न्याय दर्शन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nyay darshan vishay soochi


nyay darshan
nyay darshan
vivaran 'nyay darshan' bharat ke chhah vaidik darshanon men se ek darshan hai. 'nyayasootr is darshan ka sabase prachin evn prasiddh granth hai.
pravartak akshapad gautam
pramukh grnth 'nyayasootr'
mahattv nyay darshan ki sabase badi den nishkarsh ki vivechana pranali ka vistrit varnan hai.
pratipady yahan nyay darshan ke pratipady solah padarthon ka yathakram snkshep men parichay prastut hai.
vishesh vatsyayan ne 'nyay' ko samast vidyaon ka 'pradip' kaha hai. 'nyay' ka vyapak arth hai- "vibhinn pramanon ki sahayata se vastutattv ki pariksha".
snbndhit lekh bharatiy darshan, nyayasootr, nyay darshan ke pravartak, nyay darshan ka itihas
any janakari astik darshanon men nyay darshan ka pramukh sthan hai. vaidik dharm ke svaroop ke anusandhan ke lie nyay ki param upadeyata hai. isilie 'manusmriti' men shrutyanugami tark ki sahayata se hi dharm ke rahasy ko janane ki bat kahi gee hai.

nyay snskrit shabd hai, jisaka arth hai- "vyutpatti ke adhar par margadarshan karane vala". bad men isaka nishchit arth niyam ho gaya, jo vyakti ko kisi nishkarsh, path ki vyakhya ke siddhant ya tark tak le jata hai. bharatiy vyakhyatmak aur vivekapoorn chintan ke arnbhik kal men nyay ka upayog samanyat: mimansa dvara vikasit vivechan ke siddhanton ke liye kiya gaya hai. lekin bad men is shabd ka upayog bharatiy darshan ki chhah pranaliyon (darshanon) men se ek ke lie hone laga, jo apane tark tatha gyan mimansa ke vishleshan ke lie mahattvapoorn tha. nyay darshan ki sabase badi den nishkarsh ki vivechana pranali ka vistrit varnan hai.

nyay men darshan tatha dharm

any pranaliyon ke saman nyay men bhi darshan aur dharm, donon hain ; lekin isaka dharmik tatv samanyat: astikata ya eeshvar ke astitv ko sthapit karane se age nahin badhata. eeshvar tak pahunchane ke marg ko isane vichar tatha takanik ki any parnparaon ke lie chhod diya hai. nyay ka param uddeshy manushy ke us du:khabhog ko samapt karana hai. jisaka mool karan vastavikata ki agyanata hai. any pranaliyon ke anusar, isamen bhi yah svikar kiya jata hai, samyak gyan se hi mukti mil sakati hai. isake bad yah mukhyat: samyak gyan ke sadhanon ki vivechana karata hai.

tattv mimansa

apani tattv mimansa men nyay, vaisheshik pranali ke sath juda hai aur 10vin shatabdi se in donon vichar dharaon ko aksar snyukt roop men prastut kiya jata hai. nyay ka pramukh grnth 'nyayasootr' hai, jisaka shrey gautam (lagabhag doosari shatabdi ee.poo.) ko diya jata hai. nyay pranali gautam aur unake mahattvapoorn arnbhik bhashyakar vatsyayan (lagabhag 450 ee.) se lekar udayan (10vin shatabdi) tak 'prachin nyay' ke roop men sthapit rahi, jab tak ki bngal men nyay ke ne mat (navy nyay ya naya nyay) ka uday nahin hua. 'navy nyay' ke sabase prakhyat darshanik isake snsthapak ganesh (13vin shatabdi) the. unhonne darshanik vaktavyon ke pratipadan ki nee takanik ka vikas kiya aur nyayik yatharth tatha pramanik gyan banae rakhane ke snbndh men ne raste nikale.

gyan ke many sadhan tatha karan

nyay mat ka manana hai ki gyan ke char many sadhan hain-

  1. anubhooti (pratyaksh)
  2. arth nikalana (anuman)
  3. tulana karana (upaman)
  4. shabd (saky)

apramanik gyan men smriti, shnka, bhool aur kalpanik vad-vivad shamil hain.

karan-kary snbndh ke nyay siddhant men karan ko prabhav ke sahaj[1] aur aparivartaniy poorvavarti ke roop men paribhashit kiya gaya hai. 'prabhav apane karan men pahale se astitv nahin rakhata hai', is parinam par bal dene ke karan nyay siddhant sankhy yog tatha vedanti vichar dharaon se bhinn hai. tin prakar ke karanon ka ullekh hai-

