जैमिनि  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

achary jaimini maharshi krishnadvaipayan vyasadev ke shishy the. samaved aur mahabharat ki shiksha jaimini ne vedavyas se hi payi thin. ye hi prasiddh poorv mimansa darshan ke rachayita hain. isake atirikt inhonne 'bharatasnhita' ki bhi rachana ki thi, jo 'jaimini bharat' ke nam se prasiddh hai. apane dronaputron se markandey puran suna tha. inake putr ka nam sumantu aur pautr ka nam satvan tha. in tinon ne ved ki ek-ek snhita banayi hai. hiranyanabh, paishpnji aur avanty nam ke in ke tin shishyon ne un snhitaon ka adhyayan kiya tha.

parichay

jaimini mimansa sootr ke rachayita hain, kintu inhen mimansa shastr ka pravartak kahana uchit nahin hai, kyonki inhonne apane sootron men mimansa darshan ke any ath acharyon ke maton ka ullekh kiya hai. inake samay ke vishay men koee nishchit mat sthapit nahin ho saka hai. kuchh log inaka samay eesavi poorv 300 varsh manate hain, to kuchh log eesavi ki doosari shatabdi. inake jivan charit ke vishay men bhi koee vishesh vivaran prapt nahin hai. pnchatatr men keval itana batalaya gaya hai ki mimansa sootr ke rachayita jaimini ko ek hathi ne mar diya tha. bhagavat puran men varnan milata hai ki jaimini ne vyas se samaved ka adhyayan kiya tha tath apane shishy sumantu ko samaved padhaya tha. jaimini ne apane sootron men jin ath acharyon ke maton ka ullekh kiya hai, unake nam hain- badarayan, badari, karshnajini, lavukayan, kamukayan, atrey, alekhar tatha ashmarany.

samaved ke achary

prarambhavastha men ved keval ek hi tha; ek hi ved men anekon richaen thin, jo “ved-sootr” kahalate the; ved men ygy-vidhi ka varnan hai; sam (gane yogy) padavaliyan hai tatha lokopakari anek hi chhand hain. in samast vishayon se sampann ek hi ved satyug aur tretayug tak raha; dvaparayug men maharshi krishnadvaipayan ne ved ko char bhagon men vibhakt kiya. is karan maharshi krishnadvaipayan “vedavyas” kahalane lage. snskrit men vibhag ko “vyas“ kahate hain, atah vedon ka vyas karane ke karan krishnadvaipayan “vedavyas” kahalane lage. maharshi vyas ke pail, vaishampayan, jaimini aur sumantu- yah char shishy the. maharshi vyas ne pail ko rigved, vaishamyapan ko yajurved, jaimini ko samaved aur sumantu ko atharvaved ki shiksha di.[1]

jaimini dvara rachit mimansa sootr

jaimini dvara rachit mimansa sootr 12 adhyayon men vibhakt hai. ye barah adhyay barah vishayon par adharit hain. isilie ise 'dvadash lakshani' bhi kaha jata hai. yah bhi ek manyata hai ki ukt barah adhyayon ke atirikt char any adhyayon ki bhi rachana jaimini ne ki thi, jinhen snkarshan kand ya devata kand ke nam se jana jata hai. jaimini ke sootron ka mukhy pratipady dharm ke svaroop ki khoj, manav ke kartavy aur akartavy ka vivechan tatha inase sakshath ya paramparaya sambandh rakhane vale any vishay hain. jaimini ne mimansa sootr ke barah adhyayon men nimnalikhit barah vishayon ka vishad vivechan kiya hai-

  • pahale adhyay men dharm ke lakshan tatha dharm ke pramanon ka niroopan kiya gaya hai.
  • doosare adhyay men karmabhed ko batalane vale shabdantar, abhyas, snkhya, sngya, gun tatha prakaranantar in chh: vishayon ka varnan hai.
  • tisara adhyay sheshatv ka niroopan karata hai. isamen shruti, ling vaky, prakaran, sthan tatha samakhya ka pratipadan kiya gaya hai. inhen viniyojak praman kaha jata hai.
  • chauthe adhyay ka vishay prayojy-prayojak-bhav hai, jisamen shruti, arth, path, sthan, mukhy aur pravritti ka varnan kiya gaya hai. inhen bodhak praman kaha gaya hai.
  • panchavan adhyay 'kram' hai. isamen karmon ke age pichhe hone ka nirdesh kiya gaya hai.
  • chhathe adhyay ka mukhy vishay 'adhikar' hai. isamen ygy karane vale ke gun aur visheshata ka varnan kiya gaya hai.
  • sataven adhyay men ygyon ka niroopan hai.
  • athaven adhyay men visheshatidesh[2] ka niroopan kiya jata hai.
  • naven adhyay men 'ooh' ki charcha hai, arthath is bat ki ki kis ygy men kis ygy ki kin kin kriyaon men kis prakar parivartan kar unhen kam men laya ja sakata hai.
  • dasavan adhyay bagh aur abhyachchay ka niroopan karata hai, jisaka tatpary ygyon tatha ygy men hone vali kriyaon ke nirakaran tatha samavesh ke lie adhar ki charcha karana hai.
  • gyarahaven adhyay men 'tantr' ka niroopan hai, jisamen kendrikaran ki prakriya pradarshit ki gee hai.
  • barahaven adhyay men 'avap' ka varnan hai, jo ki vikendrikaran ki prakriya se sambandhit hai.

