डेविड ह्यूम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

devid hyoom

devid hyoom (janm: 1711 - mrityu: 1776) skaautalaind ke mahanh darshanik the. devid hyoom ka janm 1711 men hua aur usaki mrityu 1776 men huee. san 1723 se 1727 tak edinabara vishvavidyalay men usane shiksha paee, kintu vahan se usane koee upadhi nahin li. darshan ke kshetr men gyan, satta, niti evn dharm ke vishay men usake vichar atyadhik mahattv rakhate hain aur unaka prabhav aj ke darshan par bahut hai.

devid hyoom ke siddhant

devid hyoom ke samay men ek prachalit dharana yah thi ki gyan do prakar ka hota hai- sadharan aur asadharan. sadharan vyaktiyon ko sadharan tarikon se hone vale gyan, anubhav aur prayogon dvara milane vale am gyan aur usake vikasit roop vigyan ko sadharan gyan ke antargat rakha jata hai. ise nimnakoti ka gyan samajha jata tha. usake viparit, buddhi se milane vale gyan ko shreshth tatha asadharan gyan mana jata tha. logon ka vishvas tha ki buddhi ek prakar ki daivi shakti hai aur isase mila gyan vishv ki antim vyakhya prastut karata hai, aisi vyakhya jo asndigdh hoti hai aur kabhi galat nahin siddh ho sakati. devid hyoom ke anusar gyan ke is dvait men vishvas niradhar hi nahin balki hanikarak bhi hai, kyonki isase ahnkar aur hath utpann hota hai. isake atirikt devid hyoom ke anusar yah janane ke lie ki kis prakar ka gyan manushy ke lie sambhav hai, gyanoparjan ki shakti, gyan ki sima tatha avabodh ki yogyata adi ki pariksha apekshit hai. bodhashakti ka hi prayog ganit, bhautiki, manovigyan adi vishayon men hota hai. isalie bodh shakti ki pariksha sabake lie adharik hai. apani darshanik pranali ko devid hyoom prayogik kahate hain, jisaka yah arth yah hai ki usake nishkarshon ki satyata ki pariksha koee bhi apane anubhavon dvara kar sakata hai.

gyan mimansa

hyoom ki gyan mimansa indriyanubhavavadi hai. vah manata hai ki gyan ke do mool ghatak hain- indriyanubhav aur (saral) pratyay. pratyay indriyanubhav se utpann unaki nakal ki tarah hote hain aur unase kam spasht, durbal tatha dhoomil hote hain. bina kisi indriyanubhav ke koee bhi pratyay nahin utpann ho sakata. jise ham pratyay samajhate hain, usake mool men yadi kisi indriyanubhav ka hona asiddh ho jaye to hamen use pratyay nahin balki dhokha ya chhalana matr kahana chahie.

indriyanubhav

indriyanubhav men sabhi prakar ki anubhootiyan samavisht hain, jaise snvedan, bhavanaen, aveg, antarik pratyaksh, ityadi. pahale hamen pratyakshanubhav hota hai aur usake bad hamari kalpana ya smriti men usaki anukriti ke ankit ho jane se pratyay utpann ho jate hain. pahale hamen mithas ka anubhav hota hai aur usake bad mithas ke pratyay ka uday hota hai, isilie mithas ka pratyay usake anubhav svabhavat: durbal ya dhoomil hota hai. choonki sabhi pratyay anubhav prasoot hai. isilie kisi ko bhi janmajat nahin kaha ja sakata. hamari pravritti hi aisi hai ki bina pratyakshanubhav ke ham koee pratyay nahin bana sakate. kisi anubhavik pad ke arth ko ham tabhi samajh sakate hain, jab usase vyakt pratyay ko apane kisi pratyakshanubhav se snbodhit kar pate hain. anubhav indriyon se ya man se hota hai. indriyon se bahy vastuon ka hota hai aur man se manovikaron ka. koee atindriy anubhav hamen nahin hota. anubhav se svatntr kalpana bhi nahin hai, kyonki usaka bhi niyntran hamara anubhav karata hai.

