तमिल नाडु  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

India-flag.gif
tamil nadu
Tamil-nadu-map.jpg
rajadhani chennee
rajabhasha(en) tamil bhasha
sthapana 1 navnbar, 1956
janasnkhya 62,405,679 [1]
· ghanatv 511 /varg kimi
kshetraphal 130,058 varg kimi [2]
bhaugolik nirdeshank 13°05′N 80°16′E
zile 32[2]
sabase bada nagar chennee, koynbatur, eerod, maduree, vellor
mahanagar chennee
ling anupat 1000:987 ♂/♀
saksharata 73.5%
· stri 64.4%
· purush 82.4%
rajyapal banavari lal purohit[2]
mukhyamntri ke. palanisvami[2]
vidhanasabha sadasy 234[2]
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Seal of Tamil Nadu.png

tamil nadu (angrezi: Tamil Nadu, tamil: தமிழ்நாடு) bharat ka ek dakshini rajy hai. tamil nadu ki rajadhani chennee hai. tamil nadu ke any mahattvapoorn nagar madurai, tiruchirappalli, koynbatur, kanchipuram, kanyakumari hain. tamil nadu ke padosi rajy andhr pradesh, karnatak aur keral hain. tamil nadu men boli jane vali pramukh bhasha tamil hai.

namakaran

tamil nadu shabd tamiळ bhasha ke tamil tatha nadu (நாடு) jisaka shabdik arth ghar ya vas, sthan, se milakar bana hai jisaka arth hai tamilon ka ghar ya tamilon ka desh hai. british shasanakal men yah prant madras presidensi ka hissa tha. svatntrata ke bad madras presidensi ko kee bhagon men bant diya gaya, jisake phalasvaroop madras tatha any rajyon ka uday hua. 1968 men madras prant ka nam badalakar tamil nadu kar diya gaya.

itihas

tamil nadu ka itihas bahut purana hai. yadyapi prarnbhik kal ke sngam grnthon men is kshetr ka itihas ka ash‍pashh‍t ulh‍lekh mila hai, kintu tamil nadu ka likhit itihas pallav rajaon ke samay se hi upalabh‍dh hain. yah kuchh sthanon men se ek hai jo pragaitihasik kal se aj tak abad hai. prarambh men yah tin prasiddh rajavnshon ki karmabhoomi rahi hai - cher, chol tatha panday.

vellor qila, tamil nadu

tamil nadu ke prachin sahity men, yahan ke rajaon, rajakumaron tatha unake prashnsak kaviyon ka vivaran milata hai. visheshgy manate hain ki yah sahity eesa ke bad ki kuchh prarnbhik sadiyon ka hai. tamil nadu men sthit uttaramerur gram, jahan se pallav evn chol kal ke lagabhag do sau abhilekh mile hain. chol, pahali sadi se lekar chauthi sadi tak mukhy adhipati rahe. inamen pramukh nam karikal chol hai, jisane apane samrajy ka vistar kanchipuram tak kiya. chauthi shatabh‍di ke poorvarddh men pallavon ka varchash‍v qayam hua. unh‍honne hi dravid shaili ki prasiddh mndir vastukala ka sootrapat kiya. antim pallav raja aparajit the, jinake rajh‍y men lagabhag dasavin shatabh‍di men chol shasakon ne vijayalay aur adity ke margadarshan men apana mahath‍v badhaya. gh‍yarahavin shatabh‍di ke ant men tamil nadu par chaluky, chol, panday jaise anek rajavnshon ka shasan raha. isake bad ke 200 varsho tak dakshin bharat par chol samrajy ka adhipath‍y raha. tamil ka sngam sahity cher, chol vnsh aur panday vnshon ke shasanakal men pachaeemalaee pahadiyon men phala aur phoola hai.

chol rajaon ne vartaman tnjavur zila aur tiruchirapalli zile tak apane rajy ka vistar kiya. is kal men chol rajaon ne dakshin men shrilnka tatha uttar men apana prabhutv sthapit kiya. tisari sadi men kalabhron ke akraman se chol rajaon ka patan ho gaya. kalabhron ko chhathi sadi tak, uttari bhag men pallavon tatha dakshin bhag men pandayon ne harakar bhaga diya .

