जूट  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sookhati huee joot

joot athava patasan aj manav jivan ke lie bahut hi mahattvapoorn ho gaya hai. joot shabd snskrit ke 'jata' ya 'joot' se nikala samajha jata hai. yoorop men 18vin shatabdi men sabase pahale is shabd ka prayog milata hai, yadyapi vahan is dravy ka ayat 18vin shatabdi ke poorv se 'pat' ke nam se hota a raha tha. vishv men joot utpadan karane vale deshon men avibhajit bharat ka prayah ekadhikar tha, kintu vibhajan ke phalasvaroop is paristhiti men antar pad gaya. joot paida karane vale pavana, bogara, maimanasinh, rngapur, malada, dhaka aur faridapur zile bangladesh[1] men chale ge. ab vishv ke utpadan ka 40 pratishat bharat aur 50 pratishat bangladesh se prapt hota hai.

joot ke reshe

joot ke reshe do prakar ke joot ke paudhon se prapt hote hain. ye paudhe 'tiliesiee kul' ke 'kaurakoras kaipsulairis' aur 'kaurakoras olitoriyas' hain aur reshe ke liye donon hi ugae jate hain. pahale prakar ki fasal kul varshik kheti ke 3/4 bhag men aur doosare prakar ki fasal kul kheti ke shesh 1/4 bhag men hoti hai. inake bij se fasal ugaee jati hai. bij ke liye paudhon ko poora pakane diya jata hai, par reshe ke liye pakane ke pahale hi kat liya jata hai. yah paudhe mukhyat: bharat aur pakistan men upajae jate hain.

kaurakoras kaipsulairis

kaipsulairis kathor hota hai aur isaki kheti oonchi tatha nichi donon prakar ki bhoomiyon men hoti hai. kaipsulairis ki pattiyan gol, bij andakar gahare bhoore rng ke aur reshe safed par kuchh kamazor hote hain. kaipsulairis ki kismen phndook, ghaleshvari, phooleshvari, desihat, bnbee di 154 aur ar 85 hain.

kaurakoras olitoriyas

olitoriyas ki kheti keval oonchi bhoomi men hoti hai. olitoriyas ki pattiyan vartul, soochyakar aur bij kale rng ke hote hain aur reshe sundar sudridh par kuchh phike rng ke hote hain. olitoriyas ki kismen desi, tosah, arathoo aur chinasura grin hain.

utpadak desh

bharat men sarvapratham prarambh hone vala udyog joot ka hi tha. desh ke bngal, bihar, udisa, asam aur uttar pradesh ke kuchh taraee vale bhagon men lagabhag 16 lakh ekad bhoomi men joot ki kheti hoti hai. isase lagabhag 38 lakh ganth[2] joot paida hota hai. utpadan ka lagabhag 67 pratishat bharat men hi khapata hai. 7 pratishat kisanon ke pas rah jata hai aur shesh briten, jarmani, frans, itali, aur snyukt rajy amarika ko niryat hota hai. amarika, misr, brazil, afrika adi any deshon men isake upajane ki cheshtaen ki geen, lekin bharat ke joot ke sammukh ve abhi tak tik nahin sake.

bhaugolik dashaen

joot ki kheti ke lie bahut hi savadhanipoorvak har krishi-karm kiya jata hai. isaki kheti ke lie nimnalikhit dashaon ka hona avashyak hai-

jalavayu tatha tapaman

joot ki kheti garam aur nam jalavayu men hoti hai. isaki kheti ke lie tapaman 25° se 35° sentigred aur apekshik ardrata 90 pratishat honi chahie. halki baluee, delta ki domat mitti men kheti achchhi hoti hai. is drishti se bngal ki jalavayu isake liye sabase adhik upayukt hai.
joot ke ped
khet ki jutaee achchhi honi chahie. bhoomi men prati ekad 50 se 100 man gobar ki khad ya knpost aur 400 paund lakadi ya ghas-pat ki rakh dali jati hai. purani mitti men 30-60 paund naitrojan diya ja sakata hai. kuchh naitrojan bone ke pahale aur shesh bijankuran ke ek saptah bad dena chahie. potash aur choone se bhi labh hota hai. nichi bhoomi men faravari men aur oonchi bhoomi men march se julaee tak boaee hoti hai. sadharanataya chhitak boaee hoti hai. ab dril ka bhi upayog hone laga hai. prati ekad 6 se lekar 10 paund tak bij lagata hai.

