नमक सत्याग्रह  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

namak satyagrah rashtrapita mahatma gandhi dvara chalaye gaye andolanon men se ek tha. gandhiji ne svatntrata divas manae jane ke turnt bad ghoshana ki ki ve british bharat ke sarvadhik ghrinit qanoonon men se ek, jisane namak ke utpadan aur vikray par rajy ko ekadhikar de diya hai, ko todane ke lie ek yatra ka netritv karenge. mahatma gandhi ne 'namak ekadhikar' ke jis mudde ka chayan kiya tha, vah gandhiji ki kushal samajhadari ka ek any udaharan tha. pratyek bharatiy ghar men namak ka prayog aparihary tha, lekin isake bavazood unhen ghareloo prayog ke lie bhi namak banane se roka gaya aur is tarah unhen dukanon se oonche dam par namak kharidane ke lie badhy kiya gaya. namak par rajy ka ekadhipaty bahut alokapriy tha. isi ko nishana banate hue gandhiji angrezi shasan ke khilaf vyapak asntosh ko snghatit karane ki soch rahe the.

varshik adhiveshan

mahatma gandhi ne asahayog andolan samapt hone ke kee varsh bad tak apane ko samaj sudhar karyon par kendrit rakha. mahatma gandhi ne 1928 men pun: rajaniti men pravesh karane ki sochi. us varsh sabhi shvet sadasyon vale saiman kamishan, jo ki upanivesh ki sthitiyon ki janch-padatal ke lie inglaind se bheja gaya tha, usake viruddh akhil bharatiy abhiyan chalaya ja raha tha. gandhiji ne is andolan men svayn bhag nahin liya tha, par is andolan ko unhonne apana ashirvad diya tha tatha isi varsh baradoli men hone vale ek kisan andolan ke sath bhi unhonne aisa kiya tha. 1929 men disnbar ke ant men kangres ne apana varshik adhiveshan lahaur shahar men kiya. yah adhiveshan do drishtiyon se mahattvapoorn tha-

  1. javaharalal neharoo ka adhyaksh ke roop men chunav, jo yuva pidhi ko netritv ki chhadi saunpane ka pratik tha.
  2. ‘poorn svaraj’ athava 'poorn svatntrata ki udghoshana'.

svatntrata ki udghoshana

rajaniti ki gati ek bar phir badh gee thi. 26 faravari, 1930 ko vibhinn sthanon par rashtriy dhvaj faharakar aur deshabhakti ke git gakar ‘svatntrata divas’ manaya gaya. gandhiji ne svayn suspasht nirdesh dekar bataya ki is din ko kaise manaya jana chahie. unhonne kaha ki yadi svatntrata ki udghoshana sabhi ganvon aur shaharon men ho, achchha hoga. gandhiji ne sujhav diya ki nagade pitakar parnparik tarike se sngoshthi ke samay ki ghoshana ki jae. samarohon ki shuruat rashtriy dhvaj ko faharae jane se hogi. din ka baki hissa kisi rachanatmak kary men chahe vah soot kataee ho athava ‘achhooton’ ki seva athava hinduon v musalamanon ka punarmilan athava nishiddh kary athava ye sabhi ek sath karane men vyatit hoga aur yah asnbhav nahin hai. isamen bhag lene vale log dridhatapoorvak yah pratigya lenge ki any logon ki tarah bharatiy logon ko bhi svatntrata aur apane kathin parishram ke phal ka annd lene ka aharaniy adhikar hai aur yah ki yadi koee bhi sarakar logon ko in adhikaron se vnchit rakhati hai ya unaka daman karati hai to logon ko inhen badalane athava samapt karane ka bhi adhikar hai.

namak yatraon ka ayojan

gandhiji ki is chunauti ka mahattv adhikansh bharatiyon ko samajh men a gaya tha kintu angrezi raj ko nahin. halanki gandhiji ne apani ‘namak yatra’ ki poorv soochana vaisaray irvin ko de di thi, kintu irvin unaki is karyavahi ke mahattv ko n samajh sake. 12 march 1930 ko gandhiji ne sabaramati ashram men apane ashram se samudr ki or chalana shuroo kiya. tin haphton bad gandhiji apane gntavy sthan par pahunche. vahan unhonne muth‌thi bhar namak banakar svayn ko qanoon ki nigah men aparadhi bana diya. isi bich desh ke any bhagon men samantar namak yatraen ayojit ki gee.

aupaniveshik shasan ke viruddh

asahayog andolan ki tarah adhikॄt roop se svikॄt rashtriy abhiyan ke alava bhi virodh ki asnkhy dharaen thin. desh ke vishal bhag men kisanon ne damanakari aupaniveshik van qanoonon ka ullnghan kiya, jisake karan ve aur unake maveshi unhin jngalon men nahin ja sakate the, jahan ek jamane men ve berokatok ghoomate the. kuchh kasbon men phaiktri kamagar hadatal par chale ge, vaqilon ne british adalaton ka bahishkar kar diya aur vidyarthiyon ne sarakari shiksha snsthanon men padhane se inkar kar diya.
namak satyagrah, dandi march ka ek drishy
sanh 1920-22 ee. ki tarah is bar bhi gandhiji ke ahvan ne tamam bharatiy vargon ko aupaniveshik shasan ke viruddh apana asntosh vyakt karane ke lie prerit kiya. javab men sarakar asntushton ko hirasat men lene lagi. namak satyagrah ke silasile men lagabhag 60,000 logon ko giraftar kiya gaya. giraftar hone valon men gandhiji bhi the. samudr tat ki or gandhiji ki yatra ki pragati ka pata unaki gatividhiyon par nazar rakhane ke lie tainat pulis afasaron dvara bheji gee gopaniy riport se lagaya ja sakata hai. in riporton men raste ke ganvon men gandhiji dvara die ge bhashan bhi milate hain, jinamen unhonne sthaniy adhikariyon se ahvan kiya tha ki ve sarakari naukariyan chhodakar svatntrata sngharsh men shamil ho jaen.

svaraj ki sidhiyan

vasana namak ganv men gandhiji ne oonchi jati valon ko snbodhit karate hue kaha tha ki yadi ap svaraj ke haq men avaz uthate hain, to apako achhooton ki seva karani padegi. apako svaraj sirf namak kar ya any karon ke khatm ho jane se nahin mil jaega. svaraj ke lie apako apani un galatiyon ka prayashchit karana hoga jo apane achhooton ke sath ki hain. svaraj ke lie hindoo, musalaman, parasi aur sikh, sabako ekajut hona padega. ye svaraj ki sidhiyan hain. pulis ke jasooson ne apani riport men likha tha ki gandhiji ki sabhaon men tamam jatiyon ke aurat-mard shamil ho rahe hain. unaka kahana tha ki hazaron vaaulntiyar rashtravadi uddeshy ke lie samane a rahe hain. unamen se bahut sare aise sarakari afasar the jinhonne aupaniveshik shasan men apane padon se istifa de diya tha. sarakar ko bheji apani riport men zila pulis suparitendent pulis adhikshak ne likha tha ki shri gandhiji shant aur nishchint dikhaee die. ve jaise-jaise age badh rahe hain, unaki takat badhati ja rahi hai.

janasamarthan

gyarah moorti, nee dilli, (namak satyagrah, dandi march ka ek drishy)

namak yatra ki pragati ko ek aur bat se bhi samajha ja sakata hai. ameriki samachar patrika taim ko gandhiji ki qadakathi par hnsi ati thi. gandhiji ke takue jaise sharir aur makadi jaise pairon ka patrika ne khoob majak udaya tha. is yatra ke bare men apani pahali riport men hi taim ne namak yatra ke mnzil tak pahunchane par apani gahari shnka vyakt kar di thi. usane dava kiya ki gandhiji doosare din paidal chalane ke bad zamin par pasar ge the. patrika ko is bat par vishvas nahin tha ki is mariyal sadhu ke sharir men aur age jane ki takat bachi hai. lekin patrika ki soch ek hi rat men badal gee. taim ne likha ki is yatra ko jo bhari janasamarthan mil raha hai usane angrez shasakon ko bechain kar diya hai. ab ve bhi gandhiji ko aisa sadhu aur jananeta kahakar salami dene lage hain, jo eesaee dharmavalnbiyon ke khilaf eesaee tarikon ka hi hathiyar ke roop men istemal kar raha hai.

ullekhaniyata

namak yatra kam se kam tin karanon se ullekhaniy thi-

  1. yahi vah ghatana thi, jisake chalate mahatma gandhi duniya ki nazar men ae. is yatra ko yoorop aur ameriki pres ne vyapak kavarej di.
  2. yah pahali rashtravadi gatividhi thi, jisamen auraton ne bhi badh-chadhakar hissa liya. samajavadi karyakarta kamaladevi chattopadhyay ne gandhiji ko samajhaya ki ve apane andolanon ko purushon tak hi simit n rakhen. kamaladevi khud un asnkhy auraton men se ek thin, jinhonne namak ya sharab qanoonon ka ullnghan karate hue samoohik giraftari di thi.
  3. namak yatra ke karan hi angrezon ko yah ahasas hua tha ki ab unaka raj bahut din nahin tik sakega aur unhen bharatiyon ko bhi satta men hissa dena padega.


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