तानसेन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

tanasen
tanasen
poora nam ramatanu pandey
any nam tanna urph tanasukh urph trilochan
janm 1504 se 1509 ee. ke bich
janm bhoomi gram behat, gvaliyar
mrityu 1585 ee.
mrityu sthan dilli
abhibhavak shri makarnd pande
karm-kshetr sngitgy
mukhy rachanaen 'sngitasar', 'ragamala' aur 'shriganesh stotr'.
vishay sngit
nagarikata bharatiy

sngit samrat tanasen (janm- snvat 1563, behat gram; mrityu- snvat 1646) ki ganana bharat ke mahanh gayakon, mugal sngit ke sngitakaron evn behatarin sngitgyon men ki jati hai. tanasen ka nam akabar ke pramukh sngitgyon ki soochi men sarvopari hai. tanasen darabari kalakaron ka mukhiya aur samrat ke navaratnon men se ek tha. is par bhi usaka pramanik jivan-vrittant agyat hai. yadyapi kavy-rachana ki drishti se tanasen ka yogadan vishesh mahattvapoorn nahin kaha ja sakata, parntu sngit aur kavy ke snyog ki drishti se, jo bhaktikalin kavy ki ek bahut badi visheshata thi, tanasen sahity ke itihas men avashy ullekhaniy hai. usake jivan ki adhikansh ghatanaen kinvadntiyon evn anushrutiyon par adharit hain. prasiddh krishn-bhakt svami haridas inake diksha-guru kahe jate hain. "chaurasi vaishnavan ki varta" men soor se inake bhent ka ullekh hua hai. "do sau bavan vaishnavan ki varta" men gosaee vitthalanath se bhi inake bhent karane ki charcha milati hai.

prachin dharoharon ki raksha

tanasen apani divy prabha phailakar bharatiy sngit ke gaganangan par uday huye aur chale gaye. hamare desh men tanasen bharatiy sngit ke vah soory the ki jinake sngit prakash ne ek apoorv abha phailaee. dhruvapad gayaki hamare desh ki prachin gayaki hai aur tanasen is gayaki ke shirsh gayak the. tanasen aur unake sngit ke snbndh men aj bhi gahan shodh ki avashyakata hai. bharatiy sngit ko aj ke samay ke sngit, disko, paaup se bachakar rakhane ki avashyakata hai. hamen apane prachin sngit ki raksha karani hogi kyonki hamari pahachan hamari snskriti se hi hogi. yah bahut avashyak hai ki ham apani prachin dharoharon ki raksha karen.[1]

jivan parichay

tanasen ki jivani ke sambandh men bahut kam aisa vritt gyat hai, jise poorn pramanik kaha ja sake. bharatiy sngit ke prasiddh gayak tanasen ka janm muhammad gaus namak ek siddh faqir ke ashirvad se gvaliyar se sat mil door ek chhote-se ganv behat men snvat 1563 men vahan ke ek brahman kul men hua tha.[2] inake pita ka nam makarnd pande tha. pandity aur sngit-vidya men lokapriy hone ke sath-sath makarnd pande ko dhan-dhany bhi yathesht roop se prapt tha. tanasen ki mata poorn sadhvi v karmanishth thin. tanasen ka palan-poshan bade lad-pyar se hua. ekamatr sntan hone ke karan inake man-bap ne kisi prakar ka kathor niyntran bhi nahin rakha.