pranali

jaimini ne ukt samast vishayon ke vivechan ke lie pratyek ko panch vargon men vibhakt kar niroopan karane vali pranali ka vikas kiya. ye panch varg is prakar hain-

  1. avasar ya prasng arthath us avasar, prasng ya uddeshy ki vyakhya karana, jisamen vicharaniy vishay ki khoj ki avashyakata utpann hoti hai.
  2. kisi bhi prakaran ki vishay vastu ka niroopan jo adhikansh men ved-vakyon se addhrit kiya gaya hai.
  3. sndeh ka adhar jo kisi khoj ya jigyasa ke lie avashyak hota hai.
  4. poorvapaksh arthath kisi prakaran ke sambandh men sambhavit mat.
  5. siddhant jo antim nishkarsh ke roop men svikar kiya jata hai. 

dharm

jaimini ne mukhy roop se dharm ke pratipadan ke lie hi mimansa sootr ki rachana ki. dharm ki paribhasha dete hue jaimini ne kaha hai ki dharm ve arth ya karm hain, jinako karane ke lie vedon ne adesh diya hai tatha jinake karane se abhipret phal ki prapti hoti hai. is prasng men yah bhali-bhanti samajh lena chahie ki mimansa men dharm shabd ka prayog n to kisi sampraday ke arth men hua hai, n puny-pap ke arth men, jo sadharanataya dharm shabd samajhe jate hain. yahan dharm shabd ka prayog vyapak arth men ved pratipadit kartavyon ke lie kiya gaya hai. dharm shabd ki is paribhasha se hi dharm ke gyan ke sadhan ka bhi nirdesh ho jata hai. ved ke vidhi vaky hi dharm ke gyan ke ekamatr sadhan hain. inake atirikt any pratyaksh adi pramanon se dharm ka gyan kisi prakar sambhav nahin hai.

yahi karan hai ki jaimini ne vedon ki vishvasaniyata vaidik vaky, 'ved' shabd aur usake arth, shabd evn arth ke sambandh adi ka vistar se vivechan kiya hai. ved apaurushey hai tatha mool ke roop men yah vidhi nishedh parak vaky mana gaya hai. varnanatmak vaky vidhi ke sath milakar hi sarthak hote hain. ye varnanatmak vaky arthavad vaky kahalate hain.

apoorv

jaimini ke darshan men yah prashn uthaya gaya hai ki ygy adi karmakriya roop hai, jo apani poornata ke sath samapt ho jate hain aur apani samapti ke turant bad un phalon ko nahin dete, jinake lie inaka vidhan kiya gaya hai. udaharan ke lie kaha ja sakata hai ki jab koee svarg ki prapti ki ichchha se ygy karata hai, tab ygy ki samapti ke sath hi use svarg nahin mil jata. at: mrityu ke bad prapt hone vale svarg ka karan vah nahin ho sakata, kyonki karan ko kary ki utpatti ke turant poorv men rahana chahie. is prakar ki samasya ke samadhan ke lie jaimini ne apoorv mana hai. pratyek karm apani samapti ke sath sath ek apoorv utpann karata hai aur yah apoorv[3] apane phal dene tak rahata hai. is prakar yah kaha ja sakata hai ki apoorv karm tatha phal ke bich ki avastha ka nam hai. apoorv ki yah manyata mimansa darshan ki ek maulik visheshata hai. jaimini ke uttaravarti acharyon ne is apoorv ka vishad vivechan kiya hai.

yah bhi vivechan kiya gaya hai ki sabhi karm keval ek ek apoorv hi nahin utpann karate, balki kuchh aise bhi karm hain, jo ek se adhik apoorv utpann karate hain. udaharan ke lie darshapoornamas ygy ko liya ja sakata hai, jo char prakar ke apoorv utpann karata hai.