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men yogadan

bharatiy svatntrata andolan men tamil nadu ke anek svatntrata senaniyon ne yogadan diya hai jisamen se pramukh hain-si. subrahmanyam, chakravarti rajagopalachari, chidnbaram pillee, ti.es.es. rajan, kasinathooni nageshvar rav, ke. kamaraj, ke. sntanam, minajur bhaktavatsalam adi.

bhoogol

tamil nadu rajy prakritik roop se poorvi tat par samatal pradesh tatha uttar aur pashchim men pahadi kshetron ke bich vibhajit hai. poorvi maidan ka sabase chauda hissa upajaoo kaveri ke delta par hai aur age dakshin men ramanathapuram aur madurai ke shushk maidan hain. rajy ke samooche pashchimi simant par pashchimi ghat ki oonchi shrinkhala phaili huee hai. poorvi ghat ki nichali pahadiyan aur simant kshetr, jo sthaniy taur par javadi, kalarayan aur shevaraauy kahalate hain, pradesh ke madhy bhag ki or phaile hain.

mahattvapoorn nadiyon men kaveri, ponnaiyar, palar, vaigee aur tanbraparni shamil hain, ye sabhi nadiyon antarsthaliy pahadiyon se poorv ki or bahati hain. kaveri aur isaki sahayak nadiyan tamil nadu ke jal evn vidyut ka mahattvapoorn srot hain.

nadiyon ke delta ki jalodh mitti ki prachurata ke sath-sath yahan ki mukhy mittiyon men chikani mitti, domat mitti, retili aur lal mitti[3] paee jati hai. kapas utpadak kali mitti 'regoor' (regad) ke nam se jani jati hai aur yah pashchim men selam v koynbattur, dakshin men ramanathapuram v tirunelveli tatha madhy men tiruchirappalli ke kuchh hisson men paee jati hai.

tamil nadu rajy ke lagabhag 15 pratishat hisse men van hain. pashchimi ghat ke uchchatam shikharon vale parvat- nilagiri, annamalaee aur palani pahadiyan - upaalpiy vanaspatiyon ko sahara dete hain. pashchim ghat ke poorv ki or tatha uttari evn madhyavarti zilon ki pahadiyon ki vanaspatiyon men sadabahar v parnapati vrikshon ke mishrit van hain; jinamen se kuchh shushk paristhitiyon ke kafi anukool hain. vanon se prapt kashth utpad men chndan, palpavud (lugadi banane yogy kashth) aur bans shamil hain. rabar bhi ek mahattvapoorn vanopaj hai. yahan ke jaliy pakshiyon ka pratinidhitv vedantangal sthit pakshi abhayarany karata hai, jabaki any vany praniyon ko mudamalaee sthit akhet abhayarany men dekha ja sakata hai.

jalavayu

tamil nadu rajy ki jalavayu moolat: ushnakatibndhiy hai. grishmakal men tapaman yada-kada hi 43° se. se oopar aur shit ritu men 18-24° se. se niche jata hai. disnbar aur janavari men nyoonatam tatha aprail aur joon men adhikatam tapaman rikaaurd kiya jata hai. ausat varshik varsha dakshin-pashchimi aur poorvottar maaunasoon par nirbhar hai tatha yah mukhyatah aktoobar se disnbar ke bich aur prativarsh 635 mimi se 1,905 mimi ke bich hoti hai. adhikansh varsha nilagiri v any parvatiy kshetron men aur sabase kam ramanathapuram tatha tiroonelvali zilon men hoti hai.

arthavyavastha

krishi

tamil nadu ki gramin janasnkhya ke lagabhag tin-chauthaee hisse ke jivan ka adhar krishi hai. tamil nadu men mukhh‍y vh‍yavasay‍ krishi hai. rajh‍y men 2007-08 men kul kheti yogh‍y kshetr 56.10 miliyan hekh‍teyar tha. pramukh khadyanh‍n fasalen chaval, jh‍var aur dalen hain. pramukh vh‍yaparik fasalon men ganna, kapas, soorajamukhi, nariyal, kajoo, mirch, jhinjheli aur moongaphali hain. anh‍y paudh fasalen hain - chay, kaauphi, ilayachi aur rabar. mukhh‍y van uth‍pad hain - imarati lakadi, chndan ki lakadi, palh‍pavud aur jalane yogh‍y lakadi jaiv urvarakon ke uth‍padan aur ish‍temal men tamil nadu ka pramukh sh‍than hai. kam varsha vale kshetron men krishi uth‍padan badhane ke lie krishi takanik men sudhar kiya ja raha hai. 2007-08 men yahan ka varshik anaj uth‍padan 100.35 lakh tan se adhik raha. arnbhik kal se hi tamil kisanon ne kam matra men hone vale varsha jal ko chhote aur bade sinchaee jalashayon ya talabon men kushalatapoorvak snrakshit kiya hai. sarakari nahar, nalakoop aur kuen bhi sinchaee pranali ka hissa hain. choonki vibhinn nadi ghati pariyojanaen pani ke lie an aniyamit poorvottar manasoon par nirbhar hain, isalie prashasan bhoomigat jal sroton ke adhikatam upayog ka prayas kar raha hai.

