दिङ्नाग बौद्धाचार्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dinnag bauddhachary ka janm dakshin bharat ke kanchinagar ke samip sinhavaktr namak sthan par vidya-vinayasampann brahman kul men hua tha. unhonne apane arambhik jivan men paramparagat sabhi shastron ka vidhivat adhyayan kiya tha aur unamen poorn parngat pandit ho gaye the. isake bad ve vatsiputriy nikay ke mahasthavir nagadatt se pravrajya grahan kar bauddh bhikshu ho gaye.

  • 'dinnag' yah nam pravrajya ke avasar par diya hua unaka nam hai.
  • mahasthavir nagadatt se hi unhonne samast shravak pitakon evn shastron ka adhyayan kiya tha aur unamen param nishnat ho gaye the. ek din mahasthavir nagadatt ne unhen 'shamath' aur 'vipashyana' vishay ko samajhate hue anirvachaniy pudgal ki deshana ki.
  • dinnag atyant tikshn buddhi ke svatantr vicharak pandit the. unhen anirvachaniy pudgal ka siddhant ruchikar pratit nahin hua. guru ke upadesh ki pariksha ke lie apane nivas-sthan par akar unhonne din men sare daravajon-khidakiyon ko kholakar tatha rat men charon or dipak jalakar kapadon ko utar kar sir se pair tak sare angon ko bahar-bhitar sookshm roop men nirikshan karate hue anirvachaniy pudgal ko dekhana shuroo kiya. apane sath adhyayan karane vale sathiyon ke yah poochhane par ki 'yah ap kya kar rahe hain'? dinnag ne kaha- 'pudgal ki khoj kar raha hoon'. sookshmataya nirikshan karane par bhi unhonne kahin pudgal ki prapti nahin ki. shishy parampara se yah bat mahasthavir guru nagadatt tak pahunch gee. nagadatt ko laga ki dinnag hamara apaman kar raha hai aur apane nikay ke siddhanton ke prati use avishvas hai. guru ne dinnag par kupit hokar unhen sngh se bahar nikal diya. nikal diye jane ke bad kramash: charika karate hue ve achary vasubandhu ke samip pahunche. is anushruti se yah nishkarsh nikalata hai ki dinnag pahale vatsiputriy nikay men pravrajit hue the, kintu us nikay ke darshanik siddhant unhen ruchikar pratit nahin hue. isake bad achary vasubandhu ke samip rahakar unhonne samast shravak aur mahayan pitak, sampoorn bauddh shastr aur visheshat: pramanashastr ka gambhir adhyayan kiya.
  • kaha jata hai ki achary vasubandhu ke char shishy apane-apane vishayon men vasubandhu se bhi adhik vidvanh the. jaise-
  1. achary gunaprabh- vinay-shastron men,
  2. achary sthiramati- abhidharm vishay men,
  3. achary vimuktisen- prgyaparamita shastr men tatha
  4. achary dinnag- pramanashastr men.
  • kuchh vidvanon ki ray hai ki achary vimuktisen dinnag ke shishy the, vasubandhu ke nahin. bhotadeshiy vidvatparampara to unhen vasubandhu ka shishy hi nirdharit karati hai.
  • bharatiy itihas ke marmgy bhotavigyan lama taranath ka kahana hai ki triratn das aur snghadas bhi vasubandhu ke shishy the.

rachanaen

achary dinnag ki anek rachanaen hain. unhonne vibhinn vishayon par granthon ka pranayan kiya hai.

