थॉमस अक्वाइनस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

thaaumas akvainas

thaaumas akvainas itali ka ek mahanh darshanik tha. thaaumas akvainas ka janm nepalj ke nikat rokasaika, (itali) namak sthan men hua tha. janm tithi ke sambandh men matabhed hai. sambhavat: yah 1224 ka ant ho ya 1225 ka prarambh. unake pita sammanit samant the. parivar abhijat varg ka tha. unaki prarambhik shiksha maaunte kaisino men huee thi. 1239 men unaka namankan nepalj vishvavidyalay men hua. 1244 men unhonne padari vritti svikar kar li. 1245 men ve adhyayan hetu peris ge, jahan bad men unhonne adhyapan kary prarambh kiya. 1259 men unhen pop ke nikat hi dharm darshan ke adhyapan ka kary mila. pray: das varshon tak ve itali ke vibhinn dharm kendron men adhyayan-adhyapan kary men rat rahe. 1268 se 1272 tak ve pun: peris vishvavidyalay se sambandh rahe. kaha jata hai ki 1273 men unhen rahasyatmak anubhav prapt hue. 49 varsh ki avastha men nepalj men unaki mrityu huee.

astha evn tarkabuddhi

snt thaaumas ke pahale ke eesaee vicharakon (shayad snt aaugastin jaise kuchh ek apavadon ko chhodakar) ki samany dharana thi ki bauddhikata ke lie dharm men sthan nahin hai, ek to is karan ki shuddh bauddhik drishtikon astha ke mahattv ko nahin samajh pata, doosare is karan ki astha ko tark briddhi ke sahare ki avashyakata nahin hoti, jabaki gyan ki upalabdhi ke lie astha avashyak hai. kintu akvainas ko astha evn tark buddhi ke bich koee virodh ya asngati dikhaee nahin di. ve svikar karate hain ki kuchh mukhy dharmik tattv tark buddhi ke dvara nahin jane ja sakate, unaka gyan moolat: rahasyatmak divy anubhav par hi nirbhar hota hai. kintu unaka kahana hai ki aise satv bhi hain, jinaka gyan tark buddhi prapt kar sakati hai. astha evn tark buddhi ke svaroop tatha parasparik sambandh ko dhyan men rakhate hue snt thaaumas ne tin prakar ke satyon ka ullekh kiya hai-

  1. ve rahasyatmak divy anubhav jinaki bauddhik upalabdhi sambhav nahin hai
  2. dharm ke sahaj saty (jaise, eeshvar ka astitv) jinaka rahasyatmak anubhav bhi sambhav hai aur bauddhik gyan bhi
  3. kuchh aise anubhavik evn vaigyanik tathy jinaka spasht bauddhik gyan sambhav hai.

vaise snt thaaumas eeshvar ko hi sabhi satyon ka srot manate hain. kuchh saty to eeshvar ke dvara sakshath dhng se pradatt hain- shrut (ilahami) hain, tatha kuchh satyon ki janakari ko ham eeshvar ke dvara di gee shaktiyon ke madhyam se svayn prapt karate hain. snt thaaumas ki bhasha men pratham gyan eeshvariy hai tatha doosara manaviy. kuchh aise bhi gyan sambhav hain jo ek drishti se eeshvariy tatha doosari drishti se manaviy. eeshvar ka astitv usi prakar ka gyan hai. yah shrut (ilahami) gyan hai, sath hi isaki sthapana manaviy gyan ke adhar par bauddhik yuktiyon ke dvara bhi ki ja sakati hai. is drishti se bhi gyan ke tin hi roop dikhaee dete hain.

darshanik vichar

49 varsh ke jivan kal men hi thaaumas akvainas ne anek pustakon ki rachana kar dali. unaki apoorn kintu pramukh pustak 'suma thiyolaaujika' ka darshan aur chintan ke itihas men vishisht sthan hai. unhonne dharmik vicharon ko bauddhik adhar tatha darshanik prishthabhoomi dene ki cheshta ki.

gyanamimansa

snt thaaumas ke anusar gyan, evn gyey ka ek vishesh prakar ka sambandh hai, jisamen gyey apani chhap gyata par chhodata hai. gyey ke dvara jo parivartan gyata men utpann hota hai, vah n to poornataya bhautik hai, n poornataya abhautik hai. snt thaaumas use jaivik sambandh manate hain. yah bhautik to nahin hi hai, kyonki ankhen rng dekhakar rngin nahin ho jatin. jis prakar 'lah' par chhap ankit ho jati hai, usi prakar vishay ka roop man men chha jata hai tatha gyata vishay ka gyan pa leta hai. isi karan kaha jata hai ki gyan men gyata evn gyey ek ho jate hain. is ek hone ka arth poorn aiky ki sthapana nahin hai, balki keval yah hai ki gyey gyata ke gyan ka ek ansh, ek ang ban jata hai. sadharan gyan ke nimnalikhit srot mane ja sakate hain :- (k) endriy gyan (kh) prgyatmak gyan (g) apt purush ka pnthon se prapt gyan (ch) man men nihit shaktiyon ke dvara sthapit satyon ka gyan.

vaise snt thaaumas svikar karate hain ki hamara sadharan gyan, bahy jagath ka gyan, aindriy gyan par ashrit hota hai. yadi gyanendriyan n hotin to man bahy vastuon ka gyan prapt n kar pata. prgyatmak gyan indriyon ke dvara prapt tattvon ke vishleshan snshleshan se prapt hota hai. tark buddhi kabhi kabhi isi gyan ke adhar par pramanit any satyon ki sthapana bhi kar leti hai. ise tark buddhiparak gyan kaha jata hai. sadharan jivan men uparokt sabhi prakar ke gyan ki upayogita hai. vastut: svayn apane star (naisargik star) par gyata-gyan gyey ki ek samay shrinkhala taiyar karati hai, jo us roop men poorn hai. is simit arth men ve manushy aur nisarg ki apekshik svatntrata svikar karate hain, jo us samay nishchay hi ek krantikari vichar tha aur jis par spashtat: arastu ke vicharon ki chhap thi. kintu doosari or dharmik anubhooti ya eeshvar ke gyan ke lie astha anivary hai. astha evn gyan ke uparokt dhngon men virodh nahin hai, uchit gyanoparjan se astha ko bal hi milata hai. isi vishvas se snt thaaumas ne apani tatvamimansa men bhi astha ko kendriy sthan diya hai tatha usake bauddhik pahaloo ko ubharane ki cheshta ki hai.

tatvamimansa

thaaumas akvainas

snt thaaumas ki tatvamimansa moolat: unake dharm darshan par adharit hai, kintu us par grik darshan ka bhi spasht prabhav hai. usi prabhav se ve kahate hain ki param tatv shuddh bhav hai. is shuddh bhav ki paribhasha nahin di ja sakati, kintu kaha ja sakata hai ki har astitvavan tatv bhav hai. is drishti se eeshvar bhi bhav hai. snt thaaumas ke anusar sabhi sattavan tatv sambhavyata evn vastavikata ke sammishran roop hain. mool upadan (metiriya praima) men sabhi sambhavanaen nihit hain. eeshvar men sabhi sambhavanaen poorn tatha vyakt hain. any sattaen inhin do chhoron ke bich ki sattaen hain.

(1) eeshvar-

snt thaaumas ka kahana hai ki eeshvar poorn satta hai, kyonki satta ki sabhi sambhavanaen isamen poornataya vyakt hain (aiktas pyooras). sach poochha jaye to eeshvar ko astitvavan siddh karane ki avashyakata bhi nahin. eeshvar astitvavan hai, yah vaky vastavik arth men vishleshanatmak vaky hai. yadi eeshvar ka avabodh ho to eeshvar astitv svat: siddh pratit hoga. kintu sadharan buddhi ko is prakar ka poorn avabodh nahin hota. at: eeshvar ke astitv ko bodhagamy banane ke lie yuktiyon ki avashyakata ho jati hai. snt thaaumas, snt enselm ke dvara di gee pratyay satta yukti ko manyata nahin dete, kintu unhonne svayn eeshvar ke astitv ke samarthan men panch pramukh yuktiyan din, jinhen pashchaty darshan men bada mahattv diya gaya hai.

  1. unhonne gati ke svaroop ke vishleshan ke adhar par eeshvar ke astitv ko siddh karane ki cheshta ki. har gatiman vastu ko gati kisi any se milati hai, aur yah tabhi sambhav hota hai, jab us any ko doosara gatishil kare. at: manana padata hai ki gati ke antim karan ke roop men koee ady chalak (praim moovar) avashy hai. use hi eeshvar ki sngya di jati hai.
  2. vishv ka svaroop kary roop hai, har kary ka koee nimitt karan hota hai. at: vishv ke nimitt karan ke roop men eeshvar ko manana padata hai.
  3. vishv ke har tatv men nirbharata hai. har tatv kisi any tatv par nirbhar karata hai. is nirbharata ka koee charam adhar avashy hai, jo kisi any par nirbhar n kare. vahi anivary adhar eeshvar hai.
  4. vishv ke tatvon men poornata aur apoornata ka kram dikhalaee deta hai. ek tatv adhik apoorn pratit hota hai to doosara adhik poorn. at: manana padata hai ki poornata ki ek parakashtha bhi hai, jisake anusar hi poornata aur apoornata ka kram nirdharit hota hai. usi param poorn ko eeshvar kahate hain.
  5. vishv men sngathan, samnjasy tatha vyavastha dikhaee deti hai. at: yah svikarana padata hai ki koee poorn shakti is sngathan evn samnjasy ki vyavasthapak hai.

is prakar ki yuktiyon ke dvara ham yah jan sakate hain ki eeshvar hai, kintu eeshvar ke astitv ka poorn avabodh tark buddhi ke dvara sambhav nahin hai. phir bhi tark buddhi apane apoorn dhng se hi eeshvar bhav ki apani avadharana bana leti hai aur isamen samanyat: sadrishy tatha nishedh ke niyamon ka sahara leti hai. sadrishy ka arth yah hai ki simit gunon evn lakshanon ki janakari ke adhar par ham unhin gunon ki asimata ka pratyay bana lete hain tatha un asim gunon ko eeshvar ka lakshan man lete hain. isi prakar har simit gun ka eeshvar bhav se nishedh kiya jata hai aur is dhng se nishedhatmak roop men eeshvar bhav ko samajhane ki cheshta hoti hai. isi adhar par eeshvar ke gunon ka vivaran diya jata hai tatha eeshvar ko ek poorn, nity aparivartanashil, vishv ka srashta evn rakshak adi bataya jata hai. yah kaha ja sakata hai ki eeshvar ne sabhi jivon ki srishti apane man men sthit mool pratiman (ekjempalar) ke anuroop ki. jiv tatha jagath usi se snchalit hain tatha ve antat: usi men lin bhi ho jayenge.

(2) jagat-

jagat eeshvar ke dvara nirmit hai. usake nirman ke lie kisi any dravy ko manane ki avashyakata nahin hai, kyonki eeshvar shoony se bhi srishti kar sakata hai. tark buddhi ke dvara jagath ki utpatti ka poorn gyan sambhav nahin hai. samanyat: samashti roop men jagath ko 'shubh' kaha ja sakata hai. jagath vikas ka kram shubh hai, kintu is jagath ko sarvottam jagath kahana ayukt hai, kyonki yadi yah jagath sarvottam hai to isaka yahi arth hai ki isase shreshthatar jagath ki srishti eeshvar ki shakti ke pare hai. dikh aur kal ke svaroop ke sambandh men bhi snt thaaumas ke vichar maulik hain. dikh vastavik hain, kintu ise bahy dhanche ke roop men nahin samajhana chahie. dikh ka astitvavan vastuon se prithakh koee astitv nahin hai. dikh asim bhi nahin hai, kyonki yah srishti ka ek avayav hai. kal ko bhi vastunishth pravah ke roop men nahin svikara gaya hai. vastuon men anukram ka sambandh man ke dvara joda jata hai, at: man hi kal ke anukram ka nirdharak hai.

(3) atma-

akvainas ke anusar manushy bhautik-abhautik donon tatvon ka sammishran hai. atma abhautik hai, kintu atma ki anek kriyaen sharir ke madhyam se hoti hain. isi karan manav ko atma evn sharir ka sngathan mana gaya hai. snt thaaumas manate hain ki sharirik vyavahar ki vyakhya anubhavik evn bhautik tatvon ke dvara ho sakati hai, kintu atma ki poorn vyakhya keval bhautik tatvon ke dvara sambhav nahin hai. atma ke sambandh men snt thaaumas yah manate hain ki atma ki srishti huee hai, parantu sath hi yah bhi manate hain ki atma amar hai. unhen isamen koee virodhabhas dikhaee nahin deta. yah ek abhautik tatv hai, kintu srijan ke samay hi eeshvariy ichchha shakti ke dvara isaka sngathan sharir ke sath ho gaya, kintu sharir ke sath atma ka nash nahin hota. atma ki amarata ke paksh men unaki ek yukti yah hai ki atma abhautik hone ke karan bhautik tatvon ke saman dooshit ya khndit nahin ho sakata. at: usake nasht hone ka prashn hi nahin uthata. unaka ek tark bada rochak hai. unaka kahana hai ki gyan, satkarm, sadgun, poornata ye sabhi atma ko bhautikata se door hatate hain tatha poornata ki or le chalate hain. at: mrityu jisamen atma ka bhautikata se poorn viyog ho jata hain, atma ka vinash kar sakane vali nahin ho sakati. snt thaaumas yah bhi kahate hain ki atma ki amarata men vishvas jivan men shubh karm karane ka prerak hota hai.

niti darshan

snt thaaumas ke anusar har ichchha tatha har manaviy kary ka sahaj evn svabhavik lakshy shubh roop hai, anand hai. param shubh eeshvar hi hai, jivan ka param lakshy param shubh ki prapti hai. at: eeshvariy anand ki prapti sarvottam purusharth hai. is prakar ka anand sabako isi jivan men prapt ho jae, yah nahin bhi ho sakata. kintu is anand ki anshik prapti sabako ho sakati hai. usake lie dharmik naitikata ka marg sadgunon ki prapti anivary hai. snt thaaumas sansarikata evn dharmik naitikata men samanvay karate hain. unake anusar bhautik sukh (svasthy, dhan adi) vanchhaniy hai tatha ve bhi anand ke hi roop hain. kintu inaki prapti shuddh hriday tatha shubh abhipray se karane ka prayatn hona chahie. dharmik sadgunon ke antargat astha, seva, prem adi ate hain. is prakar ke jivan-yapan se is jivan men bhi anand ki prapti ho sakati hai.

samaj tatha rajaniti darshan

sampatti-

snt thaaumas ke samay ek prachalit mat yah tha ki sampatti rakhana pap hai. adarsh samaj ki har sampatti samaj ki hoti hai, vyakti ki nahin. barahavin shatabdi ke kuchh vicharakon ne avashyakata evn svamitv men antar kiya tatha kuchh anivary sampatti ko avashyakata ke antargat rakh liya. usi samay arastu ke palitiks ka anuvad hua. snt thaaumas ne arastu ke vicharon ka apane dhng se samarthan kiya. unhonne kaha ki samajik vyavastha ke lie bhi sampatti arjit karana anivary hai. snkatakalin avastha men sampatti par samanadhikar svikara ja sakata hai. unhonne to yahan tak kaha ki atyant snkat men avashyakatanusar any ki sampatti se kuchh le lena pap nahin hai.

