धर्म  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat vishay soochi
parichay    itihas    bhoogol    snvidhan    dharm   krishi    vany jivan    bhasha    shiksha    kala    snskriti    khanapan    raksha    rajy    paryatan    alekh
Home-icon.png vistar men padhen dharm prangan (portal)
dharmon ke pratik

(snskrit shabd, arthath jo sthapit ho yani dharm, riti, vidhi ya kartavy), pali shabd, dhamm. hindoo, bauddh aur jain dharm men bahuarthi mool avadharana. aj dharm ke jis roop ko pracharit evn vyakhyayit kiya ja raha hai usase bachane ki zaroorat hai. moolatah dharm snpraday nahin hai. zindagi men hamen jo dharan karana chahie, vahi dharm hai. naitik moolyon ka acharan hi dharm hai. dharm vah pavitr anushthan hai jisase chetana ka shuddhikaran hota hai. dharm vah tatv hai jisake acharan se vyakti apane jivan ko charitarth kar pata hai. yah manushy men manaviy gunon ke vikas ki prabhavana hai, sarvabhaum chetana ka satsnkalp hai. madhyayug men vikasit dharm evn darshan ke paramparagat svaroop evn dharanaon ke prati aj ke vyakti ki astha kam hoti ja rahi hai. madhyayugin dharm evn darshan ke pramukh pratiman the- svarg ki kalpana, srishti evn jivon ke karta roop men eeshvar ki kalpana, vartaman jivan ki nirarthakata ka bodh, apane desh evn kal ki maya evn prapnchon se paripoorn avadharana. us yug men vyakti ka dhyan apane shreshth acharan, shram evn purusharth dvara apane vartaman jivan ki samasyaon ka samadhan karane ki or kam tha, apane aradhy ki stuti evn jay gan karane men adhik tha.
dharm ke vyakhyataon ne snsar ke pratyek kriyakalap ko eeshvar ki ichchha mana tatha manushy ko eeshvar ke hathon ki kathaputali ke roop men svikar kiya. darshanikon ne vyakti ke vartaman jivan ki vipannata ka hetu 'karm-siddhant' ke sootr men pratipadit kiya. isaki parinati madhyayug men yah huee ki vartaman ki sari musibaton ka karan 'bhagy' athava eeshvar ki marji ko man liya gaya. dharm ke thekedaron ne purusharthavadi-marg ke mukhy-dvar par tala laga diya. samaj ya desh ki vipannata ko usaki niyati man liya gaya. samaj svayn bhi bhagyavadi banakar apani sukh-duahkhatmak sthitiyon se santosh karata raha. aj ke yug ne yah chetana pradan ki hai ki vikas ka rasta hamen svayn banana hai. kisi samaj ya desh ki samasyaon ka samadhan karm-kaushal, vyavastha-parivartan, vaigyanik tatha takaniki vikas, parishram tatha nishtha se sambhav hai. aj ke manushy ki ruchi apane vartaman jivan ko snvarane men adhik hai. usaka dhyan 'bhavishyonmukhi' n hokar vartaman men hai. vah divyataon ko apani hi dharati par utar lane ke prayas men laga hua hai. vah prithvi ko hi svarg bana dene ke lie betab hai.[1]
hindoo dharm men dharmik aur naitik niyam hai, jo vyaktigat aur samoohik acharan ko shasit karate hain. yah jivan ke char sadhyon men se ek hai. prasngik snvedanashilata isake vishisht lakshanon men se ek hai. yadyapi dharm ke kuchh pahaluon ko sarvabhaumik aur chirasthayi mana jata hai, any ka palan logon ko apani shreni, star aur lakshy ke anusar karana hota hai. dharm hindoo vidhi ke arnbhik srot dharmasootr, jo nitishastr v samajik sngathan ki niyamavali aur vishay–vastu hai. yah niyamavali samay ke sath vidhi evn parnpara ke sngrah ke roop men vistrit huee, jo dharmashastr kahalaee. sarvadhik gyat dharmashastr manusmriti hai, jo prarnbhik shatabdiyon tak pramanik ban gaya tha, parntu yah prashn abhi tak anuttarit hai ki british adhikariyon dvara isake kuchh pahaluon ko aupaniveshik qanoon men samahit kar liye jane se pahale yah kabhi vastavik nyayik prakriya men kriyashil tha bhi athava nahin.