  1. phalapoorv- vah hai, jo sakshath phal ko utpann karata hai.
  2. samudayapoorv- ukt ygy ke angabhoot ygyon se alag alag apoorv utpann hote hain, jinamen sammilit roop ko samudayapoorv kaha jata hai.
  3. utpattyapoorv- yah apoorv hai, jo angabhoot ygyon se alag alag prarambhik roop men utpann hota hai.
  4. angapoorv- ukt angabhoot ygyon ke bhi anek chhote chhote karm hote hain aur ye pratyek karm apane apane apoorv utpann karate hain. inhen angapoorv kaha jata hai, jinake sammilit hone se sampoorn ygy apana phal dene men samarth ho pata hai.

karm ke prakar

yah kaha gaya hai ki ved ke dvara adisht karm hi karm hai. isalie karm ke svaroop nirdharan tatha karm ka vargikaran jaimini ke darshan ka mukhy vishay hain.

sarvapratham karm ke do bhed kie jate hain-

  1. laukik karm- jo karm lok ke adesh se kie jate hain, ve laukik karm hain.
  2. vaidik karm- jo karm ved ke adesh se kie jate hain, ve vaidik karm hain. inhin vaidik karmon ko dharmik karm kaha jata hai.

vaidik karmon ka vargikaran

is vargikaran men anek adhar apanae ge. at: is vargikaran ko paraspar vyavrit nahin mana ja sakata. isamen adhar bhed se varg bhed ki sthapana ki gee hai.

  • adesh ke svaroop ke adhar par vaidik karmon ke tin bhed kiye ge hain-
  1. vihit karm
  2. nishiddh karm
  3. ubhayatmak karm

isamen vihit karm ke tin bhed hote hain-

  1. nity
  2. naimittik
  3. kamy
  • phal ki utpadakata ke adhar par vaidik karm ke do bhed kiye ge hain-
  1. pradhan karm- jo karm svayn sakshath apoorv utpann karata hai, ya phal dene men samarth hota hai, vah pradhan karm kahalata hai.
  2. gun karm- jo pradhan karm ki sahayata ke lie hota hai ya paramparaya apoorv athava phal ki utpatti men sahayak hota hai, vah gun karm kahalata hai.
  • prayojan ke adhar par vaidik karmon ke tin bhed kiye ge hain-
  1. ritvarth karm- jo karm kisi ygy ki poornata ke lie karaniy hote hain
  2. purusharth karm- yajaman ya karta ko abhivanchhit phal dene vale karmon ko kaha jata hai
  3. anubhayatmak karm- ve karm jo n to ygy men sahayak hote hain aur n karta ko abhivanchhit phal hi dete hain.
  • pratipadit svaroop ke adhar par vaidik karmon ke char bhed kiye ge hain-
  1. prakriti karm- jinaka pratipadan moolaroop ya prarambhik roop men kiya gaya ho, jaise- agnihotr.
  2. vikriti karm- jinaka pratipadan kisi prakriti karm ki anuroopata ke adhar par kiya gaya ho, jaise- masagnihotr.
  3. prakriti-vikriti karm- jo prakriti tatha vikriti donon ke svaroop ko anshik roop se upasthit karata ho, jaise agnisomiy, jo darshapoornamas ki vikriti tatha savaniy ki prakriti ko prastut karata hai.
  4. anubhayatmak- jo donon men se kisi ke svaroop ko prastut n karata ho, jaise- darvi hom.

yajaman

ygy karane vala yajaman kahalata hai. jo arthavad vachanon men nirdisht phal ki akanksha rakhata ho, manav ho tatha ygy karane ke lie avashyak samagri ka sngrah karane men samarth ho evn sharirik drishti se us kary ke sampadan ki kshamata rakhata ho, vah yajaman ho sakata hai. is prasng men yah bhi prashn uthaya gaya hai ki stri ko ygy karane ka adhikar hai ya nahin. isake samadhan men yah nirnay diya gaya hai ki stri ko svatntr roop se ygy karane ka adhikar nahin hai, kintu apane pati ke sath use ygy karane ka adhikar hai. shoodron ke ygy karane ke adhikar ke sambandh men uthae ge prashnon ka uttar nakaratmak roop se diya gaya hai, kintu isamen bhi kuchh apavad avashy hain, kyonki rathakar evn nishad-sthapati shoodr hain, phir bhi inhen ygy karane ka adhikar diya gaya hai.

svarg

ygyon ke antim phal ke roop men svarg ka vidhan hai aur jahan ygyon ke phal ka nirdesh nahin hai, vahan yah man lene ko kaha gaya hai ki unaka phal svarg hai. at: yah prashn vicharaniy ho jata hai ki svarg kya hai. is sambandh men vistrit vivechan ke pashchath yah nirdharit kiya gaya hai ki svarg ek gun hai, jo sukh ya anand ke roop men upalabdh hota hai. jahan kahin vastuon ya padarthon ko svarg kaha gaya hai, usaka tatpary keval yahi hai ki ve padarth anand utpadak hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

giri, daau. raghunath vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 217.

  1. gita amrit -joshi gulabanarayan (hindi) hi.krishnakosh.org. abhigaman tithi: 04 navambar, 2017.
  2. arthath kis-kis ygy men kis kis prakar ki vishesh kriyaen apekshit hain
  3. puny ya apuny

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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