mool nam

tanasen ka mool nam kya tha, yah nishchay poorvak kahana kathin hai, kinvadntiyon ke anusar unhen tanna, trilochan, tanasukh, athava ramatanu batalaya jata hai. tanasen inaka nam nahin inaki upadhi thi, jo tanasen ko bandhavagadh ke raja ramachndr se prapt huee thi. vah upadhi itani prasiddh huee ki usane inake mool nam ko hi lupt kar diya. inaka janm-snvath bhi vivadagrast hai. hindi sahity men inake janm ki snvat 1588 ki prasiddhi hai kintu kuchh vidvanon ne snvat 1563 mana hai.[3] tanasen ke madhur knth aur gayan shaili ki khyati sunakar 1562 ee. ke lagabhag akabar ne unhen apane darabar men bula liya. abul fajal ne 'aina-e-akabari' men likha hai ki akabar ne jab pahali bar tanasen ka gana suna to prasann hokar puraskar men do lakh take die. tanasen ke kee putr the, aur ek putri thi. putron men tanatarng khan, suratisen aur vilas khan ke nam prasiddh hain. unake putron evn shishyon ke dvara "hindustani sngit" ki badi unnati huee thi.

sngit shiksha

tanasen ke arnbhik kal men gvaliyar par kalapriy raja manasinh tomar ka shasan tha. unake protsahan se gvaliyar sngit kala ka vikhyat kendr tha, jahan par baijoobavara, karn aur mahamood jaise mahanh sngitachary aur gayak gan ekatr the, aur inhin ke sahayog se raja manasinh tomar ne sngit ki dhrupad gayaki ka avishkar aur prachar kiya tha. tanasen ko sngit ki shiksha gvaliyar men vahan ke kalavidh raja manasinh tomar ke kisi vikhyat sngitachary se prapt huee thi. gaus muhammad ko usaka sngit-guru batalana apramanit siddh ho gaya hai. us soophi snt ke prati inaki shraddha bhavana rahi ho, yah snbhav jan padata hai.

gvaliyar rajy ka patan ho jane par vahan ke sngitacharyon ki mndali bikharane lagi thi. us paristhiti men tanasen ko gvaliyar men uchch shiksha prapt karana snbhav gyat nahin hua. vah vrindavan chale ge the, jahan usane snbhavatah svami haridas ji se sngit ki uchch shiksha prapt ki thi. vallabh snpradayi varta ke anusar tanasen ne apane uttar jivan men ashtachhap ke sngitacharya govindasvami se bhi kirtan paddhati ka gayan sikha tha.[4]

ashcharyajanak pratibha

tanasen das varsh ki avastha tak poornaroopen svatntr, sailani v natakhat prakriti ke ho ge the. is bich inake andar ek ashcharyajanak pratibha dekhi gee, vah thi avazon ki hoo-b-hoo naqal karana. kisi bhi pashu-pakshi ki avaz ki naqal kar lena inaka khel tha. sher ki boli bolakar apane bag ki rakhavali karane men inhen bada maza aya karata tha.

ek din vrindavan ke mahanh sngitakar snnyasi svami haridas ji apani shishy-mndali ke sath ukt bag men hokar guzare, to balak "tanna" ne ek ped ki ad men chhupakar sher jaisi dahad lagaee. dar ke mare sab logon ke dam phool gaye svami ji ko us sthan par sher rahane ka vishvas nahin hua aur turnt khoj ki. unhen dahadata hua balak mil gaya. balak ke is qautuk par svami ji bade prasann hue. unhonne jab any pashu-pakshiyon ki avaz bhi balak se suni, to mugdh ho ge aur usake pitaji se balak ko sngit-shiksha dene ke nimitt mang-kar apane sath hi vridavan le ae. guru ki kripa se 10 varsh ki avadhi men hi balak tanna dhurndhar gayak ban gaya aur yahin se isaka nam "tanna" ki bajay "tanasen" ho gaya. guruji ka ashirvad pakar tanasen gvaliyar laut ae. isi samay inake pitaji ki mrityu ho gee. mrityu se poorv pita ne tanasen ko upadesh diya ki tumhara janm muhammad gaus namak faqir ki kripa se hua hai isalie tumhare sharir par poorn adhikar usi faqir ka hai. apani zindagi men us faqir ki agya ki kabhi avahelana mat karana. pita ka upadesh manakar tanasen faqir muhammad gaus ke pas a ge. faqir sahab ne tanasen ko apana uttaradhikari banakar apana atul vaibhav adi sab kuchh unhen saunp diya aur ab tanasen gvaliyar men hi rahane lage.

vivah

tanasen ka parichay raja manasinh ki vidhava patni rani mriganayani se hua. rani mriganayani bhi badi madhur tatha vidushi gayika thin. ve tanasen ka gayan sun kar bahut prabhavit hueen. unhonne apane sngit-mndir men shiksha pane vali husaini brahmani namak ek sumadhur gayika ladaki ke sath tanasen ka vivah kar diya. husaini ka vastavik nam premakumari tha. husaini ke pita sarasvat brahman the, kintu bad men yah aparivar muslim dharm men dikshit ho ge. premakumari ka islami nam husaini rakha gaya. brahmani kanya hone ke karan sabhi use husaini brahmani kahakar pukarate the, isi se tanasen ka gharana 'husaini gharana' kaha jane laga tha.

sngit kala ke snskar

vivah ke pashchath tanasen punah apane guru ji ke ashram (vrindavan) men shiksha prapt karane pahunche. isi samay faqir muhammad gaus ka antim samay nikat a gaya. phalasvaroop guru ji ke adesh par tanasen ko turnt gvaliyar vapas ana pada. faqir sahab ki mrityu ho gee aur tanasen ek vishal snpatti ke adhikari ban ge. vah gvaliyar men rahakar anndapoorvak grihasth-jivan vyatit karane lage. tanasen ke char putr aur ek putri ka janm hua. putron ka nam- suratasen, tarngasen, sharatasen, aur vilas khan tatha ladaki ka nam sarasvati rakha gaya. tanasen ki sabhi sntanen sngit-kala ke snskar lekar paida hueen. sabhi bachche utkrisht kalakar hue.

sngit-sadhana poorn hone ke bad sarvapratham tanasen ko riva-naresh ramachandr (rajaram) apane darabar men le ge. inhin dinon tanasen ka saubhagy-soory chamak utha. maharaja ne tanasen jaise durlabh ratn ko badashah akabar ko bhent kar kar diya. sanh 1556 ee. men tanasen akabar ke darabar men dilli ge. badashah aise amooly ratn ko pakar atynt prasann hua aur tanasen ko usane apane navaratnon men sammilit kar liya.

jivikoparjan

sngit kala men parngat hone par tanasen ko jivikoparjan ki chinta huee. aisa gyat hota hai, vah sarvapratham sulatan islamashah soor ke sneh-patr daulatakhan ke ashray raha tha. usi samay vah muhammad adilashah (adali) soor ke snpark men aya tha, jisaki sngitgyta ke karan use vah guruvath manata tha. soori saltanat ki samapti hone par vah bandhavagadh ke raja ramachndr ki sngit-priyata aur gun-grahakata ki khyati sun kar usake darabar men chala gaya tha. bandhav-naresh ne unhen bade adar poorvak rakha. vahan par unhen vipul dhan-vaibhav tatha adar-samman prapt hua, aur unaki vyapak prasiddhi huee. snvat 1620 men use samrat akabar ne apane darabar men bula liya tha. us samay usaki ayu 50 varsh se kuchh adhik thi. phir vah apane dehavasan kal tak akabar ke ashray men hi raha tha.
gvaliyar men tanasen ka makabara

musalaman hone ki kinvadnti

hindoo kul men janm lene par bhi bad men tanasen ke musalaman hone ki kinvadnti prachalit hai. kintu isaka samarthan kisi bhi samakalin itihasakar ke grnth se nahin hota hai. aisa jan padata hai, inaka musalamanon ke sath adhik snpark aur sahavas tatha unake khan-pan ki svachchhata ke karan us samay roodhivadi hinduon ne unaka vahishkar kar unhen musalaman ghoshit kar diya tha. vah kabhi musalaman hue ho, isaka koee praman nahin milata hai. tanasen ki mrityu hone par usaki shavayatra ka jaisa varnan abul fajal ne kiya hai, usase siddh hota hai ki vah apane antim kal tak bhi hindoo rahe the.

tanasen ke vnshajon ne avashy musalamani mazahab svikar kar liya tha. unaki vnsh-parnpara men kuchh nam hinduon ke se milate hain aur unamen hinduon ki si kee ritirivajen prachalit hain. inase samajha ja sakata hai ki musalaman ho jane par bhi ve apane poorvajon ki hindoo parnpara ka poornataya parityag nahin kar sake the.

akabaranama ke anusar

'akabaranama' ke anusar tanasen ki mrityu akabari shasan men 34ven varsh arthath snvat 1646 men agara men huee thi. unaka snskar bhi snbhavatah vahin par yamuna tat par kiya gaya hoga. kalantar men unake janmasthan gvaliyar men smarak svaroop unaki samadhi unake shraddha-bhajan gaus muhammad ke maqabare ke samip banaee gee, jo ab bhi vidyaman hai. tanasen ki ayu usaki mrityu ke samay 83 varsh ke lagabhag thi. aur vah prayah 26 varsh tak akabari darabar men snbaddh raha tha. usake kee putr the, ek putri thi aur anek shishy the. putron men tanatarng khan, suratasnn aur vilas khan, ke nam se prasiddh hain. putron men tanatarng khan, aur shishyon men miyan chand ke nam akabar ke pramukh darabari sngitgyon men milate hain.

rachanaen

naye ragon ka avishkar

tanasen gvaliyar parnpara ki moorchchhana paddhati ke evn dhrupad shaili ke vikhyat gayak aur kee ragon ke visheshgy the. inako braj ki kirtan paddhati ka bhi paryapt gyat tha. sath hi vah eerani sngit ki mukam paddhati se bhi parichit the. un sab ke samnvay se usane anek naye ragon ka avishkar kiya tha, jinamen "miyan ki malar" adhik prasiddh hai. tanasen ke gayan ki prashnsa men kee chamatkarapoorn kinvadntiyan prachalit hain, kintu unaki pramanikata sndigdh hai.

dhrupadon ki rachana

tanasen gayak hone ke sath hi kavi bhi the. usane apane gan ke lie svayn bahusnkhyak dhrupadon ki rachana ki thi. unamen se anek dhrupad sngit ke vividh grnthon men aur kalavnton ke purane gharanon men surakshit hain. tanasen ke nam se "sngit-sar aur "rag-mala" namak do grnth bhi milate hain[5].

grnth "sngit-samrat tanasen" men usake rache hue 288 dhrupadon ka snkalan hai. ye dhrupad vividh vishayon se snbndhit hain. isake atirikt unake grnth "sngatidar" aur "ragamala" bhi snkalit hain. yahan par tanasen krit "krishn lila" ke kuchh dhrupad udaharanartha prastut hain-

palana-jhoolan-

hamare lala ke surng khilauna, khelat, khelat krishn kanhaiya.
agar-chndan kau palana banyau hai, hira-lal-javahar jadaiya॥
bhnvari-bhnvara, chatta-batta, hns-chakor, aroo mor-chiraiya॥
tanasen prabhu jasomati jhulavai, dooo kar let balaiya.

go-charan-

dhauri-dhrumar, piyari-kajar kahi-kahi tenrai.
mor mukat sis, stravan kundal kati men pitanbar pahirai॥ gval-bal sab sakha sng ke, lai avat braj nairai.
"tanasen" prabhu mukh raj lapatani jasumati nirakhi mukh hai rai.

aju hari liyai anahili gaiya, ek hi lakuti son hanki॥
jyon-jyon roki mohan tum soee, tyon-tyon anurag hiyn dekhat mukhan ki.
ham jo manavat kahoon toom manat, ve batiyan gadhi baauki॥
trin nahin charat, bachhara nahin chaukhat ki,
ham kaha janai, ko hai kahan ki.
tanasen prabhu vegi daras dijai sab mntar padhi anki॥[6]

pratham uth bhorahi radhe-kishan kaho man, jason hovai sab siddh kaj.
ihi lok paralok ke svami, dhyan dharau brajaraj॥
patit uddharan jan pratipalan, dinadayal nam let jay du:kh bhaj.
"tanasen" prabhu kon sumaron pratahin, jag men rahai teri laj॥
murali bajavai, apan gavai, nain nyare nnchavai, tiyan ke man kon rijhavai.
door-door avai panaghat, kahu ke dhatan duravai, rasana prem janavai॥
mohini moorat, sanvati soorat, dekhat hi man lalachavai.
"tanasen" ke prabhu tum bahunayak, sabahinn ke man bhavai॥

asim snbhavanaen nihit

har yug ek mahanh gayak hua karata hai. tanasen sirph ek mahanh gayak hi nahin balki ek mahanh sngitashastri evn ragon ke rachayita bhi the. jati evn ragon ki prachin manyataon ko tod kar naye prayogon ki parnpara ko prarambh karane men ve agrani the. bharatiy sngit men svaralipi ki koee paddhati nahin hone ke karan prachin gayakon ki svararachana ko janane ka koee sadhan nahin hai. sngit ke kshetr men aj bhi tanasen ka prabhav jivit hai. usaka karan hai ‘‘miyan ki malhar’’ ‘‘darabari kanada’’ aur ‘‘miyan ki todi’’ jaisi maulik svar rachanaon ka sadabahar akarshan. us samay ke lokapriy rag dhrupad ki samriddhata ka karan bhi tanasen ki pratibha hi thi.

tanasen ke dipak rag se dip ke jal uthane evn rag megh-malhar se varsha hone ki kinvadntiyon ke aitihasik praman bhale hi n hon, kintu unamen is satyata ka ansh zaroor hai ki agar tanasen jaisa mahanh gayak ho to sngit men asim snbhavanaen nihit hain.[7]

akabar ke navaratn

akabar ke navaratnon tatha mugalakalin sngitakaron men tanasen ka nam param-prasiddh hai. yaddhapi kavy-rachana ki drishti se tanasen ka yogadan vishesh mahattvapoorn nahin kaha ja sakata, parantu sngit aur kavy ke snyog ki drishti se, jo bhaktikalin kavy ki ek bahut badi visheshata thi, tanasen sahity ke itihas men avashy ullekhaniy hai. tanasen akabar ke navaratnon men se ek the. ek bar akabar ne unase kaha ki vo unake guru ka sngit sunana chahate hain. guru haridas to akabar ke darabar men a nahin sakate the. lihaza isi nidhi van men akabar haridas ka sngit sunane ae. haridas ne unhen krishn bhakti ke kuchh bhajan sunae the. akabar haridas se itane prabhavit hue ki vapas jakar unhonne tanasen se akele men kaha ki ap to apane guru ki tulana men kahin as-pas bhi nahin hai. phir tanasen ne javab diya ki jahanpanah ham is zamin ke badashah ke lie gate hain aur hamare guru is brahmand ke badashah ke lie gate hain to farq to hoga n.

rachanaen

tanasen ke nam ke snbndh men mataiky nahin hai. kuchh ka kahana hai ki 'tanasen' unaka nam nahin, unakon mili upadhi thi. tanasen maulik kalakar the. ve svar-tal men giton ki rachana bhi karate the. tanasen ke tin granthon ka ullekh milata hai-

  1. 'sngitasar',
  2. 'ragamala' aur
  3. 'shriganesh stotr'.

dipak rag

yah tanasen ka shauryakal tha. badashah ka atoot sneh aur samman pakar tanasen ki yash-pataka unmukt hokar laharane lagi. akabar tanasen ke sngit ka gulam ban gaya. kala-parakhi akabar tanasen ki sngit-madhuri men doob gaya. badashah par tanasen ka aisa pakka rng savar dekh kar doosare darabari gayak jalane lage aur ek din unhonne tanasen ke vinash ki yojana bana dali. kinvadnti hai ki ye sab log badashah ke pas pahunchakar kahane lage- "huzoor, hamen tanasen se 'dipak' rag sunavaya jae aur ap bhi sunen. isako tanasen ke alava aur koee thik-thik nahin ga sakata." badashah razi ho ge. tanasen dvara is rag ka anishtakarak parinam batae jane aur lakh mana karane par bhi akabar ka rajahat nahin tala aur use dipak rag gana hi pada. rag jaise-hi shuroo hua, garmi badhi v dhire-dhire vayumndal agnimay ho gaya. sunane vale apane-apane pran bachane ko idhar-udhar chhip ge, kintu tanasen ka sharir agni ki jvala se jal utha. usi samay tanasen apane ghar bhage. vahan unaki ladaki tatha ek gurubhagini ne megh rag gakar unake jivan ki raksha ki. is ghatana ke kee mas pashchath tanasen ka sharir svasth hua. akabar bhi apani galati par bahut pachhataya.

chamatkari ghatanaen

yah kaha jata hai ki tanasen ke jivan men pani barasane, jngali pashuon ko mntr- mugdh karane tatha rogiyon ko thik karane adi ki anek sngit-pradhan chamatkari ghatanaen hueen. yah nirvivad saty hai ki guru-kripa se unhen bahut-si rag-raganiyan siddh thin. aur us samay desh men tanasen jaisa doosara koee sngitgy nahin tha. tanasen ne vyaktigat roop se kee ragon ka nirman bhi kiya, jinamen darabari kanhada, miyan ki sarng miyanmallar adi ullekhaniy hain.

mrityu

is prakar amar sngit ki sukhad vaikhari bahata hua yah mahanh sngitgy mrityu ke nikat bhi a pahuncha. dilli men hi tanasen jvar se pidit hue. tanasen ne apana antim samay janakar gvaliyar jane ki ichchha prakat ki, parntu badashah ke moh aur sneh ke karan tanasen faravari, sanh 1585 ee. men dilli men hi svargavasi ho ge. ichchhanusar tanasen ka shav gvaliyar pahunchaya gaya aur muhammad gaus ki qabr ke barabar unaki samadhi bana di gee. tanasen ki mrityu ke pashchath unaka kanishth putr vilas khan tanasen ke sngit ko jivit rakhane v unaki kirti ko prasarit karane men samarth hua. bharatiy sngit ke itihas men dhrupadakar ke roop men tanasen ka nam sadaiv amar rahega. isake sath hi brajabhasha ke pad sahity ka sngit ke sath jo atoot sambandh raha hai, usake sandarbh men bhi tanasen chirasmaraniy rahenge.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. tanasen (hindi) bharatiy sahity sngrah. abhigaman tithi: 3 aprail, 2011.
  2. tanasen ki janm tithi tatha sanh ke bare men vividh mat pae jate hain. kuchh lekhak inaka janm sanh 1506 ee. aur 1520 ee. batate hain.
  3. dosau bavan vaishnavan ki varta (dvitiy khnd, prishth 156
  4. akabaranama (angrezi anuvad) jild 2, prishth 880
  5. lekhak krit braj ki kalaon ka itihas, prishth 448-450
  6. lekhak krit "sngit samrat tanasen" dhrupad sn. 253, 255,aur 256
  7. tanasen (hindi) bharatiy sahity sngrah. abhigaman tithi: 3 aprail, 2011.

(sahayak granth-

  1. sngitasamrat tanasen (jivani aur rachanaen): prabhudayal mital, sahity snsthan, mathura;
  2. hindi sahity ka itihas: pn. ramachandr shukl:
  3. akabari darabar ke hindi kabi: da. sarayoo prasad agraval.)

snbndhit lekh