  • bauddhon men dharm pratyek vyakti ke liye sarvakalik sarvabhaumik saty hai, jaisa gautam buddh ne khoja v ghoshit kiya tha. dharm, buddh aur sngh (bauddh math vyavastha) milakar ‘triratn’ ya tin ratn hain. jo bauddh siddhant aur acharan ke prathamik srot hain. bauddh adhyatm men bahuvachan ke roop men is shabd ka upayog un anrtasnbndhit tattvon ke ullekh ke lie hota hai, jo anubhavajany vishv ki rachana karate hain.
  • jain darshan men dharm amataur par naitik mooly ke roop men samajhe jane ke alava ek vishisht arth rakhata hai, shashvat vastu (dravy) ka ek sahayak madhyam, jo manushy ko age badhane ki prerana deta hai.

dharm ka mahattv

bharatiy snskriti men vibhinnata usaka dooshan nahin varanh bhooshan hai. yahan hindoo dharm ke aganit roopon aur snpradayon ke atirikt, bauddh, jain, sikkh, islam, eesaee, yahoodi adi dharmon ki vividhata ka bhi ek sanskritik samayojan dekhane ko milata hai. hindoo dharm ke vividh sampraday evn mat sare desh men phaile hue hain, jaise vaidik dharm, shaiv, vaishnav, shakt adi pauranik dharm, radha-ballabh snpraday, shri snpraday, aryasamaj, samaj adi. parantu in sabhi matavadon men sanatan dharm ki ekarasata khandit n hokar vividh roopon men gathit hoti hai. yahan ke nivasiyon men bhasha ki vividhata bhi is desh ki moolabhoot sanskritik ekata ke lie badhak n hokar sadhak pratit hoti hai.

Blockquote-open.gif

Ashoka.jpg
har dasha men doosare sampradayon ka adar karana hi chahie. aisa karane se manushy apane sampraday ki unnati aur doosare sampradayon ka upakar karata hai. isake viparit jo karata hai vah apane sampraday ki (jad) katata hai aur doosare sampradayon ka bhi apakar karata hai. kyonki jo apane sampraday ki bhakti men akar is vichar se ki mere sampraday ka gaurav badhe, apane sampraday ki prashnsa karata hai aur doosare sampraday ki ninda karata hai, vah aisa karake vastav men apane sampraday ko hi gahari hani pahunchata hai. isalie samavay (paraspar melajol se rahana) hi achchha hai arthath log ek-doosare ke dharm ko dhyan dekar sunen aur usaki seva karen.[2]

Blockquote-close.gif

- samrat ashok

adhyatmikata

adhyatmikata hamari snskriti ka pranatattv hai. inamen aihik athava bhautik sukhon ki tulana men atmik athava paralaukik sukh ke prati agrah dekha ja sakata hai. chaturashram-vyavastha (arthath brahmachary, grihasth tatha sannyas ashram) tatha purusharth-chatushtam (dharm, arth, kam tatha moksh) ka vidhan manushy ki adhyatmik sadhana ke hi pratik hain. isamen jivan ka mukhy dhyey dharm arthath moolyon ka anurakshan karate hue moksh mana gaya hai.

bharatiy adhyatmikata

vibhinn dharmavalambiyon ki snkhya (bharat)
dharm snkhya (lakh) kul janasnkhya ka pratishat
hindoo 8,275 80.5
muslim 1,381 13.4
eesaee 240 2.33
sikh 192 1.84
bauddh 79.5 0.8
jain 42.5 0.4
any 66.3 1.8
kul 10,286 100.0

bharatiy adhyatmikata men dharmandhata ko mahattv nahin diya gaya. is snskriti ki mool visheshata yah rahi hai ki vyakti apani paristhitiyon ke anuroop moolyon ki raksha karate hue koee bhi mat, vichar athava dharm apana sakata hai yahi karan hai ki yahan samay-samay par vibhinn dharmon ko uday tatha sampradayik vilay hota raha hai. dharmik sahishnuta isamen koot-koot kar bhari huee hai. vastut: hamari snskriti men grahan shilata ki pravritti rahi hai. isamen pratikool paristhitiyon ko apane anukool banakar apane men samahit kar lene ki adbhut shakti hai. aitihasik kal se lekar madhy kal tak bharat men vibhinn dharmon evn jatiyon ka bharat par akraman evn shasan sthapit hua. parantu bharatiy snskriti ki grahanashil prakriti ke karan samayantar men ve sab isamen samahit ho gaye.

