थारू  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

tharoo jati ki ladakiyan

tharoo jati bharat aur nepal ki janajatiyon men se ek hai. yah jati bharat ke uttaranchal aur nepal ke dakshin bhag men himalay ke taraee kshetr men pramukhat: paee jati hai. 20vin sadi ke ant tak nepal men tharoo jati ke logon ki snkhya lagabhag 7 lakh, 20 hazar aur bharat men lagabhag 10 hazar thi. tharoo jati ke log sanskritik roop se bharat se jude hain aur ye bharopiy bhasha parivar ke 'bharatiy-eerani samooh' ke antargat ane vali bharatiy-ary upasamoohon ki bhasha bolate hain.

utpatti evn abadi

uttaranchal ke tharoo kheti, pashupalan, shikar, machhali pakadane aur vanopaj sngrahan jaise kary karate hain. tharoo jati ki panch uchch prajatiyan hain, jo kul abadi ka 80 pratishat hai. tharoo jati apani utpatti rajasthan ke rajasi mool se hone ka dava karati hai. is jati ke log hindoo hote hain. inaki samajik pranali pitri-vnshiy hone ke bavajood snpatti par mahilaon ka adhikar hindoo samaj se adhik hota hai. tharooon ke har ganv ki ek pnchayat aur usaka ek mukhiya hota hai.[1]

nivas kshetr

tharoo jati ka avas kshetr uttaranchal ke taraee pradesh ke pashchimi bhag men nainital zila v uttar pradesh ke dakshin poorv se lekar poorv men gorakhapur aur nepal ki sima tak hai. yah kshetr himalay parvatapadiy evn shivalik kshetr men nainital, gonda, khiri, gorakhapur aur nepal, pilibhit, baharaich evn basti zilon men poorv-pashchim disha ke madhy vistrit hai. tharoo janajati ka sabase adhik jamav nainital zile ke bilahari paragana, khatimata tahasil ki nanakamata, vilapuri evn tanakapur bastiyon ke asapas paya jata hai. isi bhanti nepal ki sima par khiri zile ke uttari kshetron men bilarain se kanakati ke madhy anek tharajan jati ki bastiyan payi jati hain. inamen se mukhy kilapuri, khatimata, bilahari evn nanakamata hai. prantiy sarakar ne inhen 1961 men janajati ka darja pradan kiya tha.

vidvanh vichar

'tharoo' shabd ki utpatti ke bare men vidvanon men kafi matabhed hain. avadh gajetiyar ke anusar- 'tharoo' ka shabdik arth 'thahare' hai, arthath jo log taraee ke vanon men akar thahar gaye. nols ke anusar- 'tharoo' logon men apaharan vivah ki pratha hai. pahadi bhasha men 'tharoova' ka arth 'paidalar' hai, at: inhen tharoo kaha jane laga. kuchh any ke anusar- taraee ek 'tar' pradesh hai, at: isamen rahane vale log 'tar' ho gaye aur ye 'tarahua' kahe jane lage. kuchh ki manyata hai ki jab rajapoot aur muslim logon ke bich yuddh hua to ye log hastinapur se dar ya tharatharate hue yahan akar ruk gaye, at: inhen 'thatharana' kaha gaya. ek manyata yah bhi hai ki ye sharab khoob pite hain, at: maidanon ke kshetriy rajaon ne inhen 'tharoo' nam de diya. any vidvanon ke matanusar- 'tharoo' shabd ka arth sthaniy bhasha men 'jngal' hota hai. isase jngal men rahane vali jati 'tharoo' kahalati hai. kuchh vidvanh tharoo marusthal se ane ke karan tharoo shabd ki utpatti manate hain.

sharirik gathan

nols ne inako dravid prajati ke antargat mana hai aur yah kaha hai ki dakshin ki or se taraee men akar ye log bas gaye. oldaham ki manyata hai ki yah bharatiy jati se hi sambandhit rahe hain. nesphild ke matanusar tharoo any bharatiy logon se milate-joolate hain, bhale hi unamen antarvivah ke phalasvaroop mishrit lakshan paye jate hon. majoomadar ka mat hai ki inaki sharirik rachana mngolaauyad prajati se milati-joolati hai, jaise tirachhe netr, gal ki haddiyan ubhari huee, rng bhoora-pila, sharir aur chehare par bahut kam aur sidhe bal, madhyam aur sidhe akar ki nak adi. jabaki any sharirik lakshanon men ye nepaliyon se milate-joolate hain, kyonki kee shatabdiyon se inake vaivahik sambandh nepal ke dakshini kshetron se rahe hain. tharoo striyon ka rng adhik saf hota hai. inaka chehara kuchh lambakar, athava gol, stan gol, uthe hue evn nukile, pindaliyan adhik vikasit aur honth patale hote hain, kintu sir kuchh lamba hota hai aur ankhe kale rng ki hoti hain. vastavikata yah hai ki tharooon men mngolaauyad aur bharatiy jatiyan donon ke hi mishrit sharirik lakshan drishtigochar hote hain. sanskritik samparkon ke phalasvaroop tharoo jati ke sharirik lakshanon men paryapt parivartan hue hain. yadyapi tharooon ka ausat qad aj bhi chhota hi hota hai.

bhojan

taraee kshetr ke tharooon ka mukhy bhojan chaval hota hai, kyonki yahi yahan adhik paida kiya jata hai. ye log chaval ko bhoonakar ya ubalakar khate hain. makka ki roti, mooli, gajar ki sabji bhi khayi jati hai. machhali, doodh, dahi tatha dal bhi khayi jati hai. shushk ritu men jvar, chana, matar, adi bhi khaye jate hain. aloo tatha chaval ke bane 'jaind' ko badi ruchi se khate hain. chaval ki sharab inaka mukhy pey hai.

dharm

tharoo log pretatmaon ki pooja karate hain. ab ye hinduon ke devi devataon ko bhi poojane lage hain. 'kalika'[2], 'bhairav'[3], 'narayan'[4] adi devataon ke prati adhik shraddha hoti hai. gharon men inaki pooja ki jati hai. tharoo log eemanadar, sahriday, shant prakriti vale hote hain, kintu ab maidani nivasiyon ke sampark se inamen katuva a gayi hain- jaise bal hatya, atmahatya karana, adi. holi, dipavali, janmashtami parvon ko ye bade anand se manate hain. nach-gan aur sharab pina tabiyat se kiya jata hai.

mritak snskar

tharooon ka vishvas hai ki mrityu ke uparant atma jahan se ayi thi, vahin chali jati hai. in logon ke anusar mrityu do prakar ki mani gayi hai: 'prakritik' jo pratyek vyakti ko bhugatani padati hai aur 'aprakritik' jo dusht atmaon, devi-devataon ke shrap ka prakop aur bimariyon ke karan hoti hai. mrityu hone par parivar ke sadasy shav ko snan karakar us par haldi ka lep kar use naye kapade pahana dete hain. phir shmashan men le jakar lash ko adha jala dete hain, jabaki pahale ise gad dete the. ant men ghar ki shuddhi kar samaj ko davat di jati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bharat gyanakosh, khand-2 |lekhak: indu ramachndani |prakashak: ensaiklopidiya britainika (indiya) praivet limited, nee dilli aur paaupyular prakashan, mumbee |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 405 |
  2. durga
  3. mahadev
  4. saty narayan

snbndhit lekh