varsha

bij se ankur nikalane ke do tin mahine ke bad paudhe ko adhik jal ki avashyakata padati hai. atah isaki kheti 150 se 200 semi. ya usase bhi adhik varsha vale bhagon men ki jati hai. 10 se 11 mah men isaki fasal taiyar hoti hai, atah kheton men 6-7 mah tak pani adhik rahana chahie.

mitti

joot ki kheti se bhoomi bahut anupajaoo ho jati hai. is karan joot ki kheti unhin sthanon men ki jati hai, jahan prativarsh nadiyan upajaoo mitti lakar bichhati hain. atah pashchim bngal men deltaee kshetr men adhik joot paida kiya jata hai. kanp evn domat mitti se yah khoob paida kiya jata hai, kintu usamen ekaroopata nahin rahati.

shram

joot ke lie saste mazadooron ki avashyakata hoti hai, kyonki taiyar paudhon ko katane tatha bandal banane, pani men sadane evn reshe nikalane adi ke karyon ke lie adhik mazadoor chahie hote hain. is kary ke lie paryapt dhan bhi vyay karana padata hai. isilie yah zaroori hai ki in samast karyon ke lie saste mazadooron ko laya jae.

joot ki krishi

pashchim bngal men joot ka utpadan adhikatar nadiyon ke purane ya naye kagaron par ubhari huee bhoomi aur baluee kinaron par kiya jata hai. joot ke paudhon se resha prapt karane ke lie inhen 20-25 din tak jal men bhigokar sadane ke lie rakhana padata hai, atah uttam aur mithe jal ki bhi avashyakata hoti hai. bad men ise pitakar dhoya jata hai aur phir bandal ko sukhakar usase reshe ko alag kar liya jata hai. bharat men joot ka utpadan pashchim bngal, bihar, udisa, asam adi rajyon tak hi simit hain, kyonki yahan gnga, mahanadi aur brahmaputr nadi dvara layi huee upajaoo mitti milati hai aur badh ke sath badalate rahane se isaki upajaoo mitti ka hras nahin hota. atah bina khad die in rajyon men joot ki kheti ki jati hai. isake paudhe ki lambaee 3 se 3.5 mitar tak hoti hai.

buvaee tatha kataee

isaki kheti us ubhari huee bhoomi par hoti hai, jo nadiyon ke purane ya naye kagaron ke karan ban jati hai. garton men dhan aur joot ko bari-bari se bote hain. pashchim bngal men bhoomi ke oonche-niche hone par hi joot bone ka samay nirbhar rahata hai. nimn bhoomiyon par faravari se march tak tatha uchch bhoomi par march se joon tak joot ki buvaee ki jati hai. jo fasal sabase pahale boee jati hai, usi ko pahale kata jata hai. vaise sabhi prakar ki fasal ke lie kataee agast se sitambar tak ki jati hai. phool jhar jane tatha phali nikal ane par hi fasal katani chahie, anyatha der karane se pachheti kataee se reshe mazaboot, par bhadde aur mote ho jate hain aur unamen chamak nahin hoti. bahut ageti kataee se paidavar kam aur reshe kamazor hote hain.

