दर्दीय भाषाएँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dardiy bhashaen pakistan, kashmir aur afaganistan men boli jane vali antarsnbndhit bharatiy-eerani bhashaon ke samooh ko kaha jata hai. ise 'dard' ya 'pishach bhasha' bhi kaha jata hai.[1]

upasamooh

inhen amataur par tin upasamoohon men vibhakt kiya jata hai-

  1. kafiri ya pashchimi
  2. khovari ya madhy (pashchimottar pakistan ke chitral zile men prayukt)
  3. poorvi, jisamen shina aur kashmiri shamil hain.

vidvanh matabhed

kuchh vidvanh 'dardiy' shabd ka istemal keval poorvi upasamooh ki bhashaon ke lie karate hain aur samooche samooh ke lie 'pishach' shabd ka prayog karate hain. bharatiy-eerani bhasha parivar men dardiy bhashaon ki sahi sthiti vidvanon ke bich vivad ka vishay rahi hai. kuchh vidvanh manate hain ki ye bhashaen bharatiy-eerani bhashaon ke avishisht charan se utpann huee hain. any logon ka manana hai ki poorvi aur khovari samooh bharatiy-ary bhashaen hain, jabaki kafiri upasamooh alag hai.[1]

kashmiri bhasha

kashmiri ekamatr dardiy bhasha hai, jisaka sahityik kritiyon ke lie vyapak upayog hota hai. shina ke alava poorvi upasamooh ki bhashaen dakshin men boli jane vali bharatiy-ary bhashaon ke prabhav ke karan kafi badal chuki hain. dardiy bhashaen apani dhvani pranali tatha vaidik snskrit ke kal ke bad bharat aur eeran men lupt ho chuke kee shabdon ke snrakshan ke mamale men bharatiy-eerani bhashaon se bhinn hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 bharat gyanakosh, khand-3 |lekhak: indu ramachndani |prakashak: ensaiklopidiya britainika praivet limited, nee dilli aur paaupyular prakashan, mumbee |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 11 |

snbndhit lekh

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