 'bharat rath‍n uchh‍chatam nagarik samh‍man hai, jo kala, sahith‍y, vigyan, rajanitigy, vicharak, vaigyanik, udyogapati, lekhak aur samajasevi ko asadharan seva ke lie tatha uchch lok seva ko manh‍yata dene ke lie bharat sarakar ki or se diya jata hai.
  • is purash‍kar ke roop men die jane vale samh‍man ki mool roop - rekha 35 milimitar vh‍yas vala golakar sh‍varn padak hai jis par soory aur oopar hindi bhasha men bharat rath‍n aur niche ek phoolon ka guladash‍ta bana hota hai.
  • yah puraskar 2 janavari 1954 ko prarambh kiya gaya tha. yah puraskar bharat ke pratham rashtrapati daauktar rajendr prasad dvara ghoshit kiya gaya tha.
  • bharat ratn 26 janavari ko bharat ke rashtrapati dvara diya jata hai. sabase pahala purash‍kar prasiddh vaigyanik chndrashekhar venkataraman ko diya gaya tha.
  • ab tak 41 logon ko bharat ratn se sammanit kiya gaya hai. .... aur padhen
moorti kala mathura
buddh

chini yatri huenasang ke lekhanusar yahan par ashok ke banavaye huye kuchh stoop 7vin shatabdi men vidyaman the. parantu aj hamen inake vishay men kuchh bhi gyan nahin hai. lok-kala ki drishti se dekha jay to mathura aur usake asapas ke bhag men isake mauryakalin namoone vidyaman hain. lok-kala ki ye moortiyan yakshon ki hain. yakshapooja tatkalin lokadharm ka ek abhinn ang thi. snskrit, pali aur prakrit sahity yakshapooja ke ullekhon se bhara pada hai . puranon ke anusar yakshon ka kary papiyon ko vighn karana, unhen durgati dena aur sath hi sath apane kshetr ka snrakshan karana tha.[1] mathura se is prakar ke yaksh aur yakshaniyon ki chhah pratimaen mil chuki hain . .... aur padhen

krishn
krishn

chhandogy upanishad[2], jisamen devaki putr krishn ka ullekh hai aur unhen ghor angiras ka shishy kaha hai. paravarti sahity men shrikrishn ko dev ya vishnu roop men pradarshit karane ka bhav milata hai.[3] mahabharat tatha harivnsh, vishnu, brahm, vayu, bhagavat, padm, devi bhagavat agni tatha brahmavart puranon men unhen pray: bhagavan ke roop men hi dikhaya gaya hai. in grntho men yadyapi krishn ke alaukik tattv ki pradhanata hai to bhi unake manav ya aitihasik roop ke bhi darshan yatr-tatr milate hain. puranon men krishn-snbndhi vibhinn varnanon ke adhar par kuchh pashchaty vidvanon ko yah kalpana karane ka avasar mila ki krishn aitihasik purush nahin the. is kalpana ki pushti men anek dalilen di gee hain, jo thik nahin siddh hoti. yadi mahabharat aur puranon ke atirikt, brahman-grnthon tatha upanishadon ke ullekh dekhe jayen to krishn ke aitihasik tattv ka pata chal jayaga. bauddh-grnth ghat jatak tatha jain-grnth uttaradhyayan sootr se bhi shrikrishn ka aitihasik hona siddh hai. yah mat bhi bhramak hai ki braj ke krishn, dvaraka ke krishn tatha mahabharat ke krishn ek n hokar alag-alag vyakti the.[4]

sndarbh

  1. vamanapuran, 34.44; 35.38
  2. (3,17,6)
  3. taittiriy aranyak, 10, 1, 6; panini-ashtadhyayi, 4, 3, 98 adi
  4. shrikrishn ki aitihasikata tatha tatsnbndhi any samasyaon ke lie dekhie- ray chaudhari-arli histri aph vaishnav sekt, pri0 39, 52; ar0ji0 bhndarakar-grnthamala, jild 2, pri0 58-291; vintaranij-histri aph indiyan litarechar, jild 1, pri0 456; maikadaaunal tatha kith-vaidik indeks, ji0 1, pri0 184; griyarsan-enasaiklopidiya aph rilijns (`bhakti' par nibndh); bhagavanadas-krishn; tadapatrikar-di krishn prayalam; parjitar-ऎshynt indiyan histarikal tredishan adi.

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