joot nikalana

kataee ke samay bhoomi ki satah se paudhe kat lie jate hain. kahin-kahin paudhe amool ukhad lie jate hain. aisi kati fasal ko do tin din sookhi zamin men chhod dete hain, jisase pattiyan sookhakar ya sadakar gir padati hain. tab dnthalon ko garon men bandhakar patton, ghas-paton, mitti adi se dhnkakar chhod dete hain.
joot ko dhote kisan
phir garon se kachara hatakar unaki shakhadar chotiyon ko katakar nikal lete hain. ab paudhe galae jate hain. galane ke kam men do din se lekar ek mas tak ka samay lag sakata hai. yah bahut kuchh vayumandal ke tap aur pani ki prakriti par nirbhar karata hai. galane ka kam kaisa chal raha hai, isaki prarnbh men pratidin janch karate rahate hain. jab dekhate hai ki dnthal se reshe badi saralata se nikale ja sakate hain, tab dnthal ko pani se nikalakar reshe alag karate aur dhokar sukhate hain. resha nikalane vala pani men khada rahakar, dnthal ka ek mootha lekar jad ke nikat vale chhor ko chhani ya mungari se mar-marakar samast dnthal chhil leta hai. resha ya dnthal tootana nahin chahie. ab vah use sir ke charon or ghumakar pani ki satah par pat rakhakar, reshe ko apani or khinchakar, apadravyon ko dhokar aur kale dhabbon ko chunakar nikal deta hai. ab usaka pani nichod kar dhoop men sookhane ke liye use hava men tang deta hai. reshon ki pooliyan bandhakar joot pres men bheji jati hain, jahan unhen alag-alag vilagakar dravachalit dab men dabakar ganth banate hain. dnthalon men 4.5 se 7.5 pratishat resha rahata hai.

prakar

bharat men do prakar ki joot paida ki jati hai. 'chini joot' nadiyon ke ubhare hue kinaron ya nadi ke dvipon men boya jata hai. 'deshi joot' mukhy roop se halaki baluee, delta ki dumat mitti men boya jata hai. bharat ke anek bhagon men ye do prakar ke joot sath-sath ugate hain. pratham prakar ka joot saphedi lie aur chamakila tatha achchha hota hai. joot ka resha do prakar ke paudhon se prapt kiya jata hai. ye paudhe 'shvet joot' aur 'tosa joot' hain.

akar

joot sadharanataya chhah se lekar das phut tak lnbe hote hain, par vishesh avasthaon men 14 se lekar 15 phut tak lnbe pae ge hain. turnt ka nikala resha adhik mazaboot, adhik chamakadar, adhik komal aur adhik safed hota hai. in gunon ko khula rakhane se inaka hras hota hai. joot ke reshe ka virnjan kuchh sima tak ho sakata hai, par virnjan se bilkul safed resha nahin prapt hota. resha ardratagrahi hota hai. 6 se lekar 23 pratishat tak nami reshe men rah sakati hai. joot ki paidavar, fasal ki kism, bhoomi ki urvarata, antaralan, katane ka samay adi, anek baton par nirbhar karati hai. kaipsulairis ki paidavar prati ekad 10-15 man aur olitoriyas ki 15-20 man prati ekad hoti hai. achchhi jutaee se prati ekad 30 man tak paidavar ho sakati hai.

utpadan kshetr

bharat men joot ki ausat upaj 2,194 kilogram prati hektear hai. yah bihar men sabase kam 1000 kilogram evn pashchim bngal men 1,400 v asam men 1,800 kilogram tak hoti hai. joot utpadan ke kshetr mukhyatah gnga, brahmaputr nadi ke delta men pashchim bngal, bihar asam tatha meghalay men hain. ye charon rajy milakar kul joot kshetraphal ke 94 pratishat joot bote hain. shesh utpadan udisa, uttar pradesh aur tripura ke taraee vale bhagon se prapt hota hai. desh ke any bhagon men isaki krishi bahut kam hoti hai. uttar-pashchimi bharat men varsha kal men 'san' namak any reshe vali fasal paida ki jati hai.

joot ki kheti dakshin ki or gnga ke muhane ke pas kam hoti hai, kyonki yahan bhoomi itani nichi hai ki joot ke lie anupayukt hai. pashchim men dakshini pathar ki or bhi, jahan patharili bhoomi adhik hai, joot ki kheti kam hoti hai. bharat men joot ke utpadan men pashchim bngal ka pratham sthan hai. yahan desh ki kul upaj ka 73.95 pratishat joot utpann hota hai. doosara sthan bihar (13.02 pratishat) tatha tisara asam (6.07 pratishat) ka he. any rajy men udisa pramukh roop se ullekhaniy hai.