saral pratyay

saral pratyayon men koee apasi anivary sambandh nahin hote, ve ek doosare se tatvat: svatntr hote hain. ek se doosare ko nigamit nahin kiya ja sakata. unamen sambandh hote hain, kintu ve matr sahachary ke tathyatmak sambandh hote hain. saral pratyayon ke moolat: alag alag hone par bhi unake sndhat samooh banate hain. hamara man kee svatntr pratyayon ko ek sath saja kar unase snshlisht pratyayon ko banata hai. pratyayon ke samooh kuchh niyamon se niyntrit hote hain. kuchh hi pratyay kuchh any pratyayon ke sath ho sakate hain, unase milakar samooh banakar ek ne snshlisht pratyay ko janm de sakate hain. pratyayon ke is prakar apas men milane ke niyamon ko sahachary niyam kahate hain. ye hain- sadrishy, dashink kalik samipy (sannidhi) aur karyakaran bhav. saman vastuon ke pratyay, dikh ya kal men ek sath vidyaman vastuon ya ghatit hone vali ghatanaon ke pratyay, ya karanata sambandh ke dvara sambandhit vastuon ya ghatanaon ke pratyay ek doosare ke sath ho lete hain. anubhavavadi darshan men amoort pratyayon ki samasya kathin hoti hai. amoort pratyay samany hota hai aur kee vastuon ke vishay men ek sath lagoo hota hai, jaise 'gotv' (gay hone ka) pratyay. 'gotv' ke dvara kisi gay vishesh ka nahin balki gay jati ka bodh hota hai. hyoom ke anusar vastut: koee bhi pratyay amoort ya samany nahin hota. sabhi pratyay vishishton ke hote hain. jab kee vastuon men kuchh samanata hoti hai, tab ham unake lie ek hi pad, jaise 'gay' ka, sab gayon ke lie karane lagate hain. ek hi pad se anek vastuon ka bodh karane ki adat se hamen lagata hai ki 'gotv' ka pratyay samany hai, jabaki 'gay' pad ke siva koee aisa pratyay vastut: nahin hai. aise mat ko nagavad kahate hain.

padon ke arth unase soochit pratyay hote hain. 'lal' shabd ka arth usake dvara vyakt ya bodhit pratyay hai. yadi kisi pad se kisi bhi pratyay ka bodh nahin hota hai to vah nirarthak hai. jab ham kisi pad ka kisi vishesh arth men kafi arase tak vyavahar karate rahate hain, tab use usi roop men vyavahrit karane ki adat ban jati hai. inhin adaton se bhashiy paramparaen utpann hoti hain. in adaton ya bhashiy paramparaon ke chalate kisi pad se vyakt pratyay ka bina dhyan kie bhi ham usaka sarthak vyavahar kar sakate hain. jab kabhi yah samasya uthe ki koee pad arthavanh hai ya nahin, tab hamen yah nishchit karana chahie ki usase vyakt koee pratyay hai ya nahin aur pratyayon ke vishay men prashn uthane par unake janak pratyakshanubhavon ki khoj karani chahie. isilie antat: bhashiy vivadon ko bhi pratyakshanubhavon ke adhar par hi sulajhaya ja sakata hai, kyonki bhashiy arth ka mool adhar ve hi hain. hyoom ka yahi mat vartaman shatabdi ke tarkik anubhav vadiyon ke satyapan siddhant ka poorvaj hai.