bharatiy snskriti ki virasat

bharatiy snskriti ki mahattvapoorn virasat isamen antarnihit sahishnuta ki bhavana mani ja sakati hai. yadyapi prachin bharat men anek dharm evn snpraday the, parantu unamen dharmandhata tatha snkuchit manovritti ka abhav tha. atit is bat ka sakshi hai ki hamare desh men dharm ke nam par atyachar aur raktapat nahin hua hai. bharatiy manitri ne eeshvar ko ek sarvavyapi, sarvakalyanakari, sarvashaktiman manate hue vibhinn dharmo, maton aur snpradayon ko us param eesh tak pahunchane ka bhinn-bhinn marg pratipadit kiya hai. gita men shrikrishn bhi arjun ko yahi upadesh dete hain ki snsar men sabhi log anek prakar se mere hi marg ka anusaran karate hain. jainiyon ka syadvad, ashok ke shilalekh adi bhi yahi bat duharate hain. isi bhavana ko rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ne rashtriy ekata jagrit karane ke lie desh ke kone-kone men gunjarit kiya tha- ‘‘eeshvar alla tere nam. sabako sammati de bhagavan.’’ bharatiy vicharakon ki sarvanginata tatha sarvabhaumikata ki bhavana ko satat bal pradan kiya hai. isamen apani sukh, shanti evn unnati ke sath hi samast vishv ke kalyan ki kamana ki gee hai. hamare prabuddh manishiyon ne sampoorn vishv ko ek parivar manakar ‘vishv vandhutv’ evn ‘vasudhaiv kutumbhakamh’ ki bhavana ko ujagar kiya hai-

sarve bhavantu sukhin: sarvesantu niramaya:.
sarve bhadrani pashyantu ma kashchith dukhabhag bhavet॥

hindoo dharm

om
Om

bharat ka sarvapramukh dharm hindoo dharm hai, jise isaki prachinata evn vishalata ke karan 'sanatan dharm' bhi kaha jata hai. eesaee, islam, bauddh, jain adi dharmon ke saman hindoo dharm kisi paigambar ya vyakti vishesh dvara sthapit dharm nahin hai, balki yah prachin kal se chale a rahe vibhinn dharmon, matamatantaron, asthaon evn vishvason ka samuchchay hai. ek vikasashil dharm hone ke karan vibhinn kalon men isamen naye-naye ayam judate gaye. vastav men hindoo dharm itane vishal paridrishy vala dharm hai ki usamen adim gram devataon, bhoot-pishachi, sthaniy devi-devataon, jhad-phoonk, tntr-matr se lekar tridev evn any devataon tatha nirakar brahm aur atynt goodh darshan tak sabhi bina kisi arntavirodh ke samahit hain aur sthan evn vyakti vishesh ke anusar sabhi ki aradhana hoti hai.

sikkh dharm

sikkh dharm ka pratik

sikkh dharm ki sthapana 15vin shatabdi men bharat ke uttar-pashchimi bhag ke pnjab men guru nanak dev dvara ki gee. 'sikkh' shabd shishy se utpann hua hai, jisaka tatpary hai guru nanak ke shishy, arthath unaki shikshaon ka anusaran karane vale. nanak dev ka janm 1469 ee. men lahaur (vartaman pakistan) ke samip talavandi namak sthan men hua tha. inake pita ka nam kaloochnd aur mata ka tripta tha. bachapan se hi pratibha ke dhani nanak ko ekantavas, chintan evn satsng men vishesh ruchi thi. sulakkhini devi se vivah ke pashchath shrichnd aur lakhamichnd namak do putr hue.