1950 se krishi paddhati men atyadhik sudhar aya hai. bahu-fasal pranali, chaval, kapas, chini aur jvar-bajara ki nee v behatar qismon ka prayog tatha rasayanik urvarak ke upayog ko vistrit roop se apanaya gaya hai. 1967 tak rajy khadyann ke utpadan men atmanirbhar ho gaya tha.

udyog aur khanij

rajh‍y ke pramukh udyog hain - sooti kapada, bhari vanijyik vahan, aauto kalapurje, rel ke dibh‍be, vidyutachalit pnp, chamada udyog, siment, chini, kagaz, aautomobail aur machis. tamil nadu ke audyogik paridrishh‍y men soochana praudyogiki aur jaiv praudyogiki jaise gyan adharit udyogon ko vishesh mahath‍v diya gaya hai. saauphtaveyar tekh‍nolaauji park, taidail ki sh‍thapana tharamani, chennee men ki gee hai. varsh 2006-07 men rajh‍y se, 20,700 karod rupe ka niryat hua jo 2007-08 men 25,000 karod rupe ho jaega. nokiya, motorola, phaaukh‍sakaaum, phlaikh‍satraaunik aur dail jaisi badi soochana praudyogiki aur doorasnchar knpaniyan yahan uth‍padan kar rahi hain.

antarrashh‍triy aauto knpani

antarrashh‍triy aauto knpani hundee motars, phord, hindush‍tan motars aur mith‍sibishi ne tamil nadu men uth‍padan ikaiyan shuroo ki hain. ashok lelaind aur taphe ne chennee men vish‍tar snyntr lagae hain.

namak ka karakhana, tutikorin
khanij snpada

grenait, ligh‍nait aur choona path‍thar rajh‍y ki pramukh khanij snpada hai. rajh‍y taiyar khalon aur chamade ka saman, sooti dhage, chay, kaauphi, masale, injiniyaring saman, tnbakoo, hash‍taship vash‍tuen aur kale grenait path‍thar ka pramukh niryatak hai. tamil nadu men desh ke 60 pratishat chamada shodhan karakhane hain. tamil nadu rajy men sthit shahar tiruppur, bune hue sooti vastr ke nirman ka pramukh kendr ban gaya hai. choona-patthar, baauksait, jipsam, lignait, maignesait aur lauh ayask mahattvapoorn khanij hain. kapas ki otaee, kataee aur bunaee hamesha se pramukh udyog rahe hain.

audyogik vikas

vikasit bndaragah suvidhaen aur bijali ke prabhavashali upayog ne rajy ke audyogik vikas ko sahayog diya hai. tamil nadu bharat ke sarvadhik audyogik vikas ko sahayog diya hai. tamil nadu bharat ke sarvadhik audyogik rajyon men se ek hai. vahan, motar saikil, transafaaurmar, chini, krishi upakaran, urvarak, siment, kagaz, rasayan aur vidyut motar ke utpadan se jude udyog ate hain. pernboor sthit relagadi ke dibbe banane ka karakhana eshiya ke sabase bade karakhanon men se ek hai. chennee ke nikat avadi men sthit bhari vahan ke karakhane men topon ka nirman hota hai. chennee men ek tel parishodhanashala aur neveli men ek tapavidyut snyntr hai, ye donon sarakari upakram hain. matsy utpadan ke kshetr men keral ke bad tamil nadu doosare sthan par ata hai.