bodh shakti
devid hyoom

hyoom ke anusar hamari gyan shakti ya bodh shakti ki sima anubhav ki sima hai. buddhi kisi mool ya saral pratyay ko apane andar se utpann nahin kar sakati, vah keval anubhavadatt pratyayon ka vishleshan, snshleshan, unaki tulana matr hi kar sakati hai. hamara gyan pratyayatmak hota hai ya tathyatmak. pratyayatmak gyan ke vishay pratyayon ke sambandh hote hain aur tathyatmak gyan ke vishay tathy aur unake sambandh. tark shastr aur ganit pratyayon ke sambandhon ka gyan dete hain aur manovigyan, bhautiki adi anubhavik vigyan tathyon ka gyan. pahale prakar ka gyan bauddhik vishleshan matr se prapt hota hai, jabaki doosare prakar ka gyan anubhav se hi prapt ho sakata hai. pratyayatmak arthath bauddhik gyan nishchayatmak evn anivary hota hai, jabaki tathyatmak arthath anubhavik gyan apatik hota hai. gyan ke is vishleshan ke adhar par hi hyoom tatvamimansiy athava dharm sambandhi uktiyon ko gyan ki koti men nahin rakhate, choonki gyan ke uparyukt do hi prakar hain, isilie aise kathan ko, jisase pratyayatmak ya tathyatmak gyan nahin milata, koee mahattv nahin diya ja sakata hai. dharm aur tatvamimansa ki adhikansh pustakn aisi hi hain

anubhavik gyan

anubhavik gyan pratyakshanubhav se arambh hokar usase bahut age tak jata hai. is tarah gyan ka adhar hai anubhav, jo karyakaran sambandh par ashrit hai. kisi bhi anubhoot tathy se kisi bhi ananumoot tathy ko anumit karana anubhavik anuman kaha jayega. anubhavik anuman men nishchayatmakata nahin hogi. anubhavik anuman ka adhar karyakaran sambandh hai. karan kary men kisi ek ke anubhoot hone par doosare ka, karan se kary ka, kary se karan ka, anuman kiya ja sakata hai. hyoom kary karan sambandh ko anubhavik manata hai. yah vastuon, ghatanaon ke bich ka sambandh hai, jisaka gyan anubhav se hota hai n ki pratyayon ke vishleshan se. pani men dalana shakkar ke ghulane ka karan hai. kintu aisa ham tabhi kahate hain, jab anek bar bina kisi apavad ke pani men shakkar ko ghulate dekhate hain, vastut: kary karan sambandh do vishisht padarthon ke bich ka nahin balki do prakar ke padarthon ke bich ka sambandh hai.

karanata ke pratyay ka janak snyog ka pratyakshanubhav hai. jab ham k ko kh ka karan kahate hain to k jaisi aur kh jaisi vastuon ke bich avirat snyog ke atirikt aur koee sambandh nahin pate hain. hamen lagata hai ki karanata men koee anivaryata hai. kintu hamen kisi prakar ki anivaryata ka anubhav nahin hota. hyoom ka kahana hai ki anivaryata ki yah bhavana manovaigyanik matr hai. jab ham do vastuon men avirat snyog ka anubhav karate hain, tab yah anubhav hamare andar ek ke hone par doosare ke hone ki asha ki adat paida kar deta hai. isi adat ke chalate ham samajhane lagate hain ki ek ke hone par doosara avashy hi hoga (ya hua hoga). hamari yahi adat karanata men aropit anirvayata ki janani hai.

tatvamimansa

apani tatvamimansa men bhi hyoom ek atyant hi sahasi aur sngat anubhavavadi ki bhoomika ada karata hai, jo anubhoot hai, usaki vastavikata vah nahin manata. laauk bhi manata hai ki hamen keval gunon ka anubhav hota hai. shakkar ki mithas, saphedi adi ke gun hi anubhav hote hain. shakkar nam ka koee dravy nahin. phir bhi vah anuman ke adhar par shakkar dravy ko bhi svikar karata hai, kyonki bina dravy ke gunon ka astitv nahin hota. gunon ko dravy ki apeksha hai, isilie anubhavagamy n hone par bhi dravy ke astitv ko manana padata hai. hyoom is tark ko svikar karata hai. usaka kahana hai ki jab hamen dravy ka pratyakshanubhav nahin milata, tab usaki satta men vishvas karane ka koee aur auchity nahin hai. antarik aur bahy, donon men kisi prakar ke anubhav se dravy ka pratyay nahin milata. bhautik aur adhyatmik donon prakar ke dravy ko hyoom ayatharth kahata hai, kyonki koee bhi pratyakshanubhav inake pratyayon ke janak ke roop men hamen nahin milata. n to hamara antarnirikshan atma jaise kisi antarik sookshm dravy ka pratyakshanubhav deta hai, n hi koee aindriy anubhav shakkar jaise kisi bhautik dravy ka.

