दक्खिनी हिन्दी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dakkhini ke any nam 'hindi', 'hindavi', 'dakani', 'dakhani', 'dehalavi', 'goojari' (shah burahanuddin- yah sab gujari kiya jaban), 'hindustani', 'zabane hindustani', 'dakkhini hindi', 'dakkhini urdoo', 'musalamani', *'dakkhini hindi moolat: hindi ka hi ek roop hai.

  • isaka mool adhar, dilli ke asapas prachalit 14vin - 15vin sadi ki 'khadi boli' hai.
  • musalamanon ne bharat men ane par is boli ko apanaya tha.
  • masood, ibnasad, khusaro tatha phariduddin shakaragnji adi ne apani hindi kavitaen isi men likhi thin.
  • 15vin - 16vin sadi men fauj, fakiron tatha daraveshon ke sath yah bhasha dakshin bharat men pahunchi aur vahan pramukhat: musalamanon men, tatha kuchh hinduon men jo uttar bharat ke the, prachalit ho gee. isake kshetr pramukhat: dakshin bharat ke bijapur, golakunda, ahamadanagar adi, barar, mumbee tatha madhy pradesh adi hain.
  • griyarsan ise hindustani ka bigada roop n manakar uttar bharat ki 'sahityik hindustani' ko hi isaka bigada roop manate hain.
  • daau. chatarji ise hindustani nahin, to usaki sahodara bhasha avashy manate hain.
  • daau. bholanath tivari ke anusar bhasha vaigyanik drishti se, dakkhini moolat: 'prachin khadiboli' hai, jisamen pnjabi, hariyani, braj, mevati tatha avadhi ke kuchh roop bhi hain.
  • dakshin men jane ke bad is par kuchh gujarati - marathi ka bhi prabhav pada hai.
  • uttari bharat ki pnjabi, hariyani, braj, avadhi adi bhashaon ke roopon ke milane ka yah arth kadapi nahin hai ki in prakar ki mishrit thi hi. sabhi boliyon ka spasht alag- alag vikas nahin hua tha.
  • kabir ne bhi isi mishrit bhasha ka prayog kiya hai.
  • griyarsan ke bhasha- sarvekshan ke anusar, dakkhini bolane valon ki snkhya lagabhag sadhe chhattis lakh thi. aj bhi us kshetr men, dakkhini urdoo nam se boli jati hai, yadyapi yah bhasha kee drishtiyon se badal gee hai.
  • parivartan ki drishti se tin baten ullekhaniy hain-
  1. urdoo bhasha ka us par paryapt prabhav pad gaya hai.
  2. kuchh purane roop vikasit hokar kuchh- ke- kuchh ho ge hain.
  3. shabd- samooh ke kshetranusar tamil, telugu, kannad adi bhashaon ka prabhav pada hai.
  • 15vin se 18vin sadi tak dakkhini ko bahamani vnsh ke tatha any rajaon ka ashray prapt raha aur isamen paryapt sahity- rachana huee. isamen gady- sahity bhi paryapt prachin milata hai. khadi boli gady ka prachin pramanik grnth dakkhini men hi milata hai. is gady- grnth ka nam 'mirajul ashikin' hai, jisake lekhak khvaja bandanavaz (1318- 1430) hain. dakkhini ke sahityakaron men abdulla, vajahi, nijami, gavasi, gulamali tatha beloori adi pramukh hain.
  • urdoo sahity ka arambh bhi vastut: dakkhini se hi hua hai. urdoo ke pratham kavi vali (rachana- kal 1700ee. ke lagabhag)hi dakkhini ke antim kavi vali aurngabadi hain. is prakar dakkhini ko ek prakar se urdoo ki janani kah sakate hain, yadyapi bhasha aur bhav donon hi drishtiyon se donon men akash- patal ka antar hai.
  • dakkhini keval lipi hi pharasi (ya prachilit shabdavali men urdoo) hai, anyatha isaki bhasha men samany hindi ki bhanti hi, bharatiy parampara ke shabd paryapt hain. arabi- pharasi shabd urdoo ki tulana men bahut hi kam hain. isaka kshetr dakshin men ho ne ke karan hi isaka nam dakkhini hai. aj hindivale, ise 'hindi' ya 'dakkhini hindi' kahakar, ise apani bhasha aur isake sahity ko apane sahity ka ang man rahe hain.
  • vastut: n keval dakkhini bhasha, apitu usaka sahity bhi hindi se nikat hai. apavadon ko chhodakar, urdoo ke viruddh, dakkhini bhasha aur sahity ki atma poornataya bharatiy hai.
  • kuchh shabd udaharan ke lie dekhe ja sakate hain: prakar, snchit, indriy, alipt, sthool, kalpit (burahanuddin men); gagan, kala, pavan, nir, adhar, yauvan (kuli kutubashah men); gambhir, anup, bhal, jiv (vajahi men). yon urdoo bhi hindi ki ek shaili hi hai, bahut sashakt evn sajiv shaili. aisi sthiti men 'dakkhini hindi' hindi hi hai. kisi bhi dakkhini gady- lekhak ya kavi ne usake lie 'urdoo' shabd ka prayog nahin kiya hai. aisi sthiti men kisi bhi roop men, urdoo nam ka prayog, usake lie bahut uchit nahin kaha ja sakata.
  • dakkhini ke lie prachin nam hindi (yon main hindavi kar asan- shekh asharaf (1503 nausarahar)men) milate hain, jisaka ashay yah ki uttar bharat se, bhasha ke sath bhi ge the. bad men sambhavat: satrahavin sadi ke antim charan men 'dakkhini' nam prachilit hua. isaka pratham pramanik prayog kadachith 'vajahi' men hai. ve apani 'kutubamushtari' (1938 ee.) men likhate hain- dakhin men jo dakhini mithi bat ka. kuchh urdoo lekhakon ne likha hai ki dakkhini ko bad men 'rekhta' bhi kahane lage the.
  • vastut: bat aisa nahin hai. dakkhini ke antim kal ke kaviyon (jaise vali adi) ne 'rekhta' ka kavy ki ek vishesh shaili ke lie hi prayog kiya hai. yah dakkhini ka nam nahin hai. isaka mool adhar 14-15vin sadi ki (fauj, fakir daravesh) dilli - agara ki khadi boli hai.
  • musalamanon ke sath yah age chalakar karnatak, andhr, tamilanadu, keral, maharashtr, gujarat men phail gee. svabhavat: is par in sabhi madhyakal men kafi rachanaen hueen jo dakkhini sahity ke nam se prasiddh hain.
  • ab in kshetron men jo sahity- rachana hoti hai vah dakkhini men n hokar pray: manak hindi ya urdoo men hoti hai.
  • isaki vartaman upaboliyon men mukhy maisoore, gulabargi, bidari, bijapuri, haidarabadi adi hain.



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