hastashilp

tamil nadu hastashilp kala men samriddh hai, jisamen hathakaraghe ka resham, dhatu ki moortiyan chamade ka kam, qalamakari (hath se chhapaee kie vastr, jinamen prakritik rngon ka upayog hota hai), tanba, pital aur kanse ki vastuen, lakadi ka kam, tadapatr ka kam aur bent ka saman pramukh hai.

sinchaee

krishnagiri bandh, tamil nadu

vishv baink ki sahayata se karyanvit ‘pranali sudhar aur kisan ay pariyojana’ ke phalash‍varoop mahath‍vapoorn sinchaee yojanaon tatha vartaman periyar vaigee pranali, palar thala pranali aur pairnbikulam-aliyar pranali ke alava chhah lakh ekad ki ayakat tatha velh‍lar, penh‍nayar, a‍raniyar amaravati, chithar thala adi chhoti sinchaee pranaliyan labhanvit huee hain. hal hi men shuroo huee aur dhimi gati se chal rahi nau sinchaee pariyojanaon ka kam samuchit dhan aur margadarshan ke bad teji se chal raha hai . tamil nadu ke ek tihaee kshetr ki sinchaee karane vali badi sinchaee pranali - talab sinchaee pranali ke vikas par vishesh dhh‍yan diya ja raha hai aur sarvajanik nirman vibhag ke palar, vaigee tatha tamraparni thalon men karyarat 620 talabon ke punarvas aur vikas ka kam kiya ja raha hai. yah pariyojana poori hone vali hai aur kisanon ki poori sntushshti ki gee hai.

tamil nadu ‘nadi thala prabndhan’ pranali karane vala aisa pahala rajh‍y hai jo aisi vh‍yaktigat snsh‍tha dvara chalaya ja raha hai jisamen thala ke pratinidhiyon ke alava kisan bhi hain. arnbh men palar aur tamaraparani besinon ke lie besin prabndh bord banae ge hain.

bijali

rajh‍y men bijali ki kul uth‍padan kshamata 8,249 megavat hai. rajh‍y kshetr ki sh‍thapit kshamata 5,288 megavat aur niji kshetr ki sh‍thapit kshamata 1,058 megavat hai. isake alava ise kendr kshetr se apane hish‍se ki 1903 megavat bijali milati hai. dasavin pnchavarshiy yojana ke ant tak mang 8,890 megavat ho jane ki ummid hai.

kala

bharat ki ek pramukh shastriy nrity shaili bharatanatyam aur karnatak sngit, donon ka rajy men vyapak prachalan hai. yadyapi chitrakala evn moortikala kam vikasit hai, phir bhi yahan patthar evn kanse ki moortiyan banane ki kala ki shiksha ke lie vidyalay hain. tamil sahity ne tezi se laghu kathaon v upanyason ke pashchimi sahityik svaroop ko apanaya hai. subrahamanyam si. bharati (1882-1921) parnparik tamil kavita ko adhunik banane vale prarnbhik kaviyon men ek the. 1940 ke dashak se chalachitr jan manornjan ka sarvadhik lokapriy madhyam bana hua. yahan chalate-phirate aur sthayi, donon prakar ke sinemaghar hain. bhavanatmak aur bhavy filmon, jinamen prayah halka-phulka sngit aur nrity hota hai, ka nirman adhikatar chennee ke as-pas sthit stoodiyo men hota hai.

sthapaty kala

580 ee. ke lagabhag panday shasak, jo mndir nirman kala men nipun the, shasan ke pramukh ho ge aur 150 salon tak raj karate rahe. kanchipuram unaka pramukh kendr tha. dravid sthapaty is samay apane charam vikas par tha.

nauvin sadi men chol rajaon ka pun: uday hua. rajaraja chol aur usake putr rajendr chol ke netritv men chol shasan eshiya ke pramukh samrajyon men gina jata tha. unaka samrajy bngal tak phail gaya. rajendr chol ki nau sena ne barma (myanmar), andaman aur nikobar dvip samooh, sumatra, java, malay tatha lakshadvip tak par adhikar kar liya. chol rajaon ne bhuvan (mndir) nirman men pravinata hasil kar li. tnjavur ka vrihadeshvar mndir isaka sundaratam udaharan hai. 14vin sadi ke arnbh men panday phir satta men a gaye, kintu adhik dinon tak satta men rah na sake. unhen uttar ke muslim khilaji shasakon ne hara diya aur unhonne madurai ko loot liya gaya.

