जमशेद जी टाटा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jamashed ji tata
jamashedaji tata
poora nam jamashedaji nusiravanaji tata
janm 3 march, 1839
janm bhoomi navaseri qasba, gujarat
mrityu 19 mee, 1904
mrityu sthan jarmani
abhibhavak nusiravanaji, jivanabaee
pati/patni hira baee daboo
karm bhoomi mumbee
karm-kshetr udyogapati
bhasha hindi, angrezi
shiksha grejuet
vidyalay 'elafinsatan kaaulej', mumbee
prasiddhi mumbee ki shan taj mahal hotal ka nirman kiya.
vishesh yogadan jamashedaji ne vaigyanik evn takaniki shiksha ke lie behatarin suvidhaen upalabdh karayin aur rashtr ko mahashakti banane ka marg dikhaya.
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh tata parivar, je. ar. di. tata, ratan tata, tata moolabhoot anusndhan snsthan
any janakari jamashedaji tata vartaman men bharat ke vishvaprasiddh audyogik gharane 'tata samooh' ke snsthapak the.
adyatan‎

jamashedaji nusiravanaji tata (angrezi: Jamsetji Tata, janm- 3 march, 1839, gujarat; mrityu- 19 mee, 1904, jarmani) bharat ke vishv prasiddh audyogik gharane "tata samooh" ke snsthapak the. bharatiy audyogik kshetr men jamashedaji ne jo yogadan diya, vah asadharan aur bahut hi mahattvapoorn mana jata hai. unhonne bharatiy audyogik vikas ka marg aise samay men prashast kiya tha, jab us disha men keval yooropiy, vishesh roop se angrez hi kushal samajhe jate the. inglaind ki apani pratham yatra se lautakar jamashedaji tata ne chinchapokali ki ek tel mil ko kataee-bunaee mil men parivartit karake audyogik jivan ka sootrapat kiya tha. tata samrajy ke janak jamashedaji dvara kie gaye anek kary aj bhi logon ko prerit evn vismit karate hain. bhavishy ko bhanpane ki apani adbhut kshamata ke bal par hi unhonne ek svanirbhar audyogik bharat ka sapana dekha tha. unhonne vaigyanik evn takaniki shiksha ke lie behatarin suvidhaen upalabdh karayin aur rashtr ko mahashakti banane ke marg par agrasar kiya.

janm tatha shiksha

jamashedaji tata ka janm san 3 march, 1839 men gujarat ke ek chhote-se kasbe navaseri men hua tha. unaka parivar parasi pujariyon ka tha. unake pita ka nam nusiravanaji tatha mata ka nam jivanabaee tata tha. parasi pujariyon ke apane khanadan men nusiravanaji pahale vyavasayi vyakti the. jamashedaji ka bhagy unhen matr chaudah varsh ki alpayu men hi pita ke sath bnbee (vartaman mumbee) le aya. yahan unhonne vyavasay men qadam rakha. jamashedaji apani chhoti nazuk umr men hi pita ka sath dene lage the. satrah varsh ki ayu men jamashedaji ne 'elafinsatan kaaulej', mumbee men pravesh le liya. isi kaaulej se ve do varsh bad 'grin skaaular' ke roop men uttirn hue. tatkalin samay men yah upadhi grejuet ke barabar hua karati thi.[1] kuchh samay bad inaka vivah hira baee daboo ke sath ho gaya.

vyavasayik jivan ki shuruat

sudoor poorv aur yoorop men apane shuroo-shuroo ke vyaparik udyamon ke bad jamashedaji tata ne varsh 1868 men 29 sal ki umr men 21 hazar rupaye ki poonji ke sath ek niji pharm prarnbh ki. ve kee bar mainachestar ja chuke the aur isi dauran unake man men kapada mil shuroo karane ka vichar aya. apane kuchh doston ki sajhedari men unhonne ek purani tel mil kharidi aur use kapada mil men badal diya aur phir do sal bad use munaphe par bech diya. isake bad jamashedaji ne apani mil us pradesh men lagane ki sochi, jahan kapas ki paidavar adhik hoti thi. is kary ke lie unhonne nagapur ko chuna. varsh 1874 men unhonne apane doston ke samarthan se pandrah lakh rupaye ki poonji se ek nee knpani shuroo ki. knpani ka nam rakha 'sentral indiya spining, viving end mainuphaikcharing knpani'. 1 janavari, 1877 ko is mil ne kary karana prarambh kiya. bad ke samay men isaka nam badalakar 'impres mil' kar diya gaya.

vyaktitv

jamashedaji ke roop men bharat ko ek aisa vyakti mil gaya tha, jisake pas nee-nee kalpanaen aur vichar the. jinhen vah vastavikata men badal sakata tha. apane lakshyon ko hasil karane men unhonne apani snpada, anubhav aur pratishtha ka upayog kiya. apane sathiyon ka poora sahayog adhikar bhav se prapt karane ka unamen ek asadharan gun tha. unaki dinacharya kafi savere shuroo ho jati thi. kabhi-kabhi ve mumbee ke samudri tat par tahalane nikal jate. tahalate-tahalate kabhi ve apane doston ke yahan pahunch jate. kee bar to unake dost sote hi rahate. nashte ke samay ve apane parivar, rishtedaron aur mitron se charcha karate the. madhyahv tak apane daphtar pahunchane se pahale ve adhyayan aur lekhan kary avashy karate. daphtar ke bad ve apani ghodagadi men sair ke lie nikal padate, ya elaphinstan klab men tash khelate aur batachit karate. vahan se lautakar khana khate. achchha khana agar unaki kamazori thi to doosari or gyan ki unamen jabaradast pyas bhi vidyaman thi.[1]

hotal taj ka nirman

vishv prasiddh 'tajamahal hotal' sirf mumbee hi nahin balki sampoorn bharat men khyatiprapt hai. 'tajamahal hotal' ke nirman ke pichhe ek rochak kahani chhupi huee hai. sinema ke janak lumayar bhaeeyon ne apani khoj ke chh: mahinon bad apani pahali film ka sho mumbee men pradarshit kiya tha. vaise to ve aaustreliya ja rahe the, lekin bich raste men unhonne mumbee men bhi sho rakhane ki bat sochi. 7 julaee, 1896 ko unhonne mumbee ke tatkalin alishan votasan hotal men apani chh: alag-alag filmon ke sho ayojit kie. in sho ko dekhane ke lie matr british logon ko hi amntrit kiya gaya tha, kyonki votasan hotal ke bahar ek takhti lagi rahati thi, jis par likha hota tha ki "bharatiy aur kutte hotal men nahin a sakate hain". 'tata samooh' ke jamashedaji tata bhi lumayar bhaeeyon ki filmen dekhana chahate the, lekin unhen votasan hotal men pravesh nahin mila. rngabhed ki is ghrinit niti ke khilaf unhonne avaj bhi uthaee. is ghatana ke do sal bad hi votasan hotal ki sari shobha dhoomil kar de, ek aise bhavy 'tajamahal hotal' ka nirman jamashedaji ne shuroo karava diya. 1903 ee. men yah ati sundar hotal banakar taiyar ho gaya. kuchh samay tak is hotal ke daravaze par ek takhti bhi latakati thi, jis par likha hota tha ki- "british aur billiyan andar nahin a sakatin.[2] tatkalin mumbee men taj hotal ki imarat bijali ki roshani vali pahali imarat thi, isilie isaki chakachaundh har kisi ko apani or akarshit karati thi. isaki ganana snsar ke sarvashreshth hotalon men ki jane lagi thi. jamashedaji ka yah udyam unake any udyamon ki tulana men bilkul alag tha. sach to yah tha ki ve ise udyog ki tarah chalana bhi nahin chahate the. isilie unhonne kharch ka kabhi hisab bhi nahin lagaya.

sajagata ka gun

jamashedaji tata apana gyan badhane ke lie hamesha tatpar raha karate the. isake sath hi unake vyaktitv ka ek aur bada gun tha, aur vah tha- sajagata. jin dinon mumbee men janaleva pleg vikaral roop men phaili, tab jamashedaji ne apane sab kam ek or rakh diye aur pleg ke vibhinn prakaron ke itihas aur unake ilaj snbndhi adhyayan men jut gaye. ve janana chahate the ki is bhayanak bimari ke phailav ko kaise roka ja sakata hai. manaviy prayatnon ke har kshetr par jamashedaji ne socha aur kam kiya, halanki unaki yad mukhyat: rashtriy mahattv ki tin pariyojanaon aur vikhyat 'tajamahal hotal' ke nirmata ke roop men ki jati hai. jamashedaji jab bhi videsh jate, adhikatar kharidadari khud hi karate. yoorop men jo bhi shreshth vastuen mil sakati thin, unhen jamashedaji ne kharida aur taj par nyochhavar kar diya.

