छन्द  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

chhnd shabd 'chadh' dhatu se bana hai jisaka arth hai 'ahladit karana', 'khush karana'. yah ahlad varn ya matra ki niyamit snkhya ke vinyas se utpann hota hai. is prakar, chhnd ki paribhasha hogi 'varnon ya matraon ke niyamit snkhya ke vinyas se yadi ahlad paida ho, to use chhnd kahate hain'. chhnd ka sarvapratham ullekh 'rigved' men milata hai. jis prakar gady ka niyamak vyakaran hai, usi prakar pady ka chhnd shastr hai.

chhnd ke ang

chhnd ke ang nimnalikhit hain?

  1. charan/ pad/ pad
  2. varn aur matra
  3. snkhya aur kram
  4. gan
  5. gati
  6. yati/ viram
  7. tuk

1.charan/ pad/ pad

  • chhnd ke prayah 4 bhag hote hain. inamen se pratyek ko 'charan' kahate hain. doosare shabdon men chhnd ke chaturthansh (chaturth bhag) ko charan kahate hain.
  • kuchh chhndon men charan to char hote hain lekin ve likhe do hi pnktiyon men jate hain, jaise- doha, sorath adi. aise chhnd ki pratyek pnkti ko 'dal' kahate hain.
  • hindi men kuchh chhnd chhah- chhah pnktiyon (dalon) men likhe jate hain, aise chhnd do chhnd ke yog se banate hain, jaise- kundaliya (doha + rola), chhappay (rola + ullala) adi.
  • charan 2 prakar ke hote hain- sam charan aur visham charan. pratham v tritiy charan ko visham charan tatha dvitiy v chaturth charan ko sam charan kahate hain.

2.varn aur matra

varn/ akshar

  • ek svar vali dhvani ko varn kahate hain, chahe vah svar hrasv ho ya dirgh.
  • jis dhvani men svar nahin ho (jaise halant shabd rajanh ka 'nh', snyuktakshar ka pahala akshar - krishn ka 'shh') use varn nahin mana jata.
  • varn ko hi akshar kahate hain.
  • varn 2 prakar ke hote hain-
  1. hrasv svar vale varn (hrasv varn): a, i, u, ri, k, ki, ku, kri
  2. dirgh svar vale varn (dirgh varn): a, ee, oo, e, ai, o, au, ka, ki, koo, ke, kai, ko, kau

matra

  • kisi varn ya dhvani ke uchcharan-kal ko matra kahate hain.
  • hrasv varn ke uchcharan men jo samay lagata hai use ek matra tatha dirgh varn ke uchcharan men jo samay lagata hai use do matra mana jata hai.
  • is prakar matra do prakar ke hote hain-
  1. hrasv- a, i, u, ri
  2. dirgh- a, ee, oo, e, ai, o, au
varn aur matra ki ganana

varn ki ganana

  1. hrasv svar vale varn (hrasv varn)- a, i, u, ri, k, ki, ku, kri
  2. dirgh svar vale varn (dirgh varn)- a, ee, oo, e, ai, o, au, ka, ki, koo, ke, kai, ko, kau

matra ki ganana

  1. hrasv svar- ekamatrik- a, i, u, ri
  2. dirgh varn- dvimatrik- a, ee, oo, e, ai, o, au
  • varnon men matraon ki ginati men sthool bhed yahi hai ki varn 'svar akshar' ko aur matra 'sirf svar' ko kahate hain.
laghu v guru varn
  • chhndashastri hrasv svar tatha hrasv svar vale vynjan varn ko laghu kahate hain. laghu ke lie prayukt chihn- ek paee rekha.
  • isi prakar, dirgh svar tatha dirgh svar vale vynjan varn ko guru kahate hain. guru ke lie prayukt chihn- ek vartul rekha- a
  • laghu varn ke antargat shamil kiye jate hain-

a, i, u, ri
k, ki, ku, kri
an, hn (chandr bindu vale varn)
(ansuvar) (hnsi)
ty (snyukt vynjan vale varn)
(nity)

  • guru varn ke antargat shamil kiye jate hain-

a, ee, oo, e, ai, o, au
ka, ki, koo, ke, kai, ko, kau
in, vin, tah, dhah (anusvar v visarg vale varn)
(indu) (bindu) (atah) (adhah)
agr ka a, vakr ka v (snyuktakshar ka poorvavarti varn)
rajanh ka j (halanh varn ke pahale ka varn)

3.snkhya aur kram

  • varnon aur matraon ki ganana ko snkhya kahate hain.
  • laghu-guru ke sthan nirdharan ko kram kahate hain.
  • varnik chhndon ke sabhi charanon men snkhya (varnon ki) aur kram (laghu-guru ka) donon saman hote hain.

jabaki matrik chhndon ke sabhi charanon men snkhya (matraon ki) to saman hoti hai lekin kram (laghu-guru ka) saman nahin hote hain.