musalamanon ne bhi dhire-dhire apani sthiti majaboor kar li jise chaudahavin shatabh‍di ke madhh‍y men bahamani saltanat qayam huee. lagabhag usi samay vijayanagar samrajy ne teji apani sthiti mazaboot bana li aur samooche dakshin bharat tak apana prabhav badha liya. shatabh‍di ke ant tak vijayagar samrajh‍y dakshin ki sarvochh‍ch shakti ban chuka tha, kintu 1564 men talikota ki ladaee men dakshin ke sultanon ki samoohik faujon se vah parajit ho gaya.

mahisha mardani manatapa, mahabalipuram

talikota ke yuddh ke bad kuchh samay tak sthiti ash‍pashh‍t rahi, lekin is bich yoorop ke vh‍yapari apane vh‍yaparik hiton ke lie dakshin bharat men apane pair jamane ke lie ek-doosare se hod karane lage the. purtagal, haaulaind, phrans aur inglaind ke log ek ke bad ek jalh‍di-jalh‍di ae aur unh‍honen apane vh‍yaparik kendr sh‍thapit kar lie, jinh‍hen un dinon phaiktriz kaha jata tha. eest indiya knpani ne 1611 men machhalipattanam (jo ab andhr pradesh men hai) men apani phaikh‍tri lagaee aur dhire-dhire unh‍honne sh‍thaniy shasakon ko apas men ladakar unake kshetr hathiya lie. british logon ne bharat men sabase pahale tamil nadu men apani bash‍ti basaee. sanh 1901 men madras presidensi bani jisamen dakshin prayadvip ke adhikatar hish‍se shamil the. bad men snyukh‍t madras rajh‍y ka punargathan kiya gaya aur vartaman tamil nadu rajh‍y astith‍v men aya.

16vin sadi ke madhy men vijayanagar samrajy ke patan ke pashchath kuchh purane mndiron ka pun:rniman kiya gaya. 1670 tak rajy ka lagabhag sampoorn kshetr marathon ke adhikar men a gaya. par marathe adhik dinon tak shasan men nahin rah sake isake 50 salon ke bad maisoor svatntr ho gaya jisake adhin aj ke tamiळnadu ka uttar-poorvi kshetr tha. isake alava dakshin ke rajy bhi svatntr ho ge . sanh 1799 men chauthe angl-maisoor yuddh men tipoo sultan ki mrityu ke bad yah angrezi shasan men a gaya. tamil sabhyata vishv ki puratanatam sabhyataon men se ek hai. tamil yahan ki adhikarik bhasha hai aur hal men hi ise janak bhasha ka darja mila. tamiळ bhasha ka itihas kafi prachin hai, jisaka parivartit roop aj samany bolachal men prayukt hota hai .

tamil nadu ki sanskritik visheshata tnjavur ke bhittichitr, bharatanatyam, mndir-nirman tatha any sthapaty kalaen hain . snt kavi tiruvalluvar ka tirukkural (tamil - திருக்குறள் ), prachin tamil ka prasiddh grnth hai. sngam sahity, tamil ke sahityik vikas ka dastavej hai. tamil ka vikas 20vin sadi ke svatntrata sngram ke men bhi kafi teji se hua . tamil nadu ke uttar men andhr pradesh aur karnatak, pashchim men keral, poorv men bngal ki khadi aur dakshin men hind mahasagar hain.

parivahan

dakshin bharatiy rajyon ki parivahan pranali chennee men kendrit hai.

mahabalipuram bich, tamil nadu
sadak marg
  • sadakon ke snjal ki kul lnbaee qrarib 1,93,918 ki.mi. hai.
  • yahan vahanon ke yogy sadakon ka snjal hai.
  • yatri-bas parivahan ko rashtrikrit kiya ja raha hai, drut eksapres basen yatriyon ko sabhi mahattvapoorn shaharon aur darshaniy sthalon tak le jati hain.
rel marg
  • tamil nadu se kee rel gadiyan chalati hain.
  • rajh‍y men chennee, madurai, tiruchirapalli, koynbattur aur tirunelveli mukhh‍y jnkh‍shan hain.
  • tamil nadu rajh‍y ki relave lainon ki kul lnbaee 4,181 kilomitar hai.
chennee egamor, chennee
havaee marg
  • chennee havaee adda dakshini kshetr ka antararashh‍triy havaee adda hone ki vajah se vayumarg ka mukhh‍y kendr ban gaya hai.
  • chennee havaee adda ke alava tiruchirapalli, madurai, koynbatoor aur salem men bhi havaee adde hain.
  • isake samip sthit minnbakkam antarrashtriy havaee adde ke alava tin aur havaee adde kramashah tiruchirappalli, madurai aur koynbattoor men hain.
bndaragah
  • chennee ke nirmit bndaragah se samudri yatayat snchalit hota hai.
  • chennee aur tootikorin rajh‍y ke pramukh bndaragah hain tatha kuddaloor aur nagapattinam sahit sat chhote bndaragah hain.