videsh yatraen

apani yuvavastha men hi jamashedaji ne chin, sudoor poorv deshon, yoorop, madhy poorv aur uttari amerika tak ki yatra ki thi. unhonne apani in yatraon ka labh videshon men ispat karakhanon, koyala khanon aur any kism ke karakhanon ka adhyayan karane ki drishti se uthaya. jab ve frans men the to unhonne resham ke kide palane ki vidhi ka adhyayan kiya. jab ve 1893 men japan gaye to japaniyon ko resham ki kheti ke bare men prayog karane ke lie amntrit kiya. jalavayu ke khyal se unhonne maisoor ko chuna aur resham udyog ko phir se jivit kiya.[1]

dridh nishchayi

varsh 1886 men jamashedaji ne ek 'penshan phnd' prarnbh kiya aur 1885 men hi ve durghatanagrast logon ko muavaja dene lage. unaki 'impres mil' ne yah dikha diya tha ki unaki nigah sirf munaphe par nahin thi, unake sath kam karane vale log bhi unake lie mahattvapoorn the. 1886 men to ve ek aisi mil kharidane ka irada karane lage, jo us kshetr ke kee maharathiyon ke lie haniprad siddh huee thi. is samay tak jamashedaji 47 varsh ke ho chuke the. unhonne ek bekar mil ko chalane ki chunauti svikar kar li. 'rashtriy svadeshi andolan' ki shuruat ka snket dene ke lie mil ka nam 'svadeshi mils' rakha gaya tha. bharatiy sheyar holdaron se ise bhari samarthan mila. unhonne jamashedaji ke kam men khushi-khushi poonji lagayi.

mazadooron ke chintak

ek udyogapati ke roop men jamashedaji ki pratishtha badhati ja rahi thi. ve apane udyog ko jivit rakhane ke sngharsh men kafi vyast rahate the aur svasthy ki dekhabhal ke lie samay nahin nikal pate the, phir bhi shramikon ke svasthy ke bare men sochane ke lie unake pas kafi samay tha. gnda pani aksar bimari ki jad hota hai. isalie unhonne jal ke shuddhikaran ke lie ek plant bhi lagavaya. anaj ki ek dukan mazadooron ke lie kholi gee. isake bad unake lie ek aspatal bhi khul gaya. vastr udyog men unake do udyamon ko kamayabi mil chuki thi. lekin munaphe ke lie aur zyada milen lagane ke bajay unhonne ek alag rasta chuna. ve bharat ko bade paimane par ispat aur jalavidyut dena chahate the, jabaki in udyamon men achchha khasa jokhim tha. oonche darje ke prabndhan kushalataon ki zaroorat thi aur munaphe ki gati bhi dukhadayi roop se bahut hi kam thi.[1]

svami vivekanand se bhent

jamashedaji tata ke sath svami vivekanand ka pratham sakshatkar us samay hua, jab vah ek sadharan snnyasi ke roop men bina kisi parichay patr ke amerika men ayojit 'shikago dharmasabha' men bhag lene ja rahe the. japan ke iyakohama se vah jis jahaz se yatra kar rahe the, usamen jamashedaji tata bhi the. svamiji ne jamashedaji se kaha ki- "ve kyon japan se diyasalaee kharid kar apane desh men bechate hain aur japan ko paisa dete hain. isamen labhansh to koee khas hota nahin. isase achchha to yahi hota ki apane hi desh men diyasalaee ka karakhana hota. isase unhen labh bhi kafi hota, das logon ka bharan-poshan bhi hota aur desh ka rupaya desh men hi rah jata." lekin jamashedaji ne unako vibhinn prakar ki asuvidhaon ki janakari dekar unase asahamati jahir ki. un dinon tata ki japani diyasalaee ki desh men atyadhik mang thi. 30 varsh ka ek anajan yuva sadhu jamashedaji jaise ek vikhyat vyavasayi ko upadesh de raha ho, yah ghatana ashcharyajanak hote hue bhi svamiji ke prabhavakari vyaktitv ki tasvir prastut karati hai, kyonki any jagahon ki tarah yahan bhi svamiji ko kisi parichay patr ki avashyakata kadapi nahin huee. is sndarbh men paravartikal men jamashedaji ne sistar nivedita se kaha tha ki- "svamiji jab japan men the, tab jo koee unhen dekhata buddh se unaka sadrishy pakar ashcharyachakit rah jata tha." isake bad jamashedaji se svamiji ki bhent phir kab evn kahan huee, is sndarbh men aisa kaha jata hai ki svamiji jab japan men diyasalaee ka karakhana dekhane gaye the, tab jamashedaji se unaka pratham parichay hua. svami balaramanand ke anusar snbhav hai japan ke iyakohama shahar men 'oriyantal hotal restorent' pravas ke dauran unaka pratham parichay hua ho. jo bhi ho, isamen koee sndeh nahin ki unaki ameriki yatra ke dauran iyakohama se venkular tak ki yatra men pani ke jahaz par jamashedaji se svamiji ki ghanishthata huee thi.[3]

bharat men uchch shiksha ke pakshadhar

san 1893 men buddh svaroop svami vivekanand ki shakti jab amerika men prajjvalit huee to 'shikago vishvadharm mahasammelan' ke madhyam se us samay jamashedaji bhi unaki taraf akrisht hue the. bharat men ane ke bad jab bharatiyon ne unhen shraddha ke sarvochch sthan par baithaya, tab bhi svamiji ke prabhav se jamashedaji achhoote nahin rahe. usake bad unake jivan men achanak ek badalav aya. vah bharat men snatakottar shiksha ke lie ek pratishthan sthapit karane ke uddeshy se kisi ek upayukt roop se susngathit kameti ke hathon kuchh bhoo-sampatti dena chahate the. unhonne bharat men vishvavidyalay shiksha ki agragati hetu vichar karana shuroo kiya. unhonne desh men chhatron ke shodh-kary hetu shodh snsthaon ki sthapana evn usake lie grnthagaron ki vyavastha, jahan par chhatr prakhyat shikshakon ke adhinasth shodh kary kar saken, adi par gahara chintan prarnbh kiya. apane uparokt prastav ke poorv unhonne yoorop men prathamik khoj-khabar le li thi tatha inglaind evn any vishvavikhyat vaigyanikon se salah mashavara bhi kar liya tha. jamashedaji ka yah prastav us samay aya, jab angrez shasit bharat men shiksha ke prasar par ankush lagane ki sarakari vyavastha ho rahi thi. bharat ke shikshit samuday men jamashedaji ka yah prastav gnbhir chintan ka vishay bana. sachamuch yah ek sahasi kadam tha.

angrezon ki chal

angrez bharat men uchch shiksha ke khilaf the. ve apana kam chalane tak hi logon ki shiksha ko simit rakhana chahate the. maulikata ke sath us shiksha ka koee snbndhi nahin tha. desh ki snpada vriddhi se bhi isaka koee sarokar nahin tha. in paristhitiyon men jamashedaji uchch shiksha ke lie arth sahayata dekar ek bahut bada sahasi kadam uthane ja rahe the, jise shikshit samaj ne kafi saraha. lekin jamashedaji ke is prastav ko rokane ke lie tatkalin angrez sarakar bahut hi chalakipoorn evn nimnashreni ke ravaiye apanane se nahin chooki. laaurd karzan ne jamashedaji ke is prastav ke prati apani poorn sahanubhooti jatate hue kee mamalon men ise saphal hone men sndeh jahir kiya, jaise- isake lie yatheshth chhatr milenge ya nahin, shiksha samapti ke uparant un ladakon ko naukari milegi ya nahin ityadi. sarakari virodh se jamashedaji ko bahut dhakka laga. sarakari taur par isamen aur adhik arth ki avashyakata bataee gee. ant men harakar jamashedaji ne is prastav ko vapas lene par vichar shuroo kar diya, jabaki desh ke sare buddhijivi nirash hokar anrtanad karane lage, kyonki unaki drishti men bharat ka vikas praudyogik vikas par bahut had tak adharit tha.[3]