yuktyanuyayi sautrantik

  • achary dinnag ke pray: sabhi granth vishuddh pramanamimansa se sambaddh tatha svatantr evn maulik granth hain. isilie ve bharatiy tarkashastr ke pravartak mahanh tarkik mane jate hain. in granthon men jin vishayon ko achary ne pratipadit kiya hai, ve sautrantik darshan sammat hi hain. bahyarth ki satta evn gyan ki sakarata ko manate hue unhonne vishay ka niroopan kiya hai. pramanasamuchchay ke avalokan se yah nishchit hota hai ki keval pramanaphal ke niroopan ke avasar par hi unhonne vigyanavadi drishtikon apanaya hai. praman aur prameyon ki sthapana unhonne visheshat: sautrantik darshan ke anuroop hi ki hai. dinnag ke in vicharon ne sautrantik nikay ke chintan ki ek apoorv disha uddhatit ki hai, jisase ukt nikay ke chintan men nootan parivartan parilakshit hota hai. dinnag ke is prayas se tattvachintan ke kshetr men tark vidya ki mahati pratishtha huee aur gyan ki pariksha ke ne niyam vikasit hue tatha ve niyam sabhi shastriy paramparaon aur sampradayon men many hue. vastav men dinnag se hi vishuddh tarkashastr prarambh hua. phalat: sautrantik nikay ne agam ki paridhi se bahar nikal kar abhyuday aur ni:shreyas ke sadhak darshanik kshetr men padarpan kiya.
  • dinnag ke bad achary dharmakirti ne dinnag ke granthon men chhipe hue goodh tathyon ka prakashan karate hue sat granthon (sapt pramanashastr) ki rachana ki. un granthon men nyayaparameshvar dharmakirti ne buddhavachanon ki neyarthata aur nitarthata ka vivechan karate hue shatasahastrika prgyaparamita adi prgyaparamita sootron ko buddhavachan ke roop men pramanit kiya. achary dharmakirti ke is satprayas se dinnag ke bare men jo mithya drishtiyan aur bhram utpann ho gaye the, unaka niras hua. log kahate the ki dinnag ne keval vad-vivad ev jay-parajay moolak tarkashastron ki rachana ki hai. unamen marg aur phal ka niroopan nahin hai aur aise shastron ki rachana karana adhyatm pradhan bauddh dharm ke anuyayi ek bhikshu ko shobha nahin deta. dharmakirti ki vyakhya ki vajah se dinnag samast buddh vachanon ke utkrisht vyakhyata aur mahanh rathi siddh hue. sath hi, sautrantikon ki darshanik parampara ka naya ayam prakashit hua. phalat: in donon ke bad sautrantik darshan ke jo bhi achary utpann hue, ve sab 'yukti-anuyayi sautrantik' kahalae. isi parampara men age chalakar prasiddh sautrantik achary shubhagupt bhi utpann hue.
  • yukti-anuyayi sautrantik darshan-prasthan ke vikas men ni:sandeh achary dharmakirti ka yogadan raha hai, kintu isaka prathamik shrey achary dinnag ko jata hai. yah sahi hai ki pramanashastr aur nyayaprakriya ke vikas men achary dharmakirti ke vishisht mat aur maulik udbhavanaen rahi hain, kintu sabhi paravarti achary aur vidvanh unhen dinnag ke vyakhyakar hi manate hain. dharmakirti dvara pranit sabhi granthon ke vishay ve hi rahe hain, jo dinnag ke pramanasamuchchay ke hain. yadyapi dharmakirti ne pramanavartik ke pratham parichchhed men prameyavyavastha aur pramanaphal ki sthapana ke sandarbh men vigyptimatrata ki charcha ki hai aur is tarah vigyanavad ki pratishtha ki hai, kintu in thode sthanon ko chhodakar shesh sampoorn granth men sautrantik drishti se hi vishay ki sthapana ki hai. isalie achary dinnag aur dharmakirti yadyapi mahayan ke anuyayi hain, phir bhi yah kaha ja sakata hai ki ye donon sautrantik achary the. yukti-anuyayi sautrantik darshanaparampara ka svaroop usake darshan ke svaroop ka niroopan karate samay age vivechit hai.
  • achary dharmakirti ke pramey sambandhi vichar achary dinnag ke saman hi hain. dharmakirti dvara pranit pramanavartik, pramanavinishchay, nyayabindu, hetubindu, sambandhapariksha, santanantarasiddhi aur vadanyay saton prasiddh granth pramanasamuchchay ki tika ke roop men upanibaddh hain. yadyapi in granthon men prameyavyavastha ke avasar par yukti-anuyayi sautrantik aur yukti-anuyayi vigyanavadiyon ki vicharadhara ke anuroop tattvamimansa ki vishesh roop se charcha ki gee hai, tathapi ye granth mukhy roop se pramanamimansa ke pratipadak hi hain.

pramanasamuchchay

yah granth achary dinnag ki kriti hai. yah achary ki anek chhitaput rachanaon ka samuchchay hai aur atyant mahattvapoorn hai. yah mahaniy bhavi bauddh nyay ke vikas ka adhar aur bauddh vicharon men nee utkranti ka vahak raha hai. is granth ke prabhav se bharatiy darshanik chintanadhara men ne evn vishisht parivartan ka sootrapat hua. gyan ke samyaktv ki pariksha, poorvagrahamukt tattvachintan, praman ke pramany adi ka nirdharan adi ve visheshataen hain, jinaka vishleshan dinnag ke bad pray: sabhi bharatiy darshanon men bahulata se prarambh hota hai. is prakar ham vishuddh gyanamimansa aur nirapeksh pramanamimansa ka pradurbhav dinnag ke bad ghatit hote hue dekhate hain. is granth men chhah parichchhed hain, yatha-

  1. pratyaksh parichchhed
  2. svarthanuman parichchhed
  3. pararthanuman parichchhed
  4. drishtantapariksha
  5. apohapariksha evn
  6. jatyuttar pariksha.
  • in parichchhedon ke vishay unake nam se hi prakat hai. inamen svasnvedan pratyaksh ki suspasht sthapana, pramanadvay ka spasht nirdharan, gyan ki hi pramanata, sadhan aur dooshan ka vivechan, shabdarth-vishayak chintan (apohavichar), praman aur pramanaphal ki ekatmakata evn prasng ke svaroop ka nirdharan adi vishay vishesh roop se charchit hue hain.

dinnag ka samay kal

achary dinnag ke samay ko lekar vidvanon men vivad adhik hai. daau. satishachandr vidyabhooshan unaka kal eesviy sanh 450 se 520 ke bich nirdharit karate hain. daau. es. en. das gupt unhen eesviy panchavin shatabdi ke ant men utpann manate hain. daau. vinayaghosh bhattachary manate hain ki ve 345 se 425 eesviy varshon men vidyaman the. pandit dalasukhabhaee malavaniyan is mat ka samarthan karate hain. nyayasootron ke bhashyakar vatsyayan aur prashastapad ke maton ki dinnag ne yuktipoorvak samalochana ki hai tatha nyayavartikar udyotakar ne dinnag ke mat ki samalochana dinnag ki rachanaon ka anuvad chini bhasha men 557 se 569 eesviy varshon men sampann ho gaya tha. in sab sakshyon ke adhar par achary dinnag ka kal eesviy panchavin shatabdi ka poorvarddh manana samichin maloom hota hai. mahapandit rahul sankrityayan bhi unhen 425 eesviy varsh men vidyaman manate hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

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