shiksha

tamil nadu ka saksharata dar lagabhag 73.47 pratishat (2001) hai. yahan prathamik, madhyamik v uchch vidyalay aur kala evn vigyan mahavidyalayon ke sath- sath chikitsa mahavidyalay, abhiyantriki mahavidyalay, paauliteknik snsthaen tatha audyogik prashikshan snsthaen hain. tamil nadu men 21 vishvavidyalay hain, jinamen chennee men madras vishvavidyalay; anna vishvavidyalay; daau. anbedakar vidhi vishvavidyalay; chidnbaram men annamalaee vishvavidyalay; koynbattoor men bharathiyar vishvavidyalay, tiruchirappalli men bharatidasan vishvavidyalay; madurai men madurai kamaraj vishvavidyalay; kodaikanal men madar teresa vinas vishvavidyalay; selam men periyar vishvavidyalay aur tnjavur men tamil vishvavidyalay shamil hain. chennee sthit dakshin bharat hidin prachar sabha(1918) aur gandhigram sthit gandhigram rooral instityoot (1956) rashtriy mahattv ke snsthan hain, jo kramash: hindi bhasha aur mahatma gandhi ki gramin uchch shiksha ki avadharana ko lokapriy banane men lage hue hain. vishvavidyalayiy star par angrezi ki jagah tamil ko shiksha ka madhyam banane ke tivr prayas ho rahe hain.

sanskritik jivan

mahabalipuram bich, tamil nadu

brahman jati ke purohiton ke dharmik v rajanitik varchasv ko todane ke prayason ke bavajood hindoo dharm snskriti ka kendr bana hua hai. hindoo dharmik aur sevarth vibhag apane antargat ane vale 9,300 se bhi zyada bade mndiron par prashasanik niyntran rakhata hai. visheshakar chidnbaram, kanchipuram, tnjavur (bhootapoorv tnjaur) aur madurai sahit adhikansh nagaron men gopuram (dvaraminar) chhae hue hain. mndir utsav-chakr shraddhaluon ko akarshit karate hain. inamen sabase prasiddh rath utsav hai, jisamen moortiyon se sajjit rathon ki shobhayatra ke sath mndir ke charon or parikrama karaee jati hai. hindoo parivar vibhinn maton ke pramukh snsthanon ya mathon se jude hue hain. kunbakonam ka shnkar math sabase mahattvapoorn hai.

tyohar

fasal kataee ke tyohar pongal men janavari mah men kisan apani achh‍chhi fasal ke lie abhar prakat karane hetu soory, prithvi aur pashuon ki pooja karate hain. pongal ke bad dakshin tamil nadu ke kuchh hish‍son men ‘jallikattoo’ (tamil nadu shaili ki sando ki ladaee) hota hai. tamil nadu men alnganalh‍loor ‘jallikattoo’ ke lie vishvabhar men prasiddh hai. ‘chittirai’ madurai ka lokapriy tyohar hai. yah panday rajakumari minakshi aur bhagavan sundareshvar ke alaikik parinay bndhan ka samriti men manaya jata hai. tamil mahine ‘adi’ ke atharahaven din nadiyon ke kinare ‘adiperooku’ parv manaya jata hai.
brihadeshvar mndir, tnjaur
isake sath hi nee fasal ki buvaee se snbndhit kam bhi shuroo ho jata hai. nrith‍y mahoth‍sav ‘mamallapuram’ ek adbhut mahoth‍sav hai. samudr tat se lage prachin nagar mamallapuram men pallav rajaon dvara 13 shatabh‍di poorv chattanon se katakar banae ge stnbhon ka ek khula mnch hai, jis par lokanrityon ke alava nrith‍yakala ke sarvashreshh‍th aur suvikhh‍yat kalakaron dvara bharatanatyam, kuchipudi, kathakali aur odisi nrity prash‍tut kie jate hain. ‘natyanjali’ nrith‍y mahoth‍sav men mndiron ki nagari chidnbaram ke nivasi srishti ke adi nartak bhagavan nataraj ko vishesh shraddhanjali arpit karate hain.