kee darshanik atma ko hamare anubhavon ke ashray anubhavakarta ya bhokta ke roop men manasik dravy manate hain. hyoom ka kahana hai ki ek to aise dravy ka kabhi anubhav nahin hota, doosare ise anubhoot manane men vyaghath bhi utpann hota hai. jo sabhi anubhavon ka adhar hai, vah svayn kaise anubhoot ho sakata hai. phir atma ko chirntan, anavachchhinn mana jata hai. isalie is pratyay ke janak pratyakshanubhav ko bhi vaisa hi hona chahie. kintu hamara antarnirikshan batalata hai ki aisa koee pratyakshanubhav hamen kabhi nahin prapt hota. yadi hamen atma shabd ka prayog avashyak lagata hai to usase anubhavon ke snghat ka samooh matr ka hi bodh karana chahie. atma ki ekaroopata men ham pray: vishvas karate hain. kintu yah ekaroopata ka pratyay anubhav se nahin utpann hota. ise hyoom kalpanik manata hai. bhinn bhinn samay men hone vale anubhavon men sadrishy dekhane par ham kalpana kar lete hain ki unake ashray ke roop men koee atma nam ka aparivartanashil dravy hai, jo vibhinn anubhavon ko ek dhage ki tarah piroe hue hai. bhautik vastuon ki tathakathit ekaroopata ki vyakhya bhi is tarike se hyoom karata hai. bahy jagath ka ham pray: man se svatntr, apane anubhavon se svatntr vastuon ki samashti samajhate hain. hyoom ke anusar aise bahy jagath men vishvas karane ka bhi koee auchity nahin hai. hamen to sirf pratyakshanubhav hote hain. unase svatntr ya unako utpann karane vale bahy padarthon ka hamen kabhi anubhav nahin hota. bahy vastuon men vishvas bhi atma ke astitv men vishvas ki tarah kalpana ki upaj hai. phir bhi hamare andar yah vishvas kafi sabal roop men vidyaman hai. hamari prakrit men ek atyant hi balavati pravritti hai, jo hamen bahy jagath men vishvas karane ke lie vivash karati hai. buddhi isaka virodh karati hai, kintu yah pravritti buddhi se sabal siddh hoti hai.

niti aur dharm

hyoom ke nitishastr ki mukhy samasya naitik padon ke arth ki hai. kisi chiz ko naitik drishti se achchha-bura kahane ka kya arth hai. isake uttar ke lie vah anubhavik aur vaishleshik pranali ka prayog karata hai. usaka kahana hai ki hamen pahale to anubhav ke adhar par yah sthir karana chahie ki in padon ka prayog kin kin chijon ke lie hota hai aur phir bauddhik vishleshan dvara unake samany lakshanon ko. tabhi ham kah sakate hain ki in padon ke prayog ka arth yah batalana hai ki ve vastuen un (samany) gunon se yukt hain.

naitik padon jaise eemanadar, dayalu, udar, dusht, charitrahin adi ka prayog manushy apani, usaki kriyaon aur pravrittiyon ke visheshan ke roop men hota hai. hyoom ka kahana hai ki sabhi prashnsaniy naitik kriyaon ya pravrittiyon ka samany lakshan yah hai ki ve apane karta ya dharak ke lie ya doosaron ke lie tatkal sukhadayi ya upayogi hoti hai. yahan par char sambhavanaen hain-

  1. tatkal sukhadayi hona
  2. usake lie upayogi hona
  3. doosaron ke lie tatkal sukhadayi hona
  4. doosaron ke lie upayogi hona.

kisi kriya ko naitik drishti se prashnsaniy hone ke lie kam se kam charon men se kisi ek gun ka usamen hona zaroori hai aur usake nindaniy hone ke lie charon ke virodhi gunon ka. yadi usamen charon ka abhav matr hai to vah n to prashnsaniy hota hai, n nindaniy. hyoom to manata hai ki upayogi ya sukhad hona kisi bhi moolyavan vastu ka lakshan hai. chahe ve naitik ya anaitik drishti se moolyavan kahi jae. hyoom naitik aur anaitik drishtiyon se anke ge moolyon men bhed, milane vale sukh ya upayogita ki bhinnata ke adhar par karata hai.