svami vivekanand jamashedaji ke is prastav ke bahut hi agrahi the. vah vyakulata se apane jivan svapn ko roopayit hote dekhana chah rahe the. vah janate the ki is desh ka utthan keval krishi se hi snbhav nahin hai, balki audyogikikaran ki bhi avashyakata hai. vah desh men shilp udyogon ki sthapana karana chahate the. vah sannyasiyon ka ek dal banakar is kary ko age badhana chahate the, taki desh ki janata ki arthik dasha sudhare. amerika bharat men prachar ke lie dharm shikshakon ko n bhejakar shilp shikshakon ko bheje, adhunik bharatavarsh men samajikata evn shilp shiksha ki avashyakata hai, aisa svamiji ne amerika men kaha tha. ho sakata hai ki svamiji ne apani yatra ke dauran desh hitaishi vyavasayi jamashedaji ko bharat men shilp-shiksha pradan karane ki apani kalpana se poornaroopen avagat karaya ho aur usi ke prabhav se jamashedaji ne risarch instityoot kholane ki parikalpana ki ho.

jamashedaji ka patr

vivekanand ji ke sath panch varsh poorv huee apani mulakat ko taja karate hue jamashedaji tata ne unhen 23 navambar, 1898 ko ek patr likha tha ki- "bharat men vaigyanik shodh hetu ek shodh snsthan kholane snbndhi meri parikalpana se ap avashy avagat honge. is sndarbh men main apake chintan evn bhavadhara men jane ki bat gaharaee se soch raha hoon. mujhe aisa lagata hai ki kuchh tyagavrati manushy yadi ashram jaise avasiy sthal men anadnbar jivan yapan kar, prakritik evn manavik vigyan ki charcha men apane jivan ko utsarg kar den to isase bada tyag ka adarsh aur doosara nahin ho sakata." jamashedaji ne yah samajha tha ki unaki parikalpana sirf paise se sakar nahin ho sakati, manushy chahie aur is snbndh men manushyon ka ahvan kar unhen jagane men svamiji hi saksham ho sakate hain. at: janasadharan ke unnayan ke lie unhonne svamiji se agnimay vani snkalit kar ek pustika ke roop men prakashit karane ka agrah kiya tha, jisaka poora vyay vah dene ko taiyar the.[3]

sarvadharm premi

ispat karakhane ki sthapana ke lie sthan ka antim roop se chayan hone ke thik panch sal pahale hi yani 1902 men unhonne videsh se apane putr dorab ko likha tha ki- "unake sapanon ka ispat nagar kaisa hoga". unhonne likha tha ki- "is bat ka dhyan rakhana ki sadaken chaudi hon. unake kinare teji se badhane vale chhayadar ped lagaye jaen. is bat ki bhi savadhani baratana ki bag-bagichon ke lie kafi jagah chhodi jaye. phutabaaul, haauki ke lie bhi kafi sthan rakhana. hinduon ke mndiron, muslimon ki masjidon tatha eesaeeyon ke girajon ke lie niyat jagah mat bhoolana."

mrityu

jamashedaji tata ne 19 mee, 1904 ko jarmani ke badanauhaim men apane jivan ki antim sansen lin. apane akhiri dinon men putr dorab aur parivar ke najadiki logon se unhonne us kam ko age badhate rahane ke lie kaha, jisaki unhonne shuruat ki thi. unake yogy uttaradhikariyon ne kam ko sirf jari hi nahin rakha, balki use phailaya bhi. jamashedaji ki mrityu ke bad sar dorab tata, unake chachere bhaee je. ar. di. tata, burajoraji padashah aur any logon ne tata udyog ko age badhaya. jamashedaji ne kaha tha ki- "agar kisi desh ko age badhana hai to usake asahay aur kamazor logon ko sahara dena hi sab kuchh nahin hai. samaj ke sarvottam aur pratibhashali logon ko ooncha uthana aur unhen aisi sthiti men pahunchana bhi zaroori hai, jisase ki ve desh ki mahanh seva karane layaq ban saken."[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 rashtr nirman ke prenetaon men agrani the- jamashedaji tata (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 2 march, 2013.
  2. tajamahal hotal ke nirman ki rochak katha (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 2 march, 2013.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 jab svami vivekanand jamashedaji tata ki prerana bane (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 2 march, 2013.

snbndhit lekh

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