joot ka jahan 1960-1961 men utpadan 41 lakh ganthe tha, vah 2008-2009 men badhakar 96 lakh ganth ho gaya. ise mahattvapoorn upalabdhi mana jata hai. pashchim bngal se bharat ke utpadan ka lagabhag tin chauthaee joot prapt kiya jata hai, arthath joot utpadan men is rajy ka pahala sthan hai. murshidabad, p. dinajapur, koochabihar, hugali, chaubis paragana, nadiya, jalapaeegudi, midanapur, barddhaman aur malda zilon ki 85 pratishat bhoomi par joot boya jata hai, jahan gnga aur brahmaputr nadi ke dvara upajaoo kanp mitti jamaee jati hai. tapaman 36° se 40° tak rahate hain. ardrata ka pratishat 70 se 90 pratishat tak rahata hai. varsha ki matra manasoon poorv ke kal men 250 semi. aur isake uparant ke kal men 2500 semi. tak ho jati hai. inhin paristhitiyon ke karan joot utpadan ke lie pashchim bngal ek adarsh rajy hai. yahan desh ke samast joot ke utpadan ka 73.95 pratishat utpadan hota hai.

any pramukh rajy

asam men aur surama nadiyon ki ghatiyon ke kachhar, dharang, golapada, kamaroop, lakhimapur, navaganv, shivasagar zilon men joot boya jata hai. asam men desh ka 6.07 pratishat joot utpadit hota hai.

meghalay men garo, khasi, jayantiya pahadi़yon, mikir aur uttari kachhar ki pahadi़yon men joot paida kiya jata hai.

bihar ke mukhy utpadak zile taraee kshetr se snlagn hain. champaran, darabhnga, mujaphpharapur, samastipur, poorniya, saran, saharasa, bhagalapur aur munger, jharakhand ke snthal paragana men yah vishesh roop se paida kiya jata hai. bihar men joot ki upaj ke antargat desh ke joot kshetraphal ka 17.1 krishi kshetr hai tatha 13.02 pratishat joot utpann kiya jata hai.

udisa men tatiy bhagon men visheshakar bolngiri, patana, ghenakanal, gnjam, kalahandi, kyonjhar, koraput, balasor, katak aur puri zilon men joot boya jata hai.

uttar pradesh ke taraee kshetr tatha sarayoo aur ghaghara nadiyon ke doabon men baharaich, devariya, barabnki, gonda, sitapur, lakhimapur-khiri, bijanaur zilon men joot paida hota hai.

joot ka upayog

joot ke reshe se bore, hesiyan tatha painking ke kapade banate hain. kalin, dariyan, parade, gharon ki sajavat ke saman, astar aur rassiyan bhi banati hain. dnthal jalane ke kam ata hai aur usase barood ke koyale bhi banae ja sakate hain. dnthal ka koyala barood ke liye achchha hota hai. dnthal se lugadi bhi prapt hoti hai, jo kagaz banane ke kam a sakati hai.

vyapar

vibhajan ke phalasvaroop bharat men joot ki kami anubhav hone lagi, kyonki joot utpadak kshetron ka 73 pratishat tatkalin poorvi pakistan ko chala gaya, jabaki joot ke prayah sabhi karakhane bharat men hi rahe. atah joot ki kami ko poora karane ke lie isaka utpadan badhaya jata raha. isake lie ghaghara, sarayoo, tapi, mahanadi adi ghatiyon aur samudratatiy kshetron tatha taraee pradesh men joot ka utpadan badhane ke prayason men saphalata mili hai. phir bhi abhi bangladesh se joot ka ayat kiya jata hai. avashyakata ke anuroop kuchh joot bangladesh, philipains, brajil adi deshon se bhi ayat kiya jata hai. bharat se bahut hi alp matra men kachche joot ka niryat snyukt rajy amarika, inglaind, soviyat roos, arab ganarajy, astreliya ko kiya jata hai. bharat joot se bane padartho ka niryat karata hai. varsh 1990-1991 men 2.2 lakh tan joot se bane mal ka niryat kiya gaya, jisaka mooly 298 karod rupaye tha. 2008-2009 men desh se 1,279 karod rupaye ka joot nirmit mal ka niryat kiya gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. tatkalin poorvi pakistan
  2. ek ganth ka bhabritenar 400 paund

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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