ज्वार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jvar ka khet

jvar vishh‍v ki ek mote anaj vali mahath‍vapoorn fasal hai. varsha adharit krishi ke liye jh‍var sabase upayukh‍t fasal hai. jh‍var fasal ka dohara labh milata hai. manav ahar ke sath-sath pashu ahar ke roop men isaki achh‍chhi khapat hoti hai. jh‍var ki fasal kam varsha men bhi achh‍chha upaj de sakati hai. ek or jahan jh‍var sookhe ka sakshamata se samana kar sakati hai, vahin kuchh samay ke liye bhoomi men jalamagh‍nata ko bhi sahan kar sakati hai. jh‍var ka paudha anh‍y anaj vali fasalon ki apeksha kam prakash snshh‍leshan evn prati ikaee samay men adhik shushh‍k padarth ka nirman karata hai. jh‍var ki pani upayog karane ki kshamata bhi anh‍y anaj vali fasalon ki tulana men adhik hai. vartaman samay men bharat men jvar ki kheti madhy pradesh, udisa, uttar pradesh tatha pnjab rajyon men bahutayat men ki jati hai. jh‍var ke dane ka upayog uchh‍ch gunavath‍ta vala elh‍kohal banane men bhi kiya jata hain.

jalavayu

jvar ooshn jalavayu ki phasal hai, parantu shighr pakane vali jatiyan thande pradeshon men bhi garmi ke dinon men ugaee ja sakati hai . jvar ki fasal men bali nikalate samay 30 digri selsiyas se adhik tapakram fasal ke lie hanikarak ho sakata hai.[1]

bhoomi ka chunav

matiyar, domat ya madhh‍yam gahari bhoomi, paryaph‍t jivashh‍m tatha bhoo‍mi ka 6.0 se 8.0 pi.ech. jvar ke liye sarvadhik upayukh‍t paya gaya hai. khet men pani ka nikas achh‍chha hona chahiye. garmi ke samay khet ki gahari jutaee bhoomi urvarakata, kharapatavar, rog evn kit niyntran ki drishti se avashh‍yak hai. khet ko traikh‍tar se chalane vale kalh‍tivetar ya bail jodi se chalane vale bakhar se jutaee kar zamin ko achh‍chhi tarah bhurabhuri kar pata chalakar boni hetu taiyar karana chahie.

mitti

jh‍var ke lie upajaoo jalodh athava chikani mitti kafi upayukt hoti hai, kintu lal, pili, halki evn bhari domat tatha baluee mittiyon men bhi isaki krishi ki jati hai.

kish‍m v bij

jvar ki kheti ke lie upayukh‍t anushnsit kish‍mon ka chunav karana chahie. kisi bhi kshetr ke lie anumodit kish‍mon ka bij hi boya jana chahie. jahan tak snbhav ho pramanit snsh‍thaon ke hi bij ka upayog karana uchit rahata hai, ya unh‍nat kish‍mon ka sh‍vayn ka banaya hua bij hi prayog men lana chahie. jvar ki snkar kish‍m vah hoti hai, jisaka bij do ant:prajat kish‍mon ke snkaran se banaya jata hai. bone ke liye prati varsh naya snkar bij upayog men lana avashh‍yak hota hai. snkar jatiyaaun si.es.ech.14, si.es.ech.16, si.es.ech.17 tatha si.es.ech.18 kisanon ke bone ke liye upayukh‍t hain. vipul uth‍padan dene vali kish‍mon ka vikas do athava adhik kish‍mon se snkaran ke bad hi pidhi़yon se chayanit shreshh‍th paudhon se kiya jata hai. in kish‍mon ke kheton se kisan sh‍vayn sahi lakshan vale 3000-4000 bhootto ko chhantakar rakhen aur agale varsh bij ke roop men upayog men la sakate hain. prati varsh naya bij kharidana avashh‍yak nahin hai.

bij upachar

bijopachar ke dauran phaphoond nashak dava 'thayaram' 3 gram, prati kilo gram bij ke hisab se upacharit karana chahiye. phaphoond nashak dava se upachar ke uparant evn boni ke poorv 10 gram 'ejospriliyam' evn 'pi.es.bi.' kalh‍char ka upayog prati kilogram bij ke hisab se achh‍chhi tarah milakar kiya jata hai. kalh‍char ke upayog se jh‍var ki upaj men anshik vriddhi paee gee hai. upacharit bij ko dhoop se bachakar rakhen tatha buvaee shighrata se kar deni chahie. adhik uth‍padan praph‍t karane hetu jh‍var ki vipul uth‍padan dene vali jatiyon tatha snkar jatiyon men paudh snkhh‍ya 1,80,000 (ek lakh ash‍si hazar) prati hekh‍teyar rakhi jati hai. bij ko kataron men 45 semi. doori par boya jata hai. paudhon se paudhon ka antar 12 semi. rakhen. dviudddheshiy (dana evn kadabi) vali nee kish‍mon jaise 'javahar jh‍var 1022', 'javahar jh‍var 1041' evn 'si.ech.es. 18' ki paudh snkhh‍ya do lakh das hazar prati hekh‍teyar rakhana chahie. yah paudh snkhh‍ya fasal ko kataron se kataron ki doori 45 semi. evn paudhe se paudhe ki doori 10 semi. par rakhakar praph‍t ki ja sakati hai.[1]

jvar ke dane
  • ankuran ke bad paudhe jab 8 se 10 din ke ho tab viralan karate samay kataron men 10 se 12 semi. ki doori par ek sh‍vash‍th paudha rakha jata hai. shesh sabhi paudhe nikal diye jate hain. usake pashh‍chat yadi halh‍ki varsha ho rahi ho, to is samay jahan paudh nahin ho, vahan par doosara paudha ropa ja sakata hai. sahi jatiyon ka chunav, sahi samay par boni, uchit samay par paudh viralan tatha sahi paudh snkhh‍ya rakhana kam lagat kharch se adhik uth‍padan praph‍t karane ki takanik hai.

khad evn urvarak

jh‍var bhoomi se 130-150 kilogram natrajan, 50-55 kilogram sh‍phur tatha 100-130 kilogram potash prati hekh‍teyar leti hai. jh‍var ki fasal men ek kilogram natrajan (naitrets) dene se nee unh‍nat jatiyon men 15 se 16 kilogram dana milata hai. achh‍chhi upaj ke liye 80 kilogram natrajan, 40 kilogram sh‍phur tatha 40 kilogram potash prati hekh‍teyar dena chahiye. boni ke samay natrajan ki adhi matra tatha sh‍phur aur potash ki poori matra bij ke niche di jati hai. natrajan ki shesh matra jab fasal 30-35 dinon ki ho jaye, yani paudhe jab ghutanon ki oonchaee ke ho, tab paudhon se lagabhag 10-12 semi. ki doori par saeed dresing ke roop men dekar dora chalakar bhoomi men mila dena chahie. jahan gobar ki khad athava kamh‍posh‍t khad upalabh‍dh ho, vahan 5 se 10 tan prati hekh‍teyar dena labhadayak hota hai tatha isase jh‍var se adhik uth‍padan praph‍t hota hai.

kharapatavar niyntran

jh‍var fasal men kharapatavar niyntran hetu kataron ke bich 'vh‍hil ho' ya 'dora', boni ke 15-20 din bad evn 30-35 din bad chalayen. isake pashh‍chat kataron ke andar hathon dvara niraee karen. snbhav ho to kulh‍pe ke dante men rash‍si bandhakar paudhon par mitti chadha deni chahie. rasayanik niyntran men 'etrajin' 0.5-1.0 kilogram prati hekh‍teyar sakriy tattv athava 'elakh‍lor' 1.5 kilogram s‍kriy tath‍v ko 500 litar jal men milakar boni ke pashh‍chat evn ankuran ke poorv chhidakana chahie. angiya grash‍t khet men jh‍var ke anukool mausam hone par bhi bhutte men dane nahin bharate hain. nindanashak davaon ke chhidakav se angiya ki rokatham ki ja sakati hai. jab angiya ki snkhh‍ya simit hoti hai tab agiya ko ukhadakar nashh‍t kiya ja sakata hai.[1]

audyaugik fasal

safed jvar ke ate se bred, biskit evn kek banaye ja sakate hain. jvar ke ate ke svabhavik roop se mitha hone ke karan chini ki matra kam rakhakar madhumeh rogiyon ke lie achchha snaik taiyar kiya ja sakata hai. bred banane ke lie jvar aur gehoon ke ate ki matra 60 pratishat + 40 pratishat rakhi jati hai. isake atirikt samany roop se biyar, jau, makee athava dhan se taiyar ki jati hai, parantu jvar ke anaj se bhi svadisht evn sugndhit biyar banaee ja sakati hai, jo any dhany se banaee biyar se sasti padati hai. jvar se banaye jane vali biyar ke upayog men badhotari se jvar ki audyaugik mang badh jayegi.

utpadak kshetr

jvar ka sabase bada utpadak rajy maharashtr hai. isake bad dvitiy sthan karnatak evn tritiy sthan madhy pradesh ka hai. isake alava andhr pradesh, tamilanadu, uttar pradesh, gujarat ityadi rajyon men bhi isaki krishi ki jati hai. 2006-07 ke dauran 74 lakh tan jvar ka utpadan hua.

fasal ke pramukh kit

jh‍var ki fasal men anek prakar ke kit pae jate hain. inamen pramukh hai, tana chhedak makh‍khi, tana chhedak ilh‍li aur bhutton ke kit. mukhh‍yat: mij makh‍khi adhik hani pahunchati hai.

tana chhedak makh‍khi

yah kit vayash‍k ghareloo makh‍khi ki tulana men akar men chhoti hoti hai. isaki mada path‍ton ke niche safed ande deti hain. in ande se 2 se 3 dinon men illi‍‍yan nikalakar path‍ton ke pongalon se hote hue tanon ke andar pravesh karati hain aur tanon ke badhane vale bhag ko nashh‍t karati hain. aise paudhon men bhutte nahin ban pate hain.

  • niyntran - yadi boni varsha ke agaman ke poorv athava varsha ke arnbh ke ek saph‍tah men kar li jaye, to is kit se hani kam hoti hai. bijoth‍padan kshetr men boni ke samay bij ke niche 'phoret' 10 pratishat athava 'karbophayuran' 3 pratishat danedar kit nashak 12 se 15 kilogram prati hekh‍teyar ke hisab se den.

tana chhedak ilh‍li

jvar

is kit ki vayash‍k mada makh‍khi path‍ton ki nichali satah par 10 se lekar 80 ke guchh‍chhon men ande deti hai, jisase 4 se 5 dinon men illiyan nikalakar path‍ton ke pongalon men pravesh karati hain. tanon ke andar men surng banati hain aur antat: nada banati hain. is kit ki pahachan path‍ton men bane chhedon se ki ja sakati hai, jo illiyan pongalon men pravesh ke samay banati hain.[1]

  • niyntran - paudhe jab 25-35 dinon ki avash‍tha ke hon, tab path‍ton ke pongalon men 'karbophyuran' 3 pratishat danedar kit nashak ke 5 se 6 dane prati paudhe ki matra men dalen. lagabhag 8 se 10 kilogram kitanashak ek hekh‍teyar ke liye lagata hai. danedar kit nashak mahnge hain, at: is kit ki sntoshajanak rokatham 'indosalh‍phan' 4 pratishat athava 'kh‍yoonalaphas' 1.5 pratishat choorn ka dena pongalon men bhurakav dvara dena snbhav hai. yadi tana chhedak ilh‍li ka niyntran fasal ki prarnbhik avash‍tha men n kiya jaye, to bhutto ke dnthalon men illiyan pravesh kar surng banati hain. parinamash‍varoop bhutto men badhate huye danon ko paryaph‍t matra men jal tatha poshak tath‍v upalabh‍dh nahin ho pata hai. aise bhutto men dane akar men chhote rah jate hain athava anek bar dane nahin ban pate hain.

bhutto ke kit

mij makh‍khi kit ka prakop maharashtr se lage zilon men adhik dekha jata hai. samanh‍yat: tapaman jab girane lagata hai, tab kit dikhaee deta hai. is kit ki vayash‍k mada makh‍khi narngi rng ya lal rng ki hoti hai, jo phoolon ke andar ande deti hai. andon se 2 se 3 din men illiyan nikalakar phoolon ke andakoshon ko khakar nashh‍t karati hain. parinamash‍varoop bhutto men kee jagah dane nahin ban pate. anh‍y kiton ki illiyan bhutton men jale banati hain athava badhate huye dane khakar nashh‍t karati hain. kuchh ras choosak kit danon se ras choos lete hain.

  • niyntran - khet men jab 90 pratishat paudhon men bhutte poton se bahar nikal ayen, tab bhutton par 'inh‍dosalh‍fan' 35 ee.si. (1 litar prati hekh‍teyar) athava 'melathiyan' 50 ee.si. (1 litar prati hekh‍teyar) taral kit nashak ko 500-600 litar pani men milakar chhidakav karen. avashh‍yakata hone par 10-15 dinon bad chhidakav doharaya jana chahie. yadi taral kitanashak upalabh‍dh n ho, to 'inh‍dosalh‍fan' 4 pratishat athava 'melathiyan' 5 pratishat choorn ka bhurakav 12 se 15 kilogram prati hekh‍teyar ki dar se upayog kiya jata hai.

rog

jvar

jh‍var ki desi kish‍mon ke path‍ton par anek prakar ke chittidar parn rog dekhe ja sakate hain, parntu snkar kish‍mon aur nee unh‍nat kish‍mon ke path‍ton par parn chith‍ti rog kam dikhaee dete hain, kh‍yonki unamen in rogon ke lie pratirodhik kshamata ya anuvashik gun hota hai. 'kndava rog' bhi nee kish‍mon men nahin dikhaee deta hai. paudh sadan athava kndava ka niyntran bij ko kavak ko nash karane vali dava se upacharit karane se snbhav hai. choonki jh‍var ki nee kish‍men lagabhag 95 se 110 dinon men pakati hai, dane pakane ki avash‍tha men varsha hone se danon par kali athava gulabi rng ki phaphoond ki badhavar dikhaee deti hai. dane bekar ho jate hain, unaki ankuran kshamata kam ho jati hai aur manav ahar ke liye aise dane upayukh‍t nahin hote hain.[1]

  • niyntran - is rog ke saphal niyntran ke liye yadi jh‍var phoolane ke samay varsha hone se vatavaran men adhik nami ho, to 'keph‍tan' (0.3 pratishat) aur 'daeethen-em' (0.3 pratishat) ke mishran ke ghol ka chhidakav tin bar bhutto par, phool avash‍tha ke samay, danon men doodh ki avash‍tha ke samay aur dane pakane ki avash‍tha ke samay karana chahie.

jvar ki kataee

fasal ki kataee karyakiy paripakh‍vata par karani chahie. har kish‍m men bhutton ke pakane ka samay alag-alag hota hai. jh‍var ke paudhon ki kataee karake dher laga dete hain. bad men paudh se bhutto ko alag kar lete hain tatha kadabi ko sukhakar alag dher laga dete hain. yah bad men janavaron ko khilane men kam ata hai. danon ko sukhakar jab nami 10 se 12 pratishat ho tab bhndaran karana chahie.

dhyan dene yogy baten

jh‍var ki fasal ka atyadhik utpadan karane ke liye kuchh baton ka dhyan rakhana chahie. jaise-sh‍thaniy jatiyaaun ko hi bona jana chahie. samay par buaee karana chahie, asntulit urvarakon ka prayog nahin hona chahie. paudh snkhh‍ya kam honi chahie, paudhon ka uchit snrakshan hona chahie.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 sahoo, ramasukh. jh‍var (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el.) krishi chhattisagadh. abhigaman tithi: 11 agast, 2011.

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