vyapar-

prarambhik madhy kal men vyapar samaj ka ek many ansh tha, kintu jaise jaise vyapar tatha vyapari varg badhata gaya, unake viruddh pratikriyaen arambh ho geen. barahavin shatabdi tak eesaee vicharak vyapari varg ke prati anudar ho ge aur unhonne yahan tak kah dala ki eesaee dharmavalambi ko vyapari nahin hona chahie. snt thaaumas ka mat bhi kuchh isi dhng ka hai, kintu unhonne is sndarbh men kuchh naye vikalpon ko prastut kiya. rajy ko adhik vyapar ko protsahan n dekar poornataya atm nirbhar hone ki cheshta karani chahie, kyonki vyapari varg par nirbharata badhane se visheshat: yuddhakalin sthiti men khady samagri bhi durlabh ho jati hai. kuchh anivary vyapar ki anushnsa unhonne ki hai. is sndarbh men unhonne uchit mooly tatha vyajakhori par bade maulik vichar diye hain. madhyakalin vicharakon ke anusar uchit mooly vikreta ke lagat ke barabar hota hai. yadi koee lagat se adhik mooly leta hai to pap ka bhagi hai. snt thaaumas isaka samarthan karate hain, kintu ve kuchh apavad bhi manate hain. vastut: unhonne lagat shabd ke arth men hi kuchh parimarjan kar diya. udaharanat: bikri ki vastu se alag hona bhi vikreta ke lie kuchh kami, kuchh hani ka soochak hai. at: yah bhi lagat mooly men vriddhi ho sakati hai. spasht hai ki arthashastriy lagat ki avadharana ka prarambhik roop snt thaaumas ke vicharon men hi ubhara hai.

rin-

dan tatha vyajakhori ki samasya par bhi snt thaaumas ne apane vichar die hain, jo bad ke samaj darshan ke lie bade mahattvapoorn siddh hue. sadharanat: vyajakhori ko us samay bhi pap hi mana jata tha. vaise, samaj men rin dan evn vyajakhori ka prachalan pray: svabhavik hi tha. snt thaaumas ne is sndarbh men do prakar ki vastuon men bhed kiya. ek prakar to aisi vastuon ka jinake upabhog se vyay nahin hota (jaise makan) spasht hai ki keval doosare prakar ki vastuon men malik evn upabhokta bhinn ho sakate hain. paisa pratham koti ki vastu hai. at: rin dene vale jo mool ke sath sood bhi vasoolate hain, doohara labh utha rahe hain. kyonki ve us paise se apana vyapar bhi karate hain. yah pap hai, lekin kuchh avadhi tak unaka paisa unake pas nahin rahata. is drishti se unaki kuchh kshatipoorti ki ja sakati hai.

rajy-

snt thaaumas ka kahana hai ki sarvajanik shubh ki upalabdhi ke lie rajy ki avashyakata hoti hai. sabhi rajakiy niyamon ka uddeshy sarvajanik shubh hi hota hai. vidhi naitikata ka bahy roop hai. rajakiy vidhiyan hi rajy ki snrachana ka adhar hain. at: yadi rajy sarvajanik sukh-suvidha ki upeksha kare to in vidhiyon ka ullnghan ho jata hai tatha rajy ka svaroop anyayapoorn ban jata hai. isi karan snt thaaumas kahat hain ki rajy ka lakshy arthik tatha bhautik sukh sadhanon ki upalabdhi ke sath sath naitik karyon ko roop dena bhi hai. yah dekhana hai ki nagarik ki shiksha-diksha ki samuchit vyavastha hai. kabhi kabhi rajy ke eng anaitik ho jate hain. at: rajy shakti par kuchh pratibndh bhi anivary ho jata hai. snt thaaumas ke anusar yah dharm ke dvara snbhav ho sakata hai. dharm janata ko anaitik karyon ke prati jagaruk kar sakata hai. doosara pratibndh janamat ke dvara sambhav hai. janamat atyachar ka pratipad kar sakata hai. snt thaaumas rajy ke kisi vishesh roop ki anushnsa to nahin karate, kintu unake lekhon se pray: spasht hai ki unake anusar ek vyakti ke dvara snchalit rajy men samajik vyavastha evn sngathan adhik sulabh hota hai. unake anusar rajy ka roop mahattvapoorn nahin, mahattvapoorn hai yah tathy ki rajy snchalak rajy ke lakshyon ki prapti men rat hai ya nahin.

snt thaaumas ka aitihasik mahattv is tathy men hai ki ve samaj tatha rajaniti darshan ki kuchh aisi mool samasyaon ko prakash men layen, jo bad ke vicharakon ke lie samaj tatha rajaniti darshan ki kendriy samasyaen ban geen. sath hi yah bhi drashtavy hai ki unake darshan men manavatavad (dharmik) tatha prakriti ke madhy samanvay ka jo roop spasht hua, vah pashchaty chintanadhara men ek sthayi yogadan ke roop men svikar kiya gaya.



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adhar
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madhyamik
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shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

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