svahitavad ka khndan bhi hyoom anubhav ke adhar par karata hai. hyoom ke anusar doosaron ke sukh ke lie ichchha ka hamare andar hona utana hi saty hai, jitana apane sukh ke lie ichchha ka hona. isilie yah kahana (jo svahitavad ko manata hai) ki har manushy keval apana hi sukh chahata hai, tathyat: galat hai.

naitik nirnayon ke svaroop ke vishay men hyoom ka kahana hai ki ve tathyatmak nahin hote, n unhen tathyatmak vakyon se nigamit hi kiya ja sakata hai, kyonki tathyatmak vaky varnanatmak hote hain, moolyatmak nahin. naitik nirnay kisi tathy ka varnan matr nahin karate, balki kartavy, chahie, shubh-ashubh, adi ki bhavana ko bhi vyakt karate hain. naitik nirnay buddhi nahin banati. buddhi to keval sambandhit tathyon ka vishleshan bhar kar deti hai. kisi vastu ka moolyankan karana, yah kahana ki vah achchhi ya buri hai, bhavana ka kam hai, buddhi ka nahin. buddhi hamen prerit nahin kar sakati, vah keval tathyon ke hamare gyan ko suspasht kar deti hai. hamari kriyaon ke lie prerana to bhavana se hi milati hai.

karyakaran bhav

karyakaran bhav ko manate hue hyoom kahata hai ki isaka snkalp-svatntray se koee virodh nahin hai. karyakaran sambandh keval avirat snyog ka sambandh hai, anivaryata nahin. isako manav kriyaon par lagoo karane ka yahi parinam hota hai ki ham unake vishay men anuman kar sakate hain ki unake kya karan ya kary ho sakate hain. ham yah nahin kah sakate ki kriyaon ko karana hi sambhav nahin hai. balki yadi ham eeshvar ko sarvashaktiman man lete hain to naitik moolyankan asambhav ho jaega. us halat men sab kuchh eeshvar ki ichchha se hi hoga, aur kisi manushy ko usake krityon ke lie uttaradayi nahin kaha ja sakega. kintu choonki naitik moolyankan hote hain, isilie isase yah nigamit hota hai ki sarvashaktiman eeshvar ko saty nahin man sakate. eeshvar ko vishv ka adi karan, pooja ka vishay, sarvashaktiman poornat: shubh mana jata hai. usake lie kee tark diye jate hain. ek tark yah hai ki usaki satta usake pratyay se nikrisht hai. vah poorn hai aur poorn hone ke lie sattavan hona zaroori hai. yah tark galat hai, kyonki satta ka anubhav pratyay se hi nahin balki anubhav ke adhar par, karyakaran ke adhar par hi ho sakata hai. kabhi bhi hamen vishv jaise padarth ka karan eeshvar jaise padarth ke hone ka anubhav nahin hota. isalie karyakaran sambandh ke adhar par eeshvar ko prabhavit nahin kiya ja sakata. eeshvar aur vishv donon hi advitiy hain. isilie donon men karyakaran sambandh ka arop karana galat hai. du:kh ashubh ke astitv se bhi eeshvar ka astitv asiddh hota hai. yadi eeshvar du:kh ka karan hai to vah shubh nahin hai aur yadi karan nahin hai to vah sarvashaktiman nahin hai. hyoom ka kahana hai ki eeshvar men vishvas yadyapi bauddhik drishti se auchityapoorn nahin hai tathapi bhavana hamen use manane ke lie prerit karati hai aur ham usase shanti pate hain.

hyoom apane ko snshayavadi kahata hai. isaka arth yah nahin hai ki vah har prakar ke gyan ki sambhavana ko asvikar karata hai balki yah ki hamari manasik shaktiyan is prakar ki hain ki ham anubhav ki sima ke bahar nahin ja sakate.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

[1]

  1. prasad, daau. rajendr vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 689.

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