4.gan (keval varnik chhndon ke mamale men lagoo)

  • gan ka arth hai 'samooh'.
  • yah samooh tin varnon ka hota hai. gan men 3 hi varn hote hain, n adhik n kam.
  • atah gan ki paribhasha hogi 'laghu-guru ke niyat kram se 3 varnon ke samooh ko gan kaha jata hai'.
ganon ki snkhya 8 hai-

yagan, magan, tagan, ragan, jagan, bhagan, nagan, sagan

  • ganon ko yad rakhane ke lie sootr-

yamatarajabhanasalaga

isamen pahale ath varn ganon ke soochak hain aur antim do varn laghu (l) v guru (g) ke.

  • sootr se gan prapt karane ka tarika-

bodhak varn se arnbh kar age ke do varnon ko le len. gan apane-ap nikal aega.

udaharan- yagan kise kahate hain

yamata

| a a

atah yagan ka roop hua-adi laghu (| a a)

5.gati

  • chhnd ke padhane ke pravah ya lay ko gati kahate hain.
  • gati ka mahattv varnik chhndon ki apeksha matrik chhndon men adhik hai. bat yah hai ki varnik chhndon men to laghu-guru ka sthan nishchit rahata hai kintu matrik chhndon men laghu-guru ka sthan nishchit nahin rahata, poore charan ki matraon ka nirdesh nahin rahata hai.
  • matraon ki snkhya thik rahane par bhi charan ki gati (pravah) men badha pad sakati hai.
  • jaise-
  1. 'divas ka avasan tha samip' men gati nahin hai jabaki 'divas ka avasan samip tha' men gati hai.
  2. chaupaee, arill v paddhari - in tinon chhndon ke pratyek charan men 16 matraen hoti hain par gati bhed se ye chhnd paraspar bhinn ho jate hain.
  3. atev, matrik chhndon ke nirdosh prayog ke lie gati ka parigyan atyant avashyak hai.
  4. gati ka parigyan bhasha ki prakriti, nad ke parigyan evn abhyas par nirbhar karata hai.

6.yati/ virom

  • chhnd men niyamit varn ya matra par sans lene ke lie rukana padata hai, isi rookane ke sthan ko yati ya virom kahate hain.
  • chhote chhndon men sadharanatah yati charan ke ant men hoti hai; par bade chhndon men ek hi charan men ek se adhik yati ya viram hote hain.
  • yati ka nirdesh prayah chhnd ke lakshan (paribhasha) men hi kar diya jata hai. jaise malini chhnd men pahali yati 8 varnon ke bad tatha doosari yati 7 varnon ke bad padati hai.

7.tuk

  • chhnd ke charanant ki akshar-maitri (saman svar-vynjan ki sthapana) ko tuk kahate hain.
  • jis chhnd ke ant men tuk ho use tukant chhnd aur jisake ant men tuk n ho use atukant chhnd kahate hain. atukant chhnd ko angrezi men blaink vars kahate hain.
  1. varnik chhnd (ya vrit) - jis chhnd ke sabhi charanon men varnon ki snkhya saman ho.
  2. matrik chhnd (ya jati) - jis chhnd ke sabhi charanon men matraon ki snkhya saman ho.
  3. mukt chhnd - jis chhnd men varnik ya matrik pratibndh n ho.
varnik chhnd
  • varnik chhnd ke sabhi charanon men varnon ki snkhya saman rahati hai aur laghu-guru ka kram saman rahata hai.
  • pramukh varnik chhnd : pramanika (8 varn); svagata, bhujngi, shalini, indravajra, dodhak (sabhi 11 varn); vnshasth, bhujngaprayag, drutavilambit, totak (sabhi 12 varn); vasntatilaka (14 varn); malini (15 varn); pnchachamar, chnchala (sabhi 16 varn); mandakranta, shikharini (sabhi 17 varn), shardool vikridit (19 varn), stragdhara (21 varn), savaiya (22 se 26 varn), ghanakshari (31 varn) roopaghanakshari (32 varn), devaghanakshari (33 varn), kavitt / manaharan (31-33 varn).
matrik chhnd
  • matrik chhnd ke sabhi charanon men matraon ki snkhya to saman rahati hai lekin laghu-guru ke kram par dhyan nahin diya jata hai.
  • pramukh matrik chhnd
  1. sam matrik chhnd : ahir (11 matra), tomar (12 matra), manav (14 matra); arill, paddhari/ paddhatika, chaupaee (sabhi 16 matra); piyooshavarsh, sumeru (donon 19 matra), radhika (22 matra), rola, dikpal, roopamala (sabhi 24 matra), gitika (26 matra), sarasi (27 matra), sar (28 matra), harigitika (28 matra), tantak (30 matra), vir ya alha (31 matra).
  2. arddhasam matrik chhnd : baravai (visham charan men - 12 matra, sam charan men - 7 matra), doha (visham - 13, sam - 11), soratha (doha ka ulta), ullala (visham - 15, sam - 13).
  3. visham matrik chhnd : kundaliya (doha + rola), chhappay (rola + ullala).
mukt chhnd
  • jis vishay chhnd men varnit ya matrik pratibndh n ho, n pratyek charan men varnon ki snkhya aur kram saman ho aur matraon ki koee nishchit vyavastha ho tatha jisamen nad aur tal ke adhar par pnktiyon men lay lakar unhen gatishil karane ka agrah ho, vah mukt chhnd hai.

udaharan : nirala ki kavita 'joohi ki kali' ityadi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

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