दोहा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

doha matrik arddhasam chhnd hai. dohe ke char charan hote hain. isake visham charanon (pratham tatha tritiy) men 13-13 matraen aur sam charanon (dvitiy tatha chaturth) men 11-11 matraen hoti hain. 'doha' ya 'dooha' ki utpatti katipay lekhakon ne snskrit ke dodhak se mani hai. 'prakritapaigalamh' ke tikakaron ne isaka mool 'dvipada' shabd ko bataya hai. yah uttarakalin apabhrnsh ka pramukh chhand hai.

utpatti

doha vah pahala chhand hai, jisamen tuk milane ka prayatn hua. prachin apabhrnsh men is chhand ka prayog kam milata hai, tathapi siddh kavi sarahapa[1] ne isaka sabase pahale prayog kiya. ek matanusar 'vikramorvashiy' men isaka sabase prachin roop upalabdh hai. phir bhi panchavin ya chhathi shatabdi ke pashchath doha kafi prayog men ata raha. hal ki satasee se bhi isaka sootr joda jata hai. yah tark prabal roop se prastut kiya jata hai ki kadachit yah lok-prachalit chhand raha hoga. doha do pnktiyon ka chhand hai. 'bado dooho', 'toonveri dooho' tatha 'anamel dooho', tin prakar rajasthani men aur milate hain. prachin doha ke pahale aur tisare charan men 13-13 matraen tatha doosare aur chauthe men 11-11 matraen hoti hain. 'bado dooho' men 1 aur 4 charan 11-11 matraon ke tatha 2 aur 3 charan 13-13 matraon ke hote hain. 'toonveri dooho' men matraon ka yah kram ulata hai. pahale aur chauthe charan ki tuk milane se 'madhyamel dooho' banate hain. doha lokasahity ka sabase saralatam chhand hai, jise sahity men yash prapt ho saka.

samanarthak

doha aur sakhi samanarthak hain. sambhavat: bauddh siddhon ko is shabd gyan tha. sakhi karab jalandhar paen pnkti men jalandhar pad ko sakshi karane ka ullekh aya hai. gorakhapanthiyon se prabhavit hokar yah shabd kabirapanthiyon ki rachanaon men aya aur bad ke sahity men doohe ka arth bhi 'sakhi' grahan kiya gaya.

rachana

'prakritapaigalamh'[2] ke anusar is chhand ke pratham tatha tritiy pad men 13-13 matraen aur doosare tatha chauthe men 11-11 matraen hoti hain. yadi padant men hoti hai; visham charanon ke adi men jagan nahin hona chahie. ant men laghu hota hai. tuk pray: sam padon ki milati hai. matrik ganon ka kram is prakar rahata hai- 6+4+3, 6+4+1.

sahity men sthan

prakrit sahity men jo sthan gatha ka hai, prayog ki drishti se apabhrnsh men vahi sthan doha chhand ka hai. apabhrnsh men muktak padyon ke roop men anek dohe milate hain. prakrit men jis prakar 'gathasaptasati' tatha 'bajjalagg' jaise gathabaddh sngrah milate hain, usi prakar apabhrnsh men aur hindi men dohe ke sngrah milate hain. upadesh, muktak padyon ke roop men to dohe ka prayog muni yogendr, ramasinh, devasen tatha bauddh siddhon ne kiya hai. hemachandr tatha any 'alnkar shastr', vyakaran granth lekhakon ne anek dohe apani kritiyon men uddhrit kiye hain. svaynbhoo ke 'pumachariu' men bhi dohe ka prayog milata hai. yah chhand hindi ko apabhrnsh se mila hai. sabhi apabhrnsh chhand shastr vishayak kritiyon men dohe tatha usake bhedon ka vivechan milata hai.

bhed-

'prakritapaigalamh' adi chhand granthon men dohe ke bhramar, bhramaradi 23 bhedon ki charcha ki gee hai. varnon ke laghu adi bhed ke anusar bhi dohe ki jati ki charcha ki gayi hai, jaise-

  • yadi dohe men 12 laghu varn hon to vah vipr hota hai.
  • hemachandr tatha kuchh any chhandashastri dohe ke prati dal men matraon ki snkhya 14+12 manate hain. 'doha' ki vyutpatti 'dvipatha' se manate hain. *jarman vidvanh yakobi aur alsardarf ne apabhrnsh dohon ka bade vistar se vivechan kiya hai.

doha chhnd ka prayog

  • hindi men yah pray: sabhi pramukh kaviyon dvara prayukt hua hai. pad shaili ke kavi sooradas, miran adi ne apane padon men isaka prayog kiya hai. satasee sahity men 'doha chhand' hi prayukt hua hai. doha 'muktak kavy' ka pradhan chhand hai. isamen snkshipt aur tikhi bhavavynjana, prabhavashali laghu chitron ko prastut karane ki apoorv kshamata hai.
  • satasee ke atirikt dohe ka doosara mahattvapoorn prayog bhaktiyug ki prabandh kavyashaili men hua hai, jisamen tulasidas ka 'ramacharitamanas' aur jayasi ka 'padmavat' pramukh hai. chaupaee ke prabandhatmak pravah men doha gambhir gati pradan karata hai aur kathakram men samuchit santulan bhi lata hai.
  • dohe ka tisara prayog ritigranth men lakshan-niroopan aur udaharan prastut karane ke lie kiya gaya hai. apane snkshep ke karan hi doha chhand lakshan prastut karane ke lie prayukt hua hai.

kabir ki sakhiyan dohe ke hi roop hain, yadyapi chhand shastr ke gyan ke abhav men inamen dohon ka vikrit aur avyavasthit roop hai. inamen bhi dohe ki samany visheshataen vidyaman hain. jayasi ka 'bharatiy chhand shastr' se simit parichay hai aur aisa jan padata hai, inhonne apane dohe ko santon ki sakhiyon ke madhyam se grahan kiya hai, at: unake is chhand ke prayog men bhi asthirata hai. jayasi ke dohon men pray: visham pad 12 hi matra ka hai aur sam 11 matra ka roopavant mani mathe, chandr ghati vah badhi. medani daras lubhani, asatuti binathai thadhi.[3] jayasi ke kuchh dohon men to visham padon men 16 matraen tak hain. tulasidas ne ek visham pad men 12 matraon ka prayog navinata lane ke roop men kiya hai - bhojan karat chapal chit, is ut avasar pai.[4]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 9vin shatabdi ka arambh
  2. prakritapaigalamh - 1|78
  3. padmavat, 13
  4. ramacharitamanas, 1|235

dhirendr, varma “bhag- 1 par adharit”, hindi sahity kosh (hindi), 291.

bahari kadiyan

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