mahamagham

mahamagham ek pavitr parv hai, jo barah varsh men ek bar hota hai. mndiron ki nagari kunbhakonam ko yah nam daivi patr ‘kunbh’ se mila hai. grishh‍m mahoth‍sav har varsh ‘parvatiy sh‍thalon ki rani’ sadabahar ooti, vishishh‍t sh‍thal kodaikanal ya yerookad ki sh‍vash‍thh‍yavarddhak oonchi pahadiyon par manaya jata hai. knthoori uth‍sav vash‍tav men dharmanirapeksh tyohar hai, jisamen vibhinh‍n samudayon ke shraddhalu snt fakir kadiravali ki daragah par ikatthe hote hain. snt kadiravali ke shishy-vnshajon men se kisi ek ko 'pir' athava adhh‍yatmik neta chuna jata hai aur usaki archana ki jati hai. is uth‍sav ke dasaven din fakir ki daragah par chndan ghisa jata hai aur us pavitr chndan ko sab logon men bant diya jata hai. ‘velnkanni’ uth‍sav ke bare men anek ashh‍charyajanak dntakathaen prachalit hain, jinamen se ek yah hai ki solahavin shatabh‍di men purtagali navikon ne kunvari meri ke lie ek vishal girajaghar banavane ka snkalh‍p liya tha, kh‍yonki unh‍hin ki kripa se bhaynkar samudri toofan se unake jivan ki raksha huee thi. ‘velnkanni’ uth‍sav dekhane ke lie hazaron log narngi pattiya dalakar us pavitr sh‍than par ekatr hote hain, jahan jahaz akar zamin par laga tha. kunvari meri dvara rogiyon ko thik kar dene ki chamath‍kari shaktiyon se snbndhit anek baten bhi itani hi prachalit hain aur isake lie yah girajaghar, poorv ka lardasau ke nam se bhi prasiddh hai.
navaratr

navaratr parv ka shabdik arth ‘nau ratriyan’ hai jo bharat ke vibhinh‍n pradeshon men bhinh‍n-bhinh‍n roopon men aur anokhe dhng se manaya jata hai. yah parv shakti, dhan aur gyan ke lie devi 'shakti' ko sntushh‍t karane ke lie manaya jata hai. tamil nadu ka prakash parv ‘kartigai dipamh’ bhi bahut prasiddh hai. isamen gharon ke bahar mitti ke die jalae jate hai aur ulh‍lasapoorvak patakhe chhode jate hain. tamil nadu ka sngit mahoth‍sav chennee men disnbar men manaya jata hai. isamen karnatak sngit ki mahanh aur amoolh‍y pnrapara ka nirvah kiya jata hai aur is samaroh men ne aur purane kalakaron dvara sngit aur nrith‍y ki avish‍maraniy prastutiyan pesh hoti hain.

paryatan sh‍thal

chennee, mamallapuram, poonpuhar, kanchipuram, kunbhakonam, dharasuram, chidnbaram, tiyanh‍namalai, shrirngam, madurai, rameshvaram, tiroonelaveli , kanyakumari, tnjavur, velnkanni, nagoor chith‍tan vasal, kalugumalai (sh‍marak kendr), kortalam, hogenakh‍kal, papanasham, surooli (jal-prapat), ooti (utakamndalam), kodaikanal, yarakad, ilagiri kollihilh‍s (parvatiy sh‍thal), guindi (chennee), mudumalaee, anh‍namalaee, mundanthurai, vellor, madurantak, kalakad (vanh‍y jivan abhayaranh‍y), vednthngal tatha ph‍vaint kelimiyar (pakshi abhayaranh‍y) aur chennee ke samip arinagar anna chidiyaghar adi paryatan ki drishti se kuchh mahath‍vapoorn sh‍than hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 About Tamil Nadu (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) tamil nadu ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 13 mee, 2012.
  3. ayaran aauksaid aur elyuminiyam haidraauksaid ki prachurata vali mitti

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah