तुलसीदास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

tulasidas
Tulsidas.jpg
poora nam gosvami tulasidas
janm san 1532 (snvat- 1589)
janm bhoomi rajapur, uttar pradesh
mrityu san 1623 (snvat- 1680)
mrityu sthan kashi
abhibhavak atmaram dube aur hulasi
pati/patni ratnavali
karm bhoomi banaras
karm-kshetr kavi, samaj sudharak
mukhy rachanaen ramacharitamanas, dohavali, kavitavali, gitavali, vinay patrika, hanuman chalisa adi
vishay sagun bhakti
bhasha avadhi, hindi
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh tulasidas jaynti
guru achary ramanand
any janakari tulasidas ji ko maharshi valmiki ka bhi avatar mana jata hai jo mool adikavy ramayan ke rachayita the.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
tulasidas ki rachanaen

gosvami tulasidas (angrezi: Goswami Tulsidas, janm- 1532 ee. - mrityu- 1623 ee.) hindi sahity ke akash ke param nakshatr, bhaktikal ki sagun dhara ki ramabhakti shakha ke pratinidhi kavi hai. tulasidas ek sath kavi, bhakt tatha samaj sudharak tinon roopon men many hai. shriram ko samarpit granth shriramacharitamanas valmiki ramayan ka prakarantar se aisa avadhi bhashantar hai jisamen any bhi kee kritiyon se mahatvapoorn samagri samahit ki gayi thi. shriramacharitamanas ko samast uttar bharat men bade bhaktibhav se padha jata hai. isake bad vinay patrika tulasidasakrit ek any mahatvapoorn kavy hai.

jivan parichay

tulasidasaji ka janm snvat 1589 ko uttar pradesh (vartaman banda zila) ke rajapur namak gram men hua tha. inake pita ka nam atmaram dube tatha mata ka nam hulasi tha. inaka vivah dinabndhu pathak ki putri ratnavali se hua tha. apani patni ratnavali se atyadhik prem ke karan tulasi ko ratnavali ki phatakar "laj n aee apako daure aehu nath" sunani padi jisase inaka jivan hi parivartit ho gaya. patni ke upadesh se tulasi ke man men vairagy utpann ho gaya. inake guru baba naraharidas the, jinhonne inhen diksha di. inaka adhikansh jivan chitrakoot, kashi tatha ayodhya men bita.[1]
tulasidas
tulasi ka bachapan bade kashton men bita. mata-pita donon chal base aur inhen bhikh mangakar apana pet palana pada tha. isi bich inaka parichay ram-bhakt sadhuon se hua aur inhen gyanarjan ka anupam avasar mil gaya. patni ke vyngyabanon se virakt hone ki lokaprachalit katha ko koee praman nahin milata. tulasi bhraman karate rahe aur is prakar samaj ki tatkalin sthiti se inaka sidha snpark hua. isi dirghakalin anubhav aur adhyayan ka parinam tulasi ki amooly kritiyan hain, jo us samay ke bharatiy samaj ke lie to unnayak siddh huee hi, aj bhi jivan ko maryadit karane ke lie utani hi upayogi hain. tulasidas dvara rachit grnthon ki snkhya 39 bataee jati hai. inamen ramacharit manas, kavitavali, vinayapatrika, dohavali, gitavali, janakimngal, hanuman chalisa, baravai ramayan adi vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hain.

shishy parampara

gosvamiji shrisampraday ke achary ramanand ki shishyaparampara men the. inhonne samay ko dekhate hue lokabhasha men 'ramayan' likha. isamen byaj se varnashramadharm, avataravad, sakar upasana, sagunavad, go-brahman raksha, devadi vividh yoniyon ka yathochit samman evn prachin snskriti aur vedamarg ka mandan aur sath hi us samay ke vidharmi atyacharon aur samajik doshon ki evn panthavad ki alochana ki gayi hai. gosvamiji panth v sampraday chalane ke virodhi the. unhonne vyaj se bhratriprem, svarajy ke siddhant , ramarajy ka adarsh, atyacharon se bachane aur shatru par vijayi hone ke upay; sabhi rajanitik baten khule shabdon men us kadi jasoosi ke jamane men bhi batalayin, parantu unhen rajyashray prapt n tha. logon ne unako samajha nahin. ramacharitamanas ka rajanitik uddeshy siddh nahin ho paya. isilie unhonne jhunjhalakar kaha:

gosvami tulasidas

"ramayan anuharat sikh, jag bhee bharat riti.
tulasi kathahi ko sunai, kali kuchali par priti."

adarsh sant kavi

unaki yah adbhut pothi itani lokapriy hai ki moorkh se lekar mahapandit tak ke hathon men adar se sthan pati hai. us samay ki sari shnkkaon ka ramacharitamanas men uttar hai. akele is granth ko lekar yadi gosvami tulasidas chahate to apana atyant vishal aur shaktishali sampraday chala sakate the. yah ek saubhagy ki bat hai ki aj yahi ek granth hai, jo sampradayikata ki simaon ko langhakar sare desh men vyapak aur sabhi mat-matantaron ko poornataya many hai. sabako ek sootr men grnthit karane ka jo kam pahale shnkarachary svami ne kiya, vahi apane yug men aur usake pichhe aj bhi gosvami tulasidas ne kiya. ramacharitamanas ki katha ka arambh hi un shnkaon se hota hai jo kabiradas ki sakhi par purane vichar valon ke man men uthati hain. tulasidasaji svami ramanand ki shishyaparampara men the, jo ramanujachary ke vishishtadvait sampraday ke antarbhukt hai. parantu gosvamiji ki pravritti sampradayik n thi. unake granthon men advait aur vishishtadvait ka sundar samanvay paya jata hai. isi prakar vaishnav, shaiv, shakt adi sampradayik bhavanaon aur poojapaddhatiyon ka samanvay bhi unaki rachanaon men paya jata hai. ve adarsh samuchchayavadi sant kavi the.

prakhar buddhi ke svami

bhagavan shnkaraji ki prerana se ramashail par rahane vale shri anantanand ji ke priy shishy shrinaraharyanand ji (narahari baba) ne is balak ko dhoondh nikala aur usaka nam ramabola rakha. use ve ayodhya le gaye aur vahan snvath‌ 1561 magh shukl pnchami shukravar ko usaka ygyopavit-snskar karaya. bina sikhaye hi balak ramabola ne gayatri-mantr ka uchcharan kiya, jise dekhakar sab log chakit ho gaye. isake bad narahari svami ne vaishnavon ke panch snskar karake ramabola ko ramamantr ki diksha di aur ayodhya hi men rahakar unhen vidyadhyayan karane lage. balak ramabola ki buddhi badi prakhar thi. ek bar gurumukh se jo sun lete the, unhen vah knthasth ho jata tha. vahan se kuchh din bad guru-shishy donon shookarakshetr (soron) pahunche. vahan shri narahari ji ne tulasidas ko ramacharit sunaya. kuchh din bad vah kashi chale aye. kashi men sheshasanatan ji ke pas rahakar tulasidas ne pandrah varsh tak ved-vedang ka adhyayan kiya. idhar unaki lokavasana kuchh jagrath‌ ho uthi aur apane vidyaguru se agya lekar ve apani janmabhoomi ko laut aye. vahan akar unhonne dekha ki unaka parivar sab nasht ho chuka hai. unhonne vidhipoorvak apane pita adi ka shraddh kiya aur vahin rahakar logon ko bhagavan ram ki katha sunane lage.

prasiddhi

idhar panditon ne jab yah bat suni to unake man men eershya utpann huee. ve dal bandhakar tulasidas ji ki ninda karane lage aur us pustak ko nasht kar dene ka prayatn karane lage. unhonne pustak churane ke liye do chor bheje. choron ne jakar dekha ki tulasidas ji ki kuti ke asapas do vir dhanushaban liye pahara de rahe hain. ve bade hi sundar shyam aur gaur varn ke the. unake darshan se choron ki buddhi shuddh ho gayi. unhonne usi samay se chori karana chhod diya aur bhajan men lag gaye. tulasidas ji ne apane liye bhagavan ko kasht hua jan kuti ka sara saman luta diya, pustak apane mitr todaramal ke yahan rakh di. isake bad unhonne ek doosari prati likhi. usi ke adhar par doosari pratilipiyan taiyar ki jane lagin. pustak ka prachar dinon din badhane laga. idhar panditon ne aur koee upay n dekh shrimadhusoodan sarasvati ji ko us pustak ko dekhane ki prerana ki. shrimadhusoodan sarasvati ji ne use dekhakar badi prasannata prakat ki aur us par yah sammati likh di-

anandakanane hyasminjangamastulasitaruah.
kavitamanjari bhati ramabhramarabhooshita॥

mukhy rachanaen

apane 126 varsh ke dirgh jivan-kal men tulasidas ji ne kul 22 kritiyon ki rachana ki hai jinamen se panch badi evn chhah madhyam shreni men ati hain. inhen snskrit vidvanh hone ke sath hi hindi bhasha ke prasiddh aur sarvashreshth kaviyon men ek mana jata hai. tulasidas ji ko maharshi valmiki ka bhi avatar mana jata hai jo mool adikavy ramayan ke rachayita the.

rachana samany parichay
ramacharitamanas “ramacharit” (ram ka charitr) tatha “manas” (sarovar) shabdon ke mel se “ramacharitamanas” shabd bana hai. atah ramacharitamanas ka arth hai “ram ke charitr ka sarovar”. sarvasadharan men yah “tulasikrit ramayan” ke nam se jana jata hai tatha yah hindoo dharm ki mahanh kavy rachana hai.
dohavali dohavali men doha aur soratha ki kul snkhya 573 hai. in dohon men se anek dohe tulasidas ke any grnthon men bhi milate hain aur unase liye gaye hai.
kavitavali solahavin shatabdi men rachi gayi kavitavali men shri ramachandr ji ke itihas ka varnan kavitt, chaupaee, savaiya adi chhndon men ki gee hai. ramacharitamanas ke jaise hi kavitavali men sat kand hain.
gitavali gitavali, jo ki sat kandon vali ek aur rachana hai, men shri ramachandr ji ki kripaluta ka varnan hai. sampoorn padavali ram-katha tatha ramacharit se sambandhit hai. mudrit sngrah men 328 pad hain.
vinay patrika vinay patrika men 279 stuti gan hain jinamen se pratham 43 stutiyan vividh devataon ki hain aur shesh ramachandr ji ki.
krishn gitavali krishn gitavali men shrikrishn ji 61 stutiyan hai. krishn ki balyavastha aur 'gopi - uddhav snvad' ke prasng kavitv v shaili ki drishti se atyadhik sundar hain.
ramalala nahachhoo yah rachana sohar chhndon men hai aur ram ke vivah ke avasar ke nahachhoo ka varnan karati hai. nahachhoo nakh katane ek riti hai, jo avadhi kshetron men vivah aur ygyopavit ke poorv ki jati hai.
vairagy sndipani yah chaupaee - dohon men rachi huee hai. dohe aur sorathe 48 tatha chaupaee ki chatushpadiyan 14 hain. isaka vishay nam ke anusar vairagyopadesh hai.
ramagya prashn rachana avadhi men hai aur tulasidas ki prarambhik kritiyon men hai. yah ek aisi rachana hai, jo shubhashubh phal vichar ke lie rachi gayi hai kintu yah phal-vichar tulasidas ne ram-katha ki sahayata se prastut kiya hai.
janaki mngal isamen gosvami tulasidas ji ne adyashakti bhagavati shri janaki ji tatha purushottam bhagavan shriram ke mngalamay vivahotsav ka bahut hi madhur shabdon men varnan kiya hai.
satasee dohon ka ek sngrah grnth hai. in dohon men se anek dohe 'dohavali' ki vibhinn pratiyon men tulasidas ke any grnthon men bhi milate hain aur unase liye gaye hai.
parvati mngal isaka vishay shiv - parvati vivah hai. 'janaki mngal' ki bhanti yah bhi sohar aur harigitika chhandon men rachi gayi hai. isamen sohar ki 148 dvipadiyan tatha 16 harigitikaen hain. isaki bhasha bhi 'janaki mngal ki bhanti avadhi hai.
baravai ramayan baravai ramayan rachana ke mudrit path men sphut 69 baravai hain, jo 'kavitavali' ki hi bhanti sat kandon men vibhajit hai.
hanuman chalisa isamen prabhu ram ke mahanh bhakt hanuman ke gunon evn karyon ka chalis (40) chaupaiyon men varnan hai. yah atyant laghu rachana hai jisamen pavanaputr shri hanuman ji ki sundar stuti ki gee hai.

nidhan

tulasidas ke samman men jari dak tikat

tulasidas ji jab kashi ke vikhyath ghat asighat par rahane lage to ek rat kaliyug moort roop dharan kar unake pas aya aur unhen pida pahunchane laga. tulasidas ji ne usi samay hanuman ji ka dhyan kiya. hanuman ji ne sakshath prakat hokar unhen prarthana ke pad rachane ko kaha, isake pashchath unhonne apani antim kriti vinay-patrika likhi aur use bhagavan ke charanon men samarpit kar diya. shriram ji ne us par svayn apane hastakshar kar diye aur tulasidas ji ko nirbhay kar diya. snvath‌ 1680 men shravan krishn saptami shanivar ko tulasidas ji ne "ram-ram" kahate hue apana sharir parityag kiya. tulasidas ke nidhan ke snbndh men nimnalikhit doha bahut prachalit hai-

snvat solah sau asi ,asi gng ke tir .
shravan shukla saptami ,tulasi tajyo sharir ..[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
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madhyamik
poornata
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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 gosvami tulasidas : ek parichay (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) hindi kunj. abhigaman tithi: 31 mee, 2011.

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