  1. antarnihit ya bhautik karan[2]
  2. gair antarnihit karan[3]
  3. saksham karan [4].

nyay siddhant men eeshvar brahmand ka bhautik karan ke utpadan men sahayata karati hai. nyay sidhdant men eeshvar brahmand ka bhautik karan nahin hai, kyonki anu aur atmaen bhi shashvat hain. vah to saksham karan hai.

nyay darshan ka sthan

astik darshanon men nyay darshan ka pramukh sthan hai. vaidik dharm ke svaroop ke anusandhan ke lie nyay ki param upadeyata hai. isilie manusmriti men shrutyanugami tark ki sahayata se hi dharm ke rahasy ko janane ki bat kahi gee hai. vatsyayan ne nyay ko samast vidyaon ka 'pradip' kaha hai. 'nyay' ka vyapak arth hai- vibhinn pramanon ki sahayata se vastutattv ki pariksha[5] pramanon ke svaroop varnan tatha parikshan pranali ke vyavaharik roop ke prakatan ke karan yah nyay darshan ke nam se abhihit hai. nyay ka doosara nam hai anvikshiki arthath anviksha ke dvara pravartit hone vali vidya. anviksha ka arth hai- pratyaksh ya agam par ashrit anuman athava pratyaksh tatha shabd praman ki sahayata se avagat vishay ka anu-pashchath eekshanaparyalochan - gyan arthath anumati. anviksha ke dvara pravritt hone se nyay vidya anvikshiki hai.

bharatiy darshan ke itihas men granth sampatti ki drishti se vedant darshan ko chhodakar nyay darshan ka sthan sarvashreshth hai. vikram poorv panchamashatak se lekar aj tak nyay darshan ki vimal dhara abadh gati se pravahit hai. nyay darshan ke vikas ki do dharayen drishtigochar hoti hain.

  • pratham dhara sootrakar gautam se arambh hoti hai, jise shodash padarthon ke yatharth niroopak hone se 'padarthamimansatmak' pranali kahate hain. is pratham dhara ko 'prachin nyay' kaha jata hai. prachin nyay men mukhy vishay 'padarthamimansa' hai.
  • doosari pranali ko 'pramanamimansatmak' kahate hain, jise gngeshopadhyay ne 'tattvachintamani' men pravartit kiya. is dvitiy dhara ko 'navyanyay' kahate hain aur is 'navyanyay' men 'pramanamimansa' varnit hai.

nyayasootr ke rachayita

nyayasootr ke rachayita ka gotr nam 'gautam' aur vyaktigat nam 'akshapad' hai. nyayasootr panch adhyayon men vibhakt hai, jinamen pramanadi shodash padarthon ke uddeshy, lakshan tatha parikshan kiye gaye hain. vatsyayan ne nyayasootron par vistrit bhashy likha likha hai. is bhashy ka rachanakal vikram poorv pratham shatak mana jata hai. nyay darshan se sambaddh 'udyotakar' ka 'nyayavartik', 'vachaspati mishr' ki 'tatparyatika', 'jayantabhatt' ki 'nyayamanjari', 'udayanachary' ki 'nyay-kusumajjali', 'gngesh upadhyay' ki 'tattvachintamani' adi granth atyant prashast evn lokapriy hain. nyay darshan shodash padartho ke niroopan ke sath hi 'eeshvar' ka bhi vivechan karata hai. nyayamat men eeshvar ke anugrah ke bina jivan to pramey ka yatharth gyan pa sakata hai aur n is jagath ke du:khon se hi chhutakara pakar moksh pa sakata hai. eeshvar is jagath ki srishti, palan tatha snhar karane vala hai. eeshvar asat padarthon se jagath ki rachana nahin karata, pratyut paramanuon se karata hai, jo sookshmatam roop men sarvada vidyaman rahate hain. nyayamat men eeshvar jagath ka nimitt karan hai, upadan karan nahin. eeshvar jiv matr ka niyanta hai, karmaphal ka data hai tatha sukh-du:khon ka vyavasthapak hai. usake niyantran men rahakar hi jiv apana karm sampadan kar jivan ka sarvochch lakshy prapt karata hai. inhen bhi dekhen: nyayasootr

nyay darshan par akshep

yadyapi prachin kal se hi tarkavidya ya hetushastr ki ninda bhi shastron men dekhi jati hai. at: isaki upadeyata men sandeh hona ya is shastr ke prati anadar bhav ka hona svabhavik hai.

  • ramayan men kaha gaya hai ki kya ap lokayatikon ki seva karate hain? ye to anarth karane men hi kushal hain. pandity ka dambh hi inamen rahata hai. dharmashastr ke rahate hue ye tark karake un dharmashastriy vishayon ki upeksha karate hain aur abhiman men choor rahate hain.

kanchith lokayatikanh brahmananstat sevase.
anarthakushala hyete bala: panditamanin:॥
dharmashastreshu mukhyeshu vidyamaneshu durbudha:.
buddhimanvikshikin prapy nirarth pravadanti te.[6]

  • mahabharat kahata hai ki ved nindak brahman nirarthak tarkavidya men anurakt hai.[7]
  • manusmriti men kaha gaya hai ki hetushastr ka avalamban kar jo brahman ved aur smriti ki avahelana kare usaka parityag karana chahie.[8] tathapi yah manana hoga ki nastik nyayavidya ke prasng men ye sari baten kahi gayi hain. gautamiy nyayashastr is ninda ka lakshy nahin hai.

prachin kal men anvikshiki vidya ki do paramparayen rahi hongi. ek vedanugamini, jo paralok aur eeshvar men vishvas rakhati rahi aur doosari keval tark karane vali parampara rahi hogi. doosari parampara ne isaki prakriya to apanayi kintu vah isake hardik abhipray ko nahin pakad payi ya use chhod diya. at: yuktividya ki is doosari parampara ki ninda aur isaki pahali parampara ki arthath gaumatiy nyayavidya ki prashnsa sarvatr shastron men ki gayi hai. ‘tarkapratishthanath’ (2/1/11/) is vedantasootr ka snket bhi isi or hai. gautamiyanyayavidya bhagavan vyas ke lie nindy nahin hai. atev shnkar bhagavatpad ne vedantasootr ke bhashy men praman ke roop men nyay darshan ke dvitiy sootr ka upayog kiya hai.[9] yah snbhav bhi nahin hai ki ek hi granth men ek hi lekhak ek hi shastr ki prashnsa aur ninda ek sath kare.

avayavi ki siddhi men yuktiyan

paramanu ki siddhi ki prakriya hi avayavi dravy ki siddhi karati hai. avayavi ka vyutpattilabhy arth hota hai, savayav padarthn isake tin prakar kahe gaye hain-

  1. adyavayavi yatha dvyanuk
  2. antaravayavi yatha trasarenu, chaturanuk, kapalika tatha kapal adi
  3. antyavayavi yatha ghat, pat adi.

bauddh darshanik ko chhodakar pray: sabhi darshanik avayavi ko svikar karate hain. at: bauddh darshanik ke samaksh avayavi ko upapann karane ke lie naiyyayikon ne saphal prayas kiya hai. bauddhon ka kahana hai ki paramanuon ke samooh se hi kisi padarth ki sthoolata ya mahatpariman upapann ho jaega, avayavi manane ki avashyakata kya hai ! paramanu ke apratyaksh hone par bhi usake samooh men pratyakshata a jaegi jaise ek bal ke pratyaksh nahin hone par bhi usake samooh ka pratyaksh hota hai. padarth men ekatv buddhi ki upapatti hetu bhi avayavi manana avashyak nahin hai. jaise dhan ke dher men ekatv buddhi hoti hai usi tarah yahan bhi vah buddhi ho jaegi . isake uttar men naiyyayikon ne kaha hai ki bal ka drishtant yahan nahin snghatit hota hai, kyonki door se ek bal ke pratyaksh nahin hone par bhi nikat men usaka pratyaksh hota hai aur paramanu to doorasth ho ya nikatasth sarvatr vah atindriy hi hai. at: isake samooh ka bhi pratyaksh nahin hoga. yahi karan hai ki tin dvyanukon se trasarenu ki utpatti kahi gayi hai chhah paramanuon se nahin. nyayasootrakar ne spasht kaha hai ki avayavi ke nahin manane par kisi bhi pratyaksh yogy padarth ka pratyaksh nahin hoga- 'sarvagrahanamavayavyasiddhai:' (2/1/35) doosari bat yah hai ki dharana aur akarshan avayavi men hi utpann hote hain. anyatha kisi kashth khand ya ghat adi ke ek desh ke dharan aur akarshan hone par usake samuday ka dharan aur akarshan nahin hoga. paramanu svaroop jo ansh dharit ya akrisht hoga usi ansh ka dharan aur akarshan hoga sampoorn ka nahin. kyonki anshi ya avayavi padarth svikrit nahin hai. isalie paramanupunj se bhinn ukt prakriya ke dvara paramanuon se hi gathit avayavi dravy avashy many hai. ‘dharanakarshanopapatteshch’ 2/1/36. nyayasootr ka yahi tatpary hai.

eeshvarasiddhi

aisa pratit hota hai ki nyayasootrakar ke samaksh eeshvar vivechy vishay nahin tha apitu upasy ke roop men vah prasiddh tha. eeshvar ke astitv men kisi ko sandeh nahin than at ev sootrakar ne is par apana mantavy prastut nahin kiya hai. anyatha rishi ki drishti se isaka ojhal hona asnbhav hai. pravadukon ke mat ke prasng men jo eeshvar ke vishay men tin sootr upalabdh hote hain, ve to nirakaraniy maton ke madhy vidyaman hai. atev unaka mahattv adhik nahin mana ja sakata. usaka ashay to kuchh bhinn hi pratit hota hai. varttik evn tatpary tika men yahan matabhed hai. ek keval eeshvarakaranatavad ko poorvapaksh ke roop men leta hai to apar eeshvar men abhinn nimitt upadan karanatavad ko poorvapaksh roop men svikar karata hai. yah matabhed pramanit karata hai ki sampraday men eeshvaravad prachalit nahin tha. kintu poorvapakshi ke roop men bauddh, mimansak evn any darshanikon ke khada hone par achary udayan ne unake mukhavidhan hetu ek vishal prakaran granth bhi prastut kiya, vyakhyamukhen isaka upapadan to kiya hi. vahi prakaran granth hai nyayakusumanjali, jisaki vyakhya evn upavyakhyaen is vartaman shatabdi men bhi likhi ja rahi hain. sabase pahale eeshvar ke vishay men bhashyakar ke samaksh bauddh adi ki or se samasya ayi hogi. at: inhonne isaka samadhan kiya hai.

arambhavad

achary udyotakar ne isaka snyuktik pallavan kiya hai. inaki drishti men eeshvar is snsar ka nimitt karan tatha adrisht ka adhishthata hai. nyayadarshan ka arambhavad prasiddh hai, jahan charon mahabhooton ke paramanu samooh ko paramparaya snsar ka samavayi (upadan) karan kaha gaya hai. karmon ki sahayata se eeshvar paramanuon ke dvara sabhi karyon ko utpann karata hai. atev vah nimitt karan hai. jis jiv ke jis karm ka vipak kal ata hai, us jiv ko us karm ke anusar vah is snsar men phal deta hai- yahi hai eeshvar ka anugrah. eeshvar ka aishvary nity hai, vah dharm ka (poorvakrit karm ka) phal nahin hai. eeshvar ki snkhya, pariman, prithaktv, snyog, vibhag aur buddhi – ye chhah gun nity vidyaman rahate hain. isamen aklisht tatha avyahat ichchha bhi hai. yah shariri nahin hai.

paramanuon ki kriya

paramanuon men jo kriya dekhi jati hai, vah pravritti ke pahale buddhiman karta se adhishthit hai. buddhiman ke adhishthan ke bina achetan men kriya nahin hoti hai. badhee ke adhishthan ke bina kulhadi lakadi ko nahin kat pati hai. at: achetan paramanuon men kriya dekhakar anuman hota hai ki vah kisi chetan se adhishthit hai. ham log us kriya ka adhishthata nahin ho sakate hain. kyonki adhishthata ko adhishthey ka pratyaksh gyan avashyak hai. paramanuon men mahattv ke abhav rahane se manav indriyon se usaka pratyaksh snbhav nahin hai. at: atindriy paramanuon ka pratyaksh karane vala, ham logon se bhinn, buddhiman eeshvar paramanuon ki kriya ka adhishthata siddh hota hai. dharm aur adharm buddhiman karan se adhishthit hokar jiv ko sukh evn du:kh ka upabhog karate hain. choonki dharm aur adharm karan hai aur karan kisi chetan se adhishthit hokar hi kary kar sakata hai. at: usaka adhishthata eeshvar mana gaya hai aur jiv usaka ashray hota hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bina shart ke
  2. tattv, jisase prabhav ki utpatti hoti hai
  3. jo karan ki utpatti men sahayata karata hai
  4. vastu, kriya ya shakti, jo bhautik karan ke utpadan men sahayata karati hai
  5. pramanairarthaparikshann nyay:. (va.nya.bha. 1/1/1).
  6. (valmiki ramayan. ayodhya kand 100.38-39
  7. bhaveth panditamani ch brahmano vedanindak:. anvikshikin tarkavidyamanurakto nirarthikamh॥ (anushasan parv 37.12
  8. yoavamanyet te moole hetushastrashrayadh dvij: s sadhurbhirbahishkaryo nastiko vedanindak:॥ (manu. 2.11) hetukanh vakavrittinshch vanmatrenapi narchayeth. (manu. 2.11
  9. dr. shankarabhashy 1/1/4/

snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan

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