islam dharm

islam dharm ka pratik

islam shabd ka arth hai – 'allah ko samarpan'. is prakar musalaman vah hai, jisane apane apako allah ko samarpit kar diya, arthath islam dharm ke niyamon par chalane laga. islam dharm ka adharabhoot siddhant allah ko sarvashaktiman, ekamatr eeshvar aur jagath ka palak tatha hazarat muhammad ko unaka sndeshavahak ya paigambar manana hai. yahi bat unake 'kalame' men doharaee jati hai - la ilaha illallah muhammadurrasoolullah arthath 'allah ek hai, usake alava koee doosara (doosari satta) nahin aur muhammad usake rasool ya paigambar.' koee bhi shubh kary karane se poorv musalaman yah qalama padhate hain.

jain dharm

jain dharm ka pratik

jain dharm bharat ki shraman parampara se nikala dharm aur darshan hai. 'jain' unhen kahate hain, jo 'jin' ke anuyayi hon. 'jin' shabd bana hai 'ji' dhatu se. 'ji' mane-jitana. 'jin' mane jitane vala. jinhonne apane man ko jit liya, apani vani ko jit liya aur apani kaya ko jit liya, ve hain 'jin'. jain dharm arthath 'jin' bhagavan ka dharm. jain grnth 'bhagavan mahavir evn jain darshan' men pratipadit hai ki bhagavan mahavir jain dharm ke pravartak nahin hain. ve pravartaman kal ke chaubisaven tirthnkar hain. apane atmajay ki sadhana ko apane hi purusharth evn charitry se siddh karane ki vicharana ko lokonmukh banakar bharatiy sadhana parampara men kirtiman sthapit kiya. apane dharm ke kshetr men mngal kranti sampann ki.
apane udghosh kiya ki ankh moondakar kisi ka anukaran ya anusaran mat karo. dharm dikhava nahin hai, roodhi nahin hai, pradarshan nahin hai, kisi ke bhi prati ghrina evn dveshabhav nahin hai. apane dharmon ke apasi bhedon ke viruddh avaj uthaee. dharm ko karm-kandon, andhavishvason, purohiton ke shoshan tatha bhagyavad ki akarmanyata ki jnjiron ke jal se bahar nikala. apane ghoshana ki ki dharm utkrisht mngal hai.dharm ek aisa pavitr anushthan hai jisase atma ka shuddhikaran hota hai. dharm n kahin ganv men hota hai aur n kahin jngal men, balki vah to antaratma men hota hai. sadhana ki siddhi paramashakti ka avatar banakar janm lene men athava sadhana ke bad paramatma men vilin ho jane men nahin hai, bahiratma ke antaratma ki prakriya se gujarakar svayn paramatma ho jane men hai. prophesar jain ne spasht kiya hai ki vartaman men jain bhajanon men bhagavan mahavir ko 'avatari' varnit kiya ja raha hai. yah mithya gyan ka pratiphal hai. vastav men bhagavan mahavir ka janm kisi avatar ka prithvi par sharir dharan karana nahin hai. unaka janm narayan ka nar sharir dharan karana nahin hai, nar ka hi narayan ho jana hai. paramatm shakti ka akash se prithvi par avataran nahin hai. karan-paramatmasvaroop ka uttaran dvara kary-paramatmasvaroop hokar siddhalay men jakar avasthit hona hai. bhagavan mahavir ki krantikari avadharana thi ki jivatma hi brahm hai.[3] jain dharm ka param pavitr aur anadi moolamantr hai- namo arihntann.
namo siddhann.
namo airiyann.
namo uvajjhayann.
namo loe savvasahoonn॥

bauddh dharm

bauddh dharm ka pratik

bauddh dharm bharat ki shraman parampara se nikala dharm aur darshan hai. isake snsthapak mahatma buddh, shakyamuni (gautam buddh) the. buddh raja shuddhodan ke putr the aur inaka janm lunbini namak gram (nepal) men hua tha. ve chhathavin se panchavin shatabdi eesa poorv tak jivit the. unake guzarane ke bad agali panch shatabdiyon men, bauddh dharm poore bharatiy upamahadvip men phaila, aur agale do hazar salon men madhy, poorvi aur dakshin-poorvi jamboo mahadvip men bhi phail gaya.

vaidik dharm

vaidik dharm karm par adharit tha. vaidik dharm poornatah pratimargi hai. vaidik devataon men purush bhav ki pradhanata hai. adhikansh devataon ki aradhana manav ke roop men ki jati thi kintu kuchh devataon ki aradhana pashu ke roop men ki jati thi. 'aj ekapad' aur 'ahitarbudhny' donon devataon ki parikalpana pashu ke roop men ki gee hai. maruton ki mata ki parikalpana 'chitakabari gay' ke roop men ki gee hai. indr ki gay khojane vala 'sarama' (kutiya) shvan ke roop men hai. isake atirikt indr ki kalpana 'vrishabh' (bail) ke roop men evn soory ki 'ashv' ke roop men ki gee hai. rigved men pashuon ki pooja ka prachalan nahin tha.

parasi dharm

parasi dharm ka pratik

jarathustr dharm vishv ka ek atynt prachin dharm hai, jisaki sthapana aryon ki eerani shakha ke ek snt jarathushtr ne ki thi. islam ke avirbhav ke poorv prachin eeran men jarathustr dharm ka hi prachalan tha. satavin shatabdi men arabon ne eeran ko parajit kar vahan ke jarathustr dharmavalambiyon ko jabaran islam men dikshit kar liya tha. aisi manyata hai ki kuchh eeraniyon ne islam nahin svikar kiya aur ve ek nav par savar hokar bharat bhag aye aur yahan gujarat tat par navasari men akar bas gaye. vartaman men bharat men unaki janasnkhya lagabhag ek lakh hai, jisaka 70% bambee men rahate hain.

eesaee dharm

eesaee dharm ka pratik

eesaee dharm ke pravartak eesa masih (jisas kraist) the, jinaka janm roman samrajy ke gailili prant ke nazarath namak sthan par 6 ee. poo. men hua tha. unake pita jojef ek badhee the tatha mata meri (mariyam) thin. ve donon yahoodi the. eesaee shastron ke anusar meri ko usake mata-pita ne devadasi ke roop men mandir ko samarpit kar diya tha. eesaee vishvason ke anusar meri ke garbh men agaman ke samay meri kunvari thi. isilie meri ko eesaee dharmalambi 'varjin meri (kunvari meri) tatha eesa masih ko eeshvarakrit divy purush manate hain.

yahoodi dharm

prachin mesopotamiya (vartaman eerak tatha siriya) men sami mool ki vibhinn bhashaen bolane vale akkadi, kainani, amori, asuri adi kee khanabadosh kabile raha karate the. inhin men se ek kabile ka nam hibroo tha. ve yahova ko apana eeshvar aur abraham ko adi-pitamah manate the. unaki manyata thi ki yahova ne abraham aur unake vnshajon ke rahane ke lie istrail pradesh niyat kiya hai. prarambh men goshan ke mistriyon ke sath hibruon ke sambndh achchhe the, parantu bad men donon men tanav utpann ho gaya.

sanatan dharm

sanatan dharm vishv ke sabhi dharmon men sabase purana dharm hai. paramparagat vaidik dharm jisamen paramatma ko sakar aur nirakar donon roopon men pooja jata hai. ye vedon par adharit dharm hai, jo apane andar kee alag-alag upasana paddhatiyan, mat, sampraday, aur darshan samete hue hai. anuyayiyon ki snkhya ke adhar par ye vishv ka tisara sabase bada dharm hai, snkhya ke adhar par isake adhikatar upasak bharat men hain aur pratishat ke adhar par nepal men hai. halanki isamen kee devi, devataon ki pooja ki jati hai, lekin vastav men yah ekeshvaravadi dharm hai.
sanatan ka arth hai – 'shashvat' ya 'hamesha bana rahane vala'. sanatan arthath jo sada se hai, jo sada rahega, jisaka ant nahin hai aur jisaka koee arnbh nahin hai vahi sanatan hai. saty men keval hamara dharm hi sanatan hai, yishu se pahale eesaee mat nahin tha, muhammad se pahale islam mat nahin tha. keval sanatan dharm hi sada se hai, srishti ke arnbh se.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jain, prophesar mahavir saran. vikas ka rasta svayn banaen (hindi) vebaduniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 6 agast, 2013.
  2. giranar ka barahavan shilalekh "ashok ke dharm lekh" se prishth sn- 31
  3. jain, prophesar mahavir saran. mahavir saran jain ka alekh : bhagavan mahavir (hindi) rachanakar (blaaug). abhigaman tithi: 6 agast, 2013.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah