धर्मकीर्ति बौद्धाचार्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dharmakirti dharmapal aur eeshvarasen ke shishy the. bauddh nyay ki jis parampara ka prarambh maitreyanath, asng aur vasubandhu ki kritiyon se hua tha, use achary dinnag ne apani kritiyon men vad vidhi se prithakh tarkashastr ya hetushastr ke roop men vikasit kiya. age chalakar dinnag dvara pravartit is tark vidya ko dharmapal evn eeshvarasen ke shishy achary dharmakirti ne (bauddh nyay ko) 'pramanashastr' ke roop men vikasit kiya.

samay kal

tibbati parampara ke anusar achary kumaril aur achary dharmakirti samakalin the. kumaril ne dinnag ka khandan to kiya hai, kintu dharmakirti ka nahin, jabaki dharmakirti ne kumaril ka khandan kiya hai. aisi sthiti men kumaril achary dharmakirti ke vriddh samakalin hi ho sakate hain. achary dharmakirti ne tarkashastr ka adhyayan eeshvarasen se kiya tha, kintu unake diksha guru prasiddh vidvanh evn nalanda ke achary dharmapal the. dharmapal ko vasubandhu ka shishy kaha gaya hai. vasubandhu ka samay chauthi shatabdi nishchit kiya gaya hai. dharmapal ke shishy shilabhadr eesviy varsh 635 men vidyaman the, jab hvenasang nalanda pahunche the. at: yah manana hoga ki jis samay dharmakirti dikshit hue, us samay dharmapal maranasann the. is drishti se vichar karane par dharmakirti ka kal 550-600 ho sakata hai.

yash pataka

dharmakirti ke granthon men jis nyayashastr ya praman vidya ka vishad roop men praudh riti se upanyas milata hai, vah samast paravarti bauddh nyayashastr aur brahman tatha jain nyay ke vikas ka bhi mool adhar bana. n keval bharat apitu tibbat, chin, madhy eshiya evn dakshin poorv ke tamam deshon men dharmakirti ki yash pataka vigat chaudah sau varshon se phahara rahi hai. unake dvara pratipadit siddhant n keval bharatiy darshanik parampara men pramanavad ke merudnd ke roop men svikrit hue, apitu bahari deshon men bhi unake anuvad atyant lokapriy hue. kintu snskrit ya kisi any bhasha men dharmakirti ki jivani ka koee kramabaddh ya vyavasthit vivaran upalabdh nahin hota. taranath aur bu-donh ke viviranon se katipay tathy nikalate hain, jinamen dharmakirti ke jivan par prakash padata hai.[1]

jivan parichay

dinnag ki bhanti hi dharmakirti bhi dakshin men, trimalay ke ek brahman parivar men utpann hue the. unake pita ka nam koroonand tha. unaki prarambhik shiksha brahman parampara aur darshanik parivesh men huee thi. bad men unaka jhukav bauddh dharm aur darshan ki or ho gaya. phalat: unhonne nalanda men akar vasubandhu ke vriddh jivit shishy aur yogachar parampara ke sakshath pratinidhi achary dharmapal se bauddh dharm ki diksha grahan ki. tarkashastr evn bauddh nyay vidya men apani goodh saiddhantik jigyasa ko shant karane ke lie unhonne achary dinnag ke sakshath shishy achary eeshvarasen se bauddh praman vidya ka adhyayan kiya aur apane guru se adhik praudh gyan arjit karane men saphal hue. svayn inake guru eeshvarasen ne yah bat svikar ki thi, aisa parampara se gyat hota hai. ant men ve kaling desh men mrityu ko prapt hue.[1]

samalochana

apane guru ki agya se dharmakirti ne dinnag ke pradhan granth praman samuchchay par vartik roop ek padyatmak lagabhag 2000 karikaon men ek granth likha. jo granth ukt, anukt aur durukt padarthon ki chinta se yukt ho, vah 'granth vartik' kaha jata hai. achary dinnag ne jab 'pramanasamuchchay' likhakar bauddh pramanashastr ka bij vapan kiya to any bauddhetar darshanikon men usaki pratikriya hona svabhavik tha. tadanusar nyay darshan ke vyakhyakaron men udyotakar ne, mimansak mat ke achary kumaril ne, jain acharyan men achary mallavadi ne dinnag ke mantavyon ki samalochana ki. phalasvaroop bauddh vidvanon ko bhi pramanashastr ke vishay men apane vicharon ko suvyavasthit karane ka avasar prapt hua. aise vidvanon men achary dharmakirti pramukh hain, jinhonne dinnag ke darshanik mantavyon ka suvishad vivechan kiya tatha udyotakar, kumaril adi darshanikon ki jamakar samalochana karake bauddh pramanashastr ki bhoomika ko sudridh banaya. unhonne keval bauddhetar vidvanon ki hi alochana nahin ki, apitu kuchh gaun vishayon men apana mat dinnag se bhinn roop men bhi prastut kiya. unhonne dinnag ke shishy eeshvarasen ki bhi, jinhonne dinnag ke mantavyon ki apani samajh ke anusar vyakhya ki thi, unaki bhi samalochana kar bauddh pramanashastr ko paripusht kiya.

grnth rachana

achary dharmakirti ke pramanashastr vishayak sat granth prasiddh hain. ye saton granth pramanasamuchchay ki vyakhya ke roop men hi hain. pramanasamuchchay men pratipadit vishayon ka hi in granthon men vishesh vivaran hai. kintu ek bat asandigdh hain ki dharmakirti ke granthon ke prakash men ane ke bad dinnag ke granthon ka adhyayan gaun ho gaya. achary dharmakirti ke sat granth is prakar hain-

  1. pramanavartik
  2. pramanavinishchay
  3. nyayabindu
  4. hetubindu
  5. vadanyay
  6. sambandhapariksha
  7. santanantarasiddhi

inake atirikt pramanavartik ke 'svarthanuman parichchhed' ki vritti evn 'sambandhapariksha ki tika' bhi svayn dharmakirti ne likhi hai. achary dharmakirti ke is granthon ka pradhan aur poorak ke roop men bhi vibhajan kiya jata hai. tatha hi- 'nyayabindu' ki rachana tikshnabuddhi purushon ke lie, 'pramanavinishchay' ki rachana madhyabuddhi purushon ke lie tatha 'pramanavartik' ka nirman mandabuddhi purushon ke lie hain- ye hi tinon pradhan granth hai., jinamen pramanon se sambaddh sabhi vaktavyon ka suvishad niroopan kiya gaya hai. avashisht char granth poorak ke roop men hain. tathahi-svarthanuman se sambaddh hetuon ka niroopan 'hetubindu' men hai. hetuon ka apane sadhy ke sath sambandh ka niroopan 'sambandhapariksha' men hai. pararthanuman se sambaddh vishayon ka niroopan 'vadanyay' men hai arthath isamen pararthanuman ke avayavon ka tatha jay-parajay ki vyavastha kaise ho- isaka vishesh pratipadan kiya gaya hai.

pramanavartik parichchhed

pramanavartik men char parichchhed hain-

  1. svarthanuman
  2. pramanyavad
  3. pratyaksh
  4. pararthanuman

inamen se pararthanuman parichchhed par svayn achary dharmakirti ne svopgy vritti likhi, shesh tin parichchhedon par devendrabodhi, prgyakar gupt, dharmottar, jin, shakyabuddhi, prabhabuddhi, prabhriti acharyon ne apane bhashy ya tikayen likhin. in granthon men (devendrabuddhi adi) dharmakirti ke pramanavad ki shabdik vyakhya, tatv gyan evn tatvik rahasy tatha dharmik rahasy, vivechanapoorvak pramanavad ki vyakhya prgyakar gupt prastut ki gayi hai. praman vinishchay pramanavartik ka hi saiddhantik snkshep hai aur nyay bindu isaka bhi atyant snkshipt roop hai. sambandh pariksha men laukik padarthon ke paraspar sambandh ki atatvikata ko pradarshit kiya gaya hai. sntanantarasiddhi men vigyanavad ke mat se sanvritik drishti se svabhinn santan ke anuman ka prakar bataya gaya hai. inake atirikt sambandh pariksha vritti (sambandh pariksha ki svopgyvritti), jatakamala tika, buddhaparinirvan stotr, hevajramahatantrarajasy pnjikanetr vibhadna, sootravidhi, sarvadurgatiparishodhanamarahopamandal upayika, vajradakasy stav dandak se granth bhi bhot parampara men dharmakirti rachit mane jate hain. inamen se koee bhi granth mool snskrit men upalabdh nahin hai.[1]

dharmakirti ke tikakar

achary dharmakirti ke mantavyon ka khandan vaisheshik darshan men vyomashiv ne, mimansa darshan men shalikanath ne, nyay darshan men jayant aur vachaspatimishr ne, vedant men bhi vachaspatimishr ne tatha jain darshan men akalnk adi acharyon ne kiya hai. dharmakirti ke tikakaron ne un akshepon ka yathasambhav nirakaran kiya hai. dharmakirti ke tikakaron ko tin varg men vibhakt kiya jata hai-

  1. pratham varg ke puraskarta devendrabuddhi mane jate hain, jo dharmakirti ke sakshat shishy the aur jinhonne shabd pradhan vyakhya ki hai. devendrabuddhi ne pramanavartik ki do bar vyakhya likhakar dharmakirti ko dikhaee aur donon hi bar dharmakirti ne use nirast kar diya. ant men tisari bar asantusht rahate hue bhi use svikar kar liya aur man men yah sochakar nirash hue ki vastut: mera pramanashastr yatharth roop men koee samajh nahin sakega. shakyabuddhi evn prabhabuddhi adi bhi isi pratham varg ke achary hain.
  2. doosare varg ke aise achary hain, jinhonne shabd pradhan vyakhya ka marg chhodakar dharmakirti ke tattvgyan ko mahattv diya. is varg ke puraskarta achary dharmottar hai. dharmottar ka karyakshetr kashmir raha, at: unaki parampara ko kashmir-parampara bhi kahate hain. vastut: dharmakirti ke mantavyon ka prakashan dharmottar dvara hi hua hai. dhvanyalok ke karta anandavardhan ne bhi dharmottar krit pramanavinishchay ki tika par tika likhi hai, kintu vah anupalabdh hai. isi parampara men shnkaranand ne bhi pramanavartik par ek vistrit vyakhya likhana shuroo kiya, kintu vah adhoori rahi.
  3. tisare varg men dharmik drishti ko mahattv dene vale dharmakirti ke tikakar hain. unamen prgyakar gupt pradhan hai. unhonne svarthanuman ko chhodakar shesh tin parichchhedon par 'alnkar' namak bhashy likha, jise 'pramanavartikalankar bhashy' kahate hain. is shreni ke tikakaron men pramanavartik ke pramanaparichchhed ka atyadhik mahattv hai, kyonki usamen bhagavan buddh ki sarvgyta tatha unake dharmakay adi ki siddhi ki gee hai. prgyakar gupt ka anusaran karane vale achary hue hai. 'jin' namak achary ne prgyakar ke vicharon ki pushti ki hai. ravigupt prgyakar ke sakshat shishy the. gyanashrimitr bhi isi parampara ke anuyayi the. gyanashri ke shishy yamari ne bhi alnkar ki tika ki. karnagomi ne svarthanuman parichchhed ne charon parichchhedon par tika likhi hai, kintu use shabdarthaparak vyakhya hi manana chahie.[1]

rahul sankrityayan ka yogadan

mahapndit rahul sankrityayan ke athak parishram ke phalasvaroop pramanavartik[2] evn prgyakar gupt ke bhashy ke sath tika, vad nyay[3], nyayabindu ye granth apane mool roop men upalabdh evn prakashit hue hain. hetu bindu tika (alok) se evn any jain nyay granthon se hetu bindu ka addhar kiya ja sakata hai. bhot anuvad se isaka snskrit men punaruddhar kiya gaya hai. dharmakirti tatvon ke hitadhyashay se prerit buddh ki deshana ki charcha karate hain, kintu unaka sarvgytv unaki charcha ka vishay nahin hai. dharmakirti ne eeshvar ke astitv ka bhi nishedh kiya, kyonki unake mat men praniyon ke adrisht ya karmavashath, pratityasamutpad mukhen jagath ke vividh upadanon ki srishti hoti hai. unhonne charavakasammat bhautikavadi drishti ka niras kar vigyan ke astitv ka samarthan kiya, kintu tathagat dvara upadisht nairatmy, pudgal nairatmy evn dharm nairatmy, ke siddhant ka bhi samyakh pratipadan kiya.

gyanakar ka astitv

bahyarth ke astitv ka nirakaran kar achary dharmakirti ne sautrantik sakar buddhi ke siddhant ka bhi nirasan kar yah sthapit kiya ki keval svasnvedan roop vigyan ki sthiti hai. vishayakar se vigyan ke astitv bodh ki koee apeksha nahin hai. gyanakar ka astitv unhonne svikar kiya, kintu gyanakar ke adhar roop men vishay (bahyarth) ke astitv ka samarthan nahin kiya. hamen snghat ka baudh hota hai, kintu paramanuon ka gyan nahin hota. sautrantik paramanu ke akar ki kalpana nahin karate, unake snghat ke gyan roop men akar ki kalpana karate hain. vastut: gyan men bahyarth ke akar ki kalpana anarthak hai. keval vigyan ka astitv hai, jo svasnvedan svaroop hai, pramey, pramata aur pramiti ek hi hai, anek nahin. vah gyey se abhinn aur advay roop hai.

sahopalambh niyam se nil aur nilabuddhi ka abhed manana chahie. vahan kahin grahy-grahak ka, vishay gyan adi ka bhed pratiti hota hai, vah bhranti ke karan hota hai. yah bhranti anadi kal se asevit vasanajanit pratit se hoti hai. jis prakar chndrama ek hota hua bhi bhrantivashath do dikhaee deta hai, usi prakar keval vigyan hi sath hai, vigyan se vyatirikt vishayakar ki kalpana nity jagath hone ke karan anavashyak hai. at: keval gyan matr, saty hai, usi se gyata aur gyey ka bhed ullasit hota hai. dharmakirti ke anusar buddhi men jo arth prakashit hota hai, vah vakta ke vyapar ka vishay hota hai aur usamen shabd ka hi pramany hota hai. vah arthatatvashrit nahin hai. vishay ke akar ke bhed se buddhi ke adhigam ke bhed se, adhigam (prapti) ke phal ke bhav se, praman ke svaroop ko gati (pramany) ka bodh svat: hota hai. pramany vyavaharashrit hai, samast shastr jo bhagavan tathagat pravedit dharmavinay par adhrit hain, praniyon ke moh ke nivartan ke lie prayukt hua hai.[1]

avisnvadi gyan

agyat arth ka prakashak shastr hi praman hai. avisnvadi gyan praman kaha jata hai. arth kriya sthiti yani kriya kary ko utpann karane ki samarthy se yukt hona hi avisnvadan hai. vyavahar se pramanyabodh sambhav hota hai. lok men vah purush snvadak kaha jata hai jo saty bhashi hai aur poorvopadarshit arth ka prapak hai. usi prakar poorvopadarshik arth ka vyapak gyan bhi snvadak kaha jata hai. jo pradarshik arth ka prapak yani usaka pravartak aur purusharth siddhi ka karan hota hai. adhigat arth men purush pravartit hota hai aur arth prapit hota hai, at: arthadhagati hi praman phal hai. tatpary yah hai ki arthadhigam se praman ka vyapar samapt ho jata hai. yahi vah sthiti hai, jahan purush ka karitr hota hai. ise arthakriya ksham vastu kahate hain. jo kriya is vastu ka adhigam karati hai, vahi saphal purusharth hai. is prakriya men vigyan gyapak matr hai, karak karan nahin. anadhigat arth hi praman hota hai. arth kshanik hai, jo indriy dvara adhigat aur kalpana dvara nirmit hota hai. isalie gyan ka pratham kshan sada indriy vigyan ka kshan hota hai. vah avikalp hota hai. kintu vikalpotpatti ki shakti se snyukt hota hai. saty ki pariksha keval vyavahar (anubhav) se hoti hai. pramany parat: hota hai, kyonki prapak gyan hi praman hai. karan gun ke gyan se, snvad ke gyan se, arth kriya k gyan se gyan ki avisnvadita gyapit ya siddh hoti hai.

dinnag ka anusaran karate hue dharmakirti vastu ko paramarthasath manate hain. jo arth kriyasamarth hai, vahi vastu hai. jisamen arth kriya ki samarthy nahin hoti, vah avastu kahi jati hai. at: vastu svalakshan hoti hai. yah paramarthasath ya vastusath kshanik, svalakshan hone ke karan, vikalp shoony (nirvikalp) hota hai. atit aur anagat avastu hai, keval pratyutpann vastu hai. snvritisaty parikalp roop hai. yah shuddh aur vastu mishrit dvividh hai. vastu bhi shuddh aur parikalp mishrit do prakar ki hoti hai. nam, jatyadi ki kalpana vikalpon se rahit avisnvadi gyan pratyaksh praman hai, jo sakshatkari gyan hota hai. yah nirvikalp hota hai aur svalakshan ko grahan karata hai. yah nam, jati, dravy, gun aur karm ka parigrah nahin karata. isalie pratyaksh ka yah lakshan kiya gaya.[1]

pratyakshadkalpanapodhampratyakshenaiv sidhyati.
pratyatmavedy: sarveshan vikalpo nam snshray:..
snhaty sarvatashchintan stimitenantaratmana.
sthitoapi chakshuvan roopamikshate sakshaja mati:..[4]

pratyaksh ke prakar

achary dharmakirti ne pratyaksh ke char prakar bataye hain-

  1. indriy pratyaksh
  2. manovigyan
  3. yogi pratyaksh
  4. atm snvedan

dharmakirti ne spashtat: smriti aur pratyabhigya se pratyaksh ka antar bhi spasht kiya hai. svalakshan hi pratyaksh ka vishay hai. dharmakirti ke anusar vastusath ka bodh pratyaksh praman se hota hai. kalpana prasoot avastu ya samany ke bodh ke lie anuman praman ki avashyakata hoti hai. anuman se vishesh ka gyan nahin hota. isalie dharmakirti any vadiyon ke mat ke viruddh praman viplavavad ke siddhant ko angikar karate hain. ardhakirti ke anusar samany lakshan ka bodh anuman se hota hai. svarthanuman aur pararthanuman ke bhed se anuman do prakar ka hota hai. svarthanuman gyanatmak hota hai aur pararthanuman shabdatmak hota hai. donon men atyant bhed hone ke karan donon ke prithak-prithakh lakshan kiye jate hain.

praman vivechan

anumey (sadhy) men satv, sapaksh men saty evn asapaksh men asatv is triroop ling (hetu) anumey (ke vishay) men jo gyan hota hai, vah svarthanuman kaha jata hai. anupalabdhi, svabhav aur kary ye tin ling hote hain. anupalabdhi gyarah prakar ki (svabhav, kary, vyapak, svabhav viruddh, viruddh karyopalabdhi, viruddh vyaptolabdhi, karanaviruddhopalabdhi, karanaviruddhakaryopalabdhi) hoti hai. doosare ko triroop ling ka akhyan karana hi pararthanuman kahalata hai. triroop ling se usaki smriti banati hai aur smriti se anuman hota hai. is prakar karan ke oopar kary (anuman) ka upachar roop samarop hota hai. prayog ke bhed se sadharmy aur vaidharmy ke bhed se pararthanuman bhi dvividh hota hai. vastut: in donon bhedon men koee bhed nahin hai, keval prayog ka antar hai.[1]

is prakar dharmakirti ne apane paramaguru dinnag dvara pramanasamuchchay adi granthon men pramanon ke vivechan svaroop ko sopaskar abhivyakt kar unake hetu trairoopy siddhant ko anekash: parishkrit aur praudh svaroop pradan kiya aur is prakar unake dvara prastut vishleshan se vyapti ke siddhant ko bhi ek sunishchit vaigyanik aur shastriy svaroop prapt hua.

bauddh paksh ki pratishtha evn raksha

dharmakirti ke samay men kumaril bhatt, prabhriti achary brahmanavad ko pun: pratishthit karane men lage hue the. at: unhonne bauddhavad ka nirasan karane ka bharasak prayas kiya. dharmakirti ne apane praudh pramanashastr dvara bauddh paksh ki pratishtha evn raksha ka poorn yatn kiya. doosari or jain, nyay, vedanti aur any vicharak bhi paraspar ek doosare ke maton ko khndit karane evn svapakshasthapan men dridh roop men pramanashastr aur tark paddhati ka prayog kar rahe the. vatsyayan, udyotakar, vachaspatimishr, udayan, gngesh, prabhriti naiyayik, samantabhadr, siddhasen divakar, akalnkadev prabhriti jainachary, tatha dharmakirti, dharmottar, prgyakar gupt prabhriti bauddh naiyayik, shnkarachary sureshvarachary prabhriti vedant ke acharyon ne apane mat ki sthapana evn parapaksh ke khndan men apane tarkik vaibhav shastriy soojh evn darshanik drishti ka parichay dete hue gnbhir darshanik evn praudh nyay shastriy granthon ka pranayan kiya. us parampara ka pravartan udyotakar ke bad dharmakirti se hua aur yah parampara sahasron varshon tak akshunn riti se chalati rahi. samast bharatavarsh men nyay shastr ke saiddhantik vivechan evn vividh paddhatiyon ke paraspar khndan-mndan ki is pranali ka samast shrey mool roop se dinnag ke yogy uttaradhikari achary dharmakirti ko hi hai. unaka bharatiy bauddh praman shastriy parampara men mahattv in sabhi drishtiyon se parimey hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 vishv ke pramukh darshanik |lekhak: daauktar karunesh shukl |prakashak: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 684 |prishth snkhya: 242 |
  2. svarthanuman parichchhed svavrittisahit
  3. vipnchitartha tika ke sath
  4. pramanavartik 3/ 123 – 124

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