पतंजलि (महाभाष्यकार)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg patnjali ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- patnjali

patnjali ya 'patanjali' ‘vyakaran mahabhashy’ ke rachayita hain. inaki ganana bharat ke agragany vidvanon men ki jati hai. inaka nivas sthan 'gonard' namak gram (kashmir) athava 'gonda' (uttar pradesh) mana jata hai. inaki mata ka nam 'gonika' bataya gaya hai tatha inake pita ka nam gyat nahin hai.

jivan parichay

maharshi panini ke lagabhag do sau sal bad katyayan maharshi ne lagabhag barah sau sootron par vartik likhe. panini par yahi sabase purani tika aj upalabdh hai. in vartikon men sootrarth ki charcha, kahin mndan aur kabhi-kabhi khndan bhi kiya gaya hai. phir chh: sau sal ke bad patnjali ne panini ke sootron ka vivechan karane vali ek vistrit tika likhi. yahi tika 'vyakaran mahabhashy' ke nam se prasiddh hai. jin sootron par katyayan ke vartik hain, un sabaka aur jin par vartik nahin hain, aise lagabhag 400 sootron ka isamen vivechan hai. isase yah spasht hota hai ki samanyat: ashtadhyayi ke 40 pratishat sootron ka is tika men vivechan hai. sambhav hai ki avashisht 2400 sootron ka arthath ashtadhyayi ke 60 pratishat sootron ka vivechan karane ki avashyakata patnjali ko prapt nahin huee. antarng aur bahirng sakshy se ee. poo. 150 patnjali ka kal adhyetaon ne nishchit kiya hai.

patnjali ka samay

bahusnkhy bharatiy v pashchaty vidvanon ke anusar patnjali ka samay 150 ee. poo. hai, par yudhishthir mimansakaji ne zor dekar bataya hai ki patnjali vikram snvat se do hazar varsh poorv hue the. is sambandh men abhi tak koee nishchit praman prapt nahin ho saka hai, par ant:sakshy ke adhar par inaka samay niroopan koee kathin kary nahin hai. mahabhashy ke varnan se pata chalata hai ki pushyamitr ne kisi aise vishal ygy ka ayojan kiya tha, jisamen anek purohit the aur jinamen patnjali bhi shamil the. ve svayn brahman yajak the aur isi karan se unhonne kshatriy yajak par kataksh kiya hai- yadi bhavadvidh: kshatriyn yajayeth.[1]

pushyamitron yajate, yajaka: yajayati. tatr bhavitavyamh pushyamitro yajayate, yajaka: yajayntiti yajvadishu chaviparyaso vaktavy:.[2]

isase pata chalata hai ki patnjali ka abhirbhav kalidas ke poorv v pushyamitr ke rajy kal men hua tha. ‘matsy puran’ ke anusar pushyamitr ne 36 varshon tak rajy kiya tha. pushyamitr ke sinhasan par baithane ka samay 185 ee. poo. hai aur 36 varsh kam kar dene par usake shasan ki sima 149 ee. poo. nishchit hoti hai. goldastukar ne mahabhashy ka kal 140 se 120 ee. poo. mana hai. daauktar bhandarakar ke anusar patnjali ka samay 158 ee. poo. ke lagabhag hai, par profesar vebar ke anusar inaka samay kanishk ke bad, arthath ee. poo. 25 varsh hona chahie. daauktar bhandarakar ne profesar vebar ke is kathan ka khndan kar diya hai. bothalink ke matanusar pntajali ka samay 2000 ee. poo. hai.[3] is mat ka samarthan meksamoolar ne bhi kiya hai. kith ke anusar patnjali ka samay 140-150 ee. poo. hai.[4]

janm katha

patnjali ke any nam bhi hain, jaise-gonardiy, gonikaputr, naganath, ahipati, choornikar, phanibhut, sheshahi, shesharaj aur padakar. ramachandr dikshit ne 'pntajalicharit' namak unaka charitr likha hai, jisamen patnjali ko shesh ka avatar manakar, tatsambandhi nimn akhyayika di gee hai-

ek bar jab shri vishnu sheshashayya par nidrit the, bhagavan shnkar ne apana tandav nrity prarambh kiya. us samay shri vishnu gahari nidra men nahin the. at: svabhavikat: unaka dhyan us shiv nrity ki or akarshit hua. us nrity ko dekhate hue shri vishnu ko itana anand prapt hua ki, vah unake sharir men samata nahin tha. at: unhonne apane sharir ko badhana prarambh kar diya. shri vishnu ka sharir vriddhigat hote hi shesh ko unaka bhar asahaniy ho utha. ve apane sahasr mukhon se phunkar karane lage. usake karan lakshmi ji ghabaraeen aur unhonne shri vishnu ko nind se jagaya. unake jagane par hi unaka sharir snkuchit hua. tab chhutakare ki shvans lete hue shesh ne poochha, 'kya aj meri pariksha lena chahate the.' is par shri vishnu ne shesh ko shivaji ke tandav nrity ka kalatmak shreshthatv vishad karake bataya. tab shesh bole-'vah nrity ek bar main dekhana chahata hoon.' is par shri vishnu ne kaha-'tum ek bar pun: prithvi par avatar lo, usi avatar men tum shivaji ka tandav nrity dekh sakoge.'

janm sthan par matabhed

patnjali ke janm sthan ke bare men bhi vidvanon ka ek mat nahin hai. patnjali ne katyayan ko 'dakshinaty' kaha hai. isase anuman hota hai, ki ve uttar bharat ke nivasi rahe honge. unake janm-gram ke roop men gonard gram ka namollekh ho chuka hai. kintu gonard ka sambandh gond pradesh se bhi manate hain. katipay pnditon ke matanusar gonard gram avadh pradesh ka gonda hoga. vebar is ganv ko magadh ke poorv men sthit manate hain. kaningham ke anusar, gonard gaud hain, kintu patnjali aryavart ka abhiman rakhane vale the. at: unaka janm-gram, aryavart hi men kahin n kahin hona chahie, isamen sndeh nahin. us drishti se vah gonard, vidisha aur ujjain ke bich kisi sthan par hona chahie. profesar silvhan levhi bhi gonard ko vidisha v ujjain ke marg par hi manate hain. unhonne yah bhi bataya hai ki vidisha ke samip sthit sanchi ke bauddh stoop ko, asapas ke pray: sabhi ganvon ke logon dvara dan die jane ke ullekh milate hain, kintu usamen gonard ke logon ke nam dikhaee nahin dete.

is bat par unhonne ashchary bhi vyakt kiya hai. tathapi is par se anuman nikalata hai ki gonard ke log kattar bauddh virodhak honge. aise bauddh virodhakon ke kendr men patnjali pale yah ghatana unake charitr ki drishti se mahattvapoorn hai. vyakaran-mahabhashy se yah soochit hota hai, ki patnjali ki maury samrat brihadrath ka vadh karane vale pushyamitr shung se mitrata thi. patnjali ne vyakaran ki pariksha pataliputr (patana) men di. vahin par un donon ki mitrata huee hogi. bauddh banakar vaidik dharm ka virodh karane vale maury vnsh ka uchchhed kar bharat men vaidik dharmi rajy ki prasthapana karane ki yojana un donon ne vahin par banaee hogi.

namakaran

tadanusar avatar lene hetu uchit sthan ki khoj men shesh ji chal pade. chalate-chalate gonard namak sthan par unhen gonika namak ek mahila, putr prapti ki ichchha se tapasya karati huee dikh padi. shesh ji ne use matri roop men svikar karane ka man hi man nishchay kiya. at: jab gonika soory ko ardhy dene hetu siddh huee, tab shesh ji sookshm roop dharan usaki anjali men ja baithai aur usaki anjali ke jal ke sath niche ate hi, usake sammukh balak ke roop men khade ho ge. gonika ne unhen apana putr manakar godi men utha liya aur boli-‘meri anjali se patan pane ke karan, main tumhara nam patnjali rakhati hoon.’

adhyapan kary

patnjali ne balyavastha se hi vidyabhyas prarambh kiya. phir tapasya ke dvara unhonne shiv ji ko prasann kar liya. shiv ji ne unhen chidambar kshetr men apana tandav nrity dikhalaya aur padashastr par bhashy likhane ka adesh diya. tadanusar chidambaramh men hi rahakar patnjali ne panini ke sootron tatha katyayan ke vartikon par vistrit bhashy ki rachana ki. yah granth ‘patnjal mahabhashy’ ke nam se prasiddh hua. is mahabhashy ki kirti sunakar, usake adhyayanarth hazaron pndit patnjali ke yahan par ane lage. patnjali ek yavanika (parde) ki ot men baithakar, sheshanag ke roop men un sahasron shishyon ko ek sath padhane lage.

adhyapan ke samay pntajali ne shishyon ko kadi chetavani de rakhi thi, ki koee bhi yavanika ke andar jhankakar n dekhe, kintu shishyon ke hriday men is bare se bhari kotuhal jagrit ho chuka tha, ki ek hi vyakti ek hi samay men itane shishyon ko granth ke anyany bhag kis prakar padha sakata hai. at: ek din unhonne jab yavanika door ki, to unhen dikhaee diya, ki patnjali sahasr mukh vale sheshanag ke roop men adhyapan kary kar rahe hain, kintu shesh ji ka tej itana prakhar tha ki sabhi shishy jalakar bhashm ho ge. keval ek shishy jo ki us samay jal lane ke lie bahar gaya tha, bach gaya. patnjali ne use adesh diya, ki vah suyogy shishyon ko mahabhashy padhaye. phir patnjali chidambar kshetr se gonard gram laute.

pushyamitr aur patnjali

pushyamitr shung v patnjali donon hi vaidik dharm evn snskrit bhasha ke abhimani the. pushyamitr ne do ashvamedh ygy kie the aur unaka paurohity kiya tha, patnjali ne. vyakaran mahabhashy likhakar to patnjali ne snskrit bhasha ke gaurav ko to shikhar par hi pahuncha diya tha. isake parinamasvaroop pali-ardh magadhi jaisi bauddh janon ki dharm bhashaen tak snskrit ke samane pichhad geen. ‘snskrit tatha apabhrnsh shabdon se yadyapi ek jaisa arth vyakt hota hai, phir bhi dharmik drishti se snskrit shabdon ka hi prayog kiya jana chahie, kyonki aisa karane se abhyuday hota hai’-aisa patnjali ne kaha hai. us kal men patnjali v pushyamitr dvara kiye ge snskrit bhasha ke punarutthan ke karan hi ramayan tatha mahabharat adi mahanh granthon ka akhil bharat men samanyat: ek hi svaroop men prachar hua, aur bharat ka ek rashtriyatv ab tak tik saka.

rachanaen

vyakaran mahabhashy patnjali ki ajaramar kriti hai. bharat men anek bhashyon ka nirman hua, jinake nirmata the- shabar, shnkarachary, ramanuj, sayan jaise mahanh achary, kintu keval patajnli ka bhashy hi 'mahabhashy' hone ke samman ko prapt kar saka. is mahabhashy ke dvara vyakaran ke sookshmatisookshm rahasyon tak ka udaghatan kiya jata hai. isake sath hi apane is granth men shabd ki vyapakata par prakash dalakar patnjali ne ‘sphotavad’ namak ek navin darshanik siddhant ki ninv bhi dali hai. anadi, annt, akhnd, agyey, svayn prakashaman adi nana visheshanon se vibhooshit shabdabrahm hi srishti ka adikaran hai, aisa patnjali manate hain.

mahabhashy ki rachana

katyayan ke varttikon ke pashchath maharshi patnjali ne paniniy ashtadhyayi par ek mahati vyakhya likhi, jo 'mahabhashy' ke nam se prasiddh hai. isamen unhonne paniniy sootron tatha un par likhe gaye varttikon ka vivechan kiya, aur sath hi sath apane ishti-vakyon ka bhi samavesh kiya. mahabhashy men 86 ahinak hain. 'ahinak' shabd ka arth hai, 'ek din men adhit ansh'. patnjali-mahabhashy ke 83 ahinak vidyarthiyon ko padhae gaye 86 din ke path hain. maharshi patnjali ne apane samay ke samast snskrit-vanmay ka alodan kiya tha, at: unase vyakaran ka koee bhi vishay achhoota nahin raha. unaki niroopan-paddhati sarvatha maulik aur naiyayikon tarkashaili par adharit hai. patnjali ke hathon paniniy shastr ka itana gahan aur vyapak vistar hua ki any vyakaranon ki parampara lagabhag samapt ho gee aur charon or paniniy vyakaran ki hi pataka phaharane lagi. ashtadhyayi ke 1689 sootron par patnjali ne bhashy likha. isamen unhonne katyayan evn any acharyon ke varttikon ki bhi samiksha ki hai, sath hi char sau se adhik aise sootron par bhashy likha, jin par varttik upalabdh nahin the. patnjali ne katyayan ke anek akshepon se panini ki raksha ki, jahan unhen varttikakat ka mat thik dikhaee diya, vahan use svikar bhi kar liya.

mahabhashy ki rachanashaili

mahabhashy ki rachanashaili atyant saral, sahaj aur pravahayukt hai. shastriy granth hone ke karan mahabhashy men paribhashik aur shastriy shabdon ka ana svabhavik hi tha, parantu mahabhashyakar ne shastriy shabdavali ke sath-sath lokavyavahar ki bhasha aur muhavaron ka prayog kar apane granth ko durooh hone se bacha liya hai. jahan vishay gambhir hai, vahan mahabhashyakar ne bich-bich men vinodapoorn vaky dalakar snvadamayi shaili ka prayog aur laukik drishtanton ka samavesh kar prasng ko shushk aur niras hone se bacha liya hai. mahabhashy ko saras aur akarshak banane men unaki bhasha ka bahut yogadan hai. usamen upaman, nyay, drishtant aur sooktiyan bhi kam manoram nahin hain. mahabhashy men upaman aur drishtanton ka kuchh is dhng se prayog kiya gaya hai ki pathak bina tark ke vakta ki bat svikar karane ko badhy ho jata hai. bhashy men prayukt sooktiyan aur kahavaten jivan ke vastavik anubhavon par adharit hain. bhashy men prayukt anek shabd snskrit shabdapauranik kosh ki amooly nidhi hain. patnjali ne mahattvapoorn shastriy siddhanton ki vivechana karate samay yah dhyan rakha ki ve siddhant logon ko saralata se samajh men a saken. isake liye unhonne lok-vyavahar ki sahayata li. pratyay se sthan ko nishchit karane ke liye ve gay ke bachhade ka udaharan dete hue kahate hain, ki yadi pratyay ka sthan nishchit nahin hoga, to jaise bachhada gay ke kabhi age v kabhi pichhe aur kabhi usake barabar chalane lagata hai, aisi hi sthiti pratyayon ki ho jayegi. is prakar patnjali ne paniniy vyakaran ko n keval sarvajan-sulabh banaya, apitu usamen apane bhautik vicharon ka samavesh kar use darshan ka roop bhi pradan kar diya. mahabhashy ka arambh hi shabd ki paribhasha se hota hai. shabd ka yah vivad vaiyakaranon ka prachin vivad tha. panini se poorv achary shabd ke nityatv aur karyatv paksh ko manate the.

any rachanaen

vyakaran mahabhashy ke atirikt patnjali nam se sambandhit nimn kritiyan hain-

  1. maharaj samudragupt krit ‘krishnacharit’ men patnjali ko ‘mahannd’ ya ‘mahanndamay’ kavy ka praneta kaha gaya hai, jisamen kavy ke bahane yog ka varnan kiya gaya hai. ‘saduktikarnamrit’ men bhashyakar ke nam se nimn shlok uddhrit kiya gaya hai-

yadyapi svachchhabhaven darshayatyambudhirmaninh.
tathapi janudandhoasmati chetasi ma katha:..

  1. sharadatanay-rachit 'bhavaprakashan' men kisi vasuki achary krit 'sahityashastriy' granth ka ullekh hai. isamen bhavon dvara rasotpatti ka kathan kiya gaya hai. isase anuman hota hai ki patnjali ne koee kavy shastriy granth likha hoga.
  2. lohashastr-shivadas krit vaidyak granth 'chakradatt' ki tika men 'lohashastr' namak granth ke rachayita patnjali batae ge hain.
  3. siddhant saravali-isake praneta bhi patnjali kahe ge hain.
  4. kosh-anek kosh granthon ki tikaon men vasuki, shesh, phanapati v bhogindr adi namon dvara rachit kosh granth ke uddharan prapt hote hain.

mahabhashy ke anusar patnjali

mahabhashy ke anusar patnjali gonard pradesh ke vasi pratit hote hain. aj ke pnjab ka ek bhag us samay gonard nam se prasiddh tha. agar aj ka gond desh prachin gonard ho to yah ayodhya ke samip hai. is prakar isake bare men vidvanon ke vibhinn mat hain. mahabhashy men gandhar, udichy, bahik, pnjab adi pradeshon ke ganvon, nadiyon aur nalon adi ka ullekh hone se yah nishchit hota hai ki unaka janm kahin bhi hua ho, kintu unaki shiksha, adhyapan, lekhan adi mahattvapoorn kary pnjab men ya usake samip kahin hua hoga.

mahabhashy men paye jane vale nirdeshon se yah maloom hota hai ki patnjali ke pahale bhi panini ke sootron par vivaran granth upalabdh the, jinamen se ek bhashy nam se prasiddh tha. patnjali ka vivaran us bhashy se bhi adhik vistrit aur mahattvapoorn hone ke karan unake granth ko 'mahabhashy' kahane lage honge.

mahabhashy ki bhasha

mahabhashy ki bhasha saral aur subodh hai. anek shastr vishayon ki charcha vicharon ki gaharaee ityadi is granth ki anek visheshataen hain. prashnottari paddhati ke karan is granth men ki gee shastracharcha jivant pratit hoti hai. kahin thoda hasy, kahin vyngy, kahin prachin drishtant, kahin kalpit katha hone se is granth ka svaroop bahuroopiya jaisa pratit hota hai.

isi patnjali ne yogasootr ki rachana tatha charak snhita ka pratisnskaran kiya tha, aisi prachin paramparagat manyata hai. bhartuhari ne vakyapadiy men yah janakari di hai tatha 'yogen chittasy paden vachamh...' adi shlok vyakaran parampara men bahut prachin kal se prasiddh hain. mahabhashy men yog aur vaidyakashastr ke kuchh ullekh paye jate hain. purane logon ka kahana hai ki in sab pramanon ke karan yah prachin vishvas saty hai, lekin adhunik vidvanon ka kahana hai ki bhartuhari ka kal mahabhashy ke lagabhag chh: sau varsh bad hai aur usaka kiya hua nirdesh bhi asndigdh nahin hai. 'yogen...' yah shlok to gyarahavin shatabdi ka hoga. charakaprati snskaran ka aur yogasootr ka kal kramash: tisara aur chauthi ee. shatak nishchit kiya gaya hai. isilie yah spasht hai ki ye tin patnjali alag alag hi hain. keval nam sadrishy ke karan ye sab akhyayikaen prachalit huee hongi aur agale granthakaron ne un sabako praman manakar unaka nirdesh kiya hoga.

mahabhashy ka mukhy aur ekamev kshetr shabd hi hai. tathapi shabd svaroop, shabd se gyat hone vale arth ka svaroop, arth ke prakar, arth ke prakar ke anusar shabd ke prakar, logon men shabd ke vishay men samajh aur galat samajh adi vishayon ka vivechan bhi patnjali ne sookshmata se kiya hai. svarg, mrityu, punarjanm, pratyaksh, anuman, shabd praman ityadi vishayon ka nirdesh prasngavash kiya hai.

shabdasvaroop

prarambh men patnjali ne shabd svaroop ka vivechan kiya hai. jisake abhivyakt hone par arth gyan hota hai, vah shabd hai, aisa shabd ka tatasth lakshan pahale kaha gaya hai. logon men arth gyan karane vali dhvani ki sngya shabd hai- aisa svaroop lakshan logon ko samajhane ke lie kaha gaya hai. mahabhashyakar ne anyatr bahut sthalon par 'shabd nity hai', dhvani kary anity hai, karyaroop dhvani se arth bodhak nity shabd abhivyakt hota hai, aisa vyakaranashastriy siddhant prasthapit kiya hai.

yah vishay vartikakar ne pratham vartik men hi 'siddhe shabdarthasnbndh' in shabdon men snkshep men prastut kiya hai. ye shabd sndehajanak hain. at: vartikakar ki shabd svaroop ke vishay men nishchit roop se kya ray hai, yah samajh men nahin ata. 'siddh' shabd ke nity, poorvanishpann, poorvgyat, ityadi arth vanmay men prasiddh hain. is vartik men jis 'siddh' shabd ka prayog hai, usaka arth 'nity' hi vartikakar ko abhipret hai, aisa patnjali ka abhipray hai. shabdarth snbndh samahar dvandv hai. at: shabd, arth aur unaka snbndh tinon padarth nity hain, aisa vyakaran siddhant vartikakar ne in shabdon men arambh men hi spashtataya prasthapit kiya hai, aisa patnjali ne mana hai. lekin shabd utpann hua, shabd nasht hua, arth utpann hua, arth nasht hua, snbndh utpann hua, snbndh nasht hua, is prakar shabdarth ke vishay men 'utpann' evn 'nasht' vyavahar sarvatr sab log karate hain, is karan shabdarth snbndh ko nity samajhane men uparyukt vyavahar aur pratyaksh anubhav donon bodhak hain. phir vah nity kaise.

alochana

patnjali aur any alochakon ne is badha ka parihar is prakar kiya hai. shabd do prakar ka hota hai- nity aur kary. kary evn dhvaniroop shabd se nity shabd abhivyakt hota hai. kary athava anity dhvaniroop shabd ke sndarbh men 'utpann: shabd:', 'nasht: shabd:' ityadi vyavahar kiya jata hai aur anubhooti bhi usi tarah prapt hoti hai. lekin vah kary shabd vastavik shabd nahin hai. keval upachar se ya shabd ke prayog men pramad ke karan log aisa vyavahar karate hain. is prakar dhvanisamooh ke dvara vyakt hone vala arth bodhak shabd nity hote hue bhi vakta ki ya shrota ki buddhi men sadaiv avasthit hai. usi ko vaiyakaran sphot kahate hain. is prakar patnjali ne shabd ke svaroop ke vishay men siddhant prasthapit kiya hai.

shastrakaron se matabhed

kuchh shastrakar manate hain ki shabd se jatiroop arth gyat hota hai. isase unake matanusar arth ki nityata pramanit hoti hai. lekin jo shastrakar aisa samajhate hain ki shabd se vyakti roopamatr arth gyat hota hai, unake mat ke anusar shabd anity hai. kuchh shastrakar aisa manate hain ki shabd se jati, akriti aur vyakti ye tin arth pratit hote hain. akriti ka arth hai ki avayav snsthan. vah nishchit roop se nasht hone vali hai. phir arth nity hai, aisa kaise kaha ja sakata hai. mahabhashkar kahate hain ki shabd se gyat hone vala arth jo bhi ho, vah nity hai, yahi hamari gati hai. vastuen vahi nity kahalati hain, jo vishisht sthal se nasht hon, kintu unaki satta nasht nahin ho. vah vastu anyatr kahin hoti hi hai. patnjali ne is vishay men nityatv ka sarvamany lakshan badal dala hai. uttarakal ke tikakaron ne vyavasthanityata, vyavaharanityata aur pravahanityata aise shabd us arth se roodh kie hain. is prakar shabd nity hai, arth bhi pravahanity hai, evn nity shabd aur nity arth ka sambandh bhi nity hai. isilie vartikakar 'siddhe shabdarth snbndhe' kahate hain. lekin mahabhashyakar ke dvara nityatv ki kalpana men kiya gaya yah parivartan kisi ko bhi many hone vala nahin hai. isaka karan yah hai ki nityatv ka doosara lakshan yadi many kiya jae, to manushy, vriksh, ghat, pat, sab padarthon ko nity manana padega. nity aur anity ka yah vibhajan nirarthak hoga. mahabhashyakar ke man men bhi yah shaly tha hi, isilie unhonne shabdarth snbndh men tripad samaharadvndv asvikrit kiya. pahale arth snbndh men shashthi tatpurush manakar usake bad shabd aur arth snbndh men samaharadvndv mana jae aur shabd aur usaka arth se snbndh nity hota hai, is prakar vartik a ashay aur vyakaran shastr ka siddhant samajha jae aur shabd aur usaka arth se snbndh nity hota hai, is prakar vartik ka ashay aur vyakaran shastr ka siddhant samajha jae, aisa mat pradarshit kiya hai.

arth nity ho ya anity ho, shabd aur usaka arth snbndh nity hota hai, aisa vartik ka ashay bhashyakar ne bataya hai. lekin snbndh do snbndhiyon par ashrit rahata hai. usi ke karan yadi do snbndhi nity hon tab hi vah snbndh nity mana jayega. do snbndhiyon men se ek anity ho, tab snbndh bhi anity rahega. is akshep ka nirakaran tikakaron ne is prakar se kiya hai. do snbndhiyon men se ek snbndhi bhi yadi nity ho, tabhi snbndh nity hota hai. snbndh yogyataroop hota hai. doosari vastu ke ate hi vah abhivyakt hota hai. isake atirikt naiyayikon ne jati-vyakti, gun-guni, avayavavayavi ka snbndh nity mana hai. in do-do snbndhiyon men donon hi anity hain, phir bhi unaka snbndh nity manane men koee bhi badha unhen pratit nahin hoti. phir nity shabd aur anity arth ka snbndh nity manane men kya badha hai.

sambhav hai ki is vartik men prayukt 'siddh' shabd ka vartikakar ke man men jo arth hai, vah 'poorv nishpann' ya 'poorv gyat' ho. sootrakar ne ya vartikakar ne is shabd ko 'poorv nishpann' ya 'poorv gyat' ke arth men kee sthanon par svikrit kiya hai. yadi yah vastavikata dhyan men li jae to vyakaran shastr men shabd nityatv ki kalpana prathamat: patnjali ne sthapit ki hai aur usako shastr ka pran samajh kar sthal sthal par unhonne us kalpana ka samarthan karake usako sthir kiya hai. uttarakal ke tikakaron ne usako supushpit aur suphalit kiya hai, yah kahana yukt hoga.

arth ke prakar

shabd se gyat hone vale arth char prakar ke hain. is karan shabd bhi char prakar ka hai- jati, gun, kriya aur sngya. yah kahakar bhashyakar kahate hain ki jati, gun aur kriya ye tin hi prakar hote hain aur sngya shabd in tinon men hi samavisht hote hain evn pratyek shabd vyutpann hota hai. yah shakatayan ka paksh patnjali ne siddhant ke roop men svikrit kiya hai.

sngya shabd hi pahale jati, gun aur kriya in arthon men kisi ek ke bodhak ke roop men prayukt hota hai. mool roop men vah sthool nahin hota hai. vah vyutpann yukt hi hai, aisa patnjali ka abhipray ho sakata hai. aisa tikakaron ka bhi kahana hai. kuchh bhi ho, jati, gun aur kriya ye arthon ke tin prakar sarvamany hain. mahabhashyakar ne in tinon arthon ke lakshan kiye hain. ve lakshan prathamik svaroop ke tatha sthool hain. kriya nityash: parokshanumey hai, aisa patnjali ka kahana hai. yah kathan mimansakon ke mat ke saman hai. patnjali ne gun ki jo vyakhya ki hai, usake anusar vah sankhy snmat satvarajastamoroop nahin hai aur n hi naiyayikon ka snmat shabd, sparsh adi chaubis gunon men se ek, balki alag hi hai. naiyayikon ke anusar gyan, snyog, gun hain, kintu vaiyakaranon ke anusar vah kriya hai. ling ke vishay men bhi vyakaran shastr ka vyavahar kuchh any hi hai. shabdasiddhi ko lakshy banakar vyakaran shastr ne apana marg svatntr roop men banana chaha, aisa bhashyakar manate hain. tatpary yah hai ki shabdasiddhi ekamev uddeshy hone ke karan patnjali dvara ki gee jati, gun, kriya ityadi ki vyakhyaen n keval any shastrakaron ke abhipray se apitu vyavahar men bhi kuchh shithil pratit ho sakati hain. in maryadaon ko dhyan men rakhakar hi unaka ashay samajhana chahie.

pramanavichar

pratyaksh, anuman evn shabd in tin pramanon ka ullekh patnjali (muni) ne bhinn-bhinn sthalon par anek bar kiya hai. shabd praman sarvadhik shreshth hai, yadi apt ho. apt ke arth men unhonne shisht shabd ka prayog kiya hai. shishton ka diya hua lakshan is prakar hai- aryavart desh men nivas karane vale, nirlobhi, adhik matra men sngrah karane ki jinaki pravritti nahin hai, jitendriy evn kam se kam ek gyanashakha men parngat 'shisht' sngya ke patr hain. arthath- saty aur hit kahane ke lie avashyak gyan evn tyag, ye pramukh gun jinamen hain, ve shisht aur unaka vachan apt vaky hai. ved eeshvarokt hone ke karan poorn praman kahalayenge. usi prakar dharmasootrakaron ka vachan bhi poorn praman manana hoga. is prakar ka ullekh patnjali ne do jagah par kiya hai. aptopadesh se kuchh hi nyoon (karm) anuman praman, anuman se kuchh hi nyoon pratyaksh praman, yah kram unhonne soochit kiya hai. alatachakr, mrigajal, gndharv nagar adi drishtant dekar unhonne 'pratyaksh' ka durbalatv aur 'anuman' ka prabalatv spasht kiya hai. samane dikhaee dene vali vastu bhi anek karanon se indriyagochar nahin ho sakati,[5] is prakar ka vivechan karate samay unhonne jo karan die hain, unhin se ham sab anuman laga sakate hain ki unake samay 'pratyaksh' ka durbalatv shastrakaron ko kitana khalata tha. sath sath hamen yah bhi janakari prapt hoti hai ki mahabhashyakar ka any shastron ka gyan bhi bahut gahan aur vyapak tha.

vedavachan athava shisht vaky ko patnjali ke dvara pramanon men anany sadharan sthan diya gaya dekhane par yah nishchay ho jata hai ki yah shabd pramany unake saikadon sal pahale se hi bharatavarsh men sthiramool raha hoga.  

svarg

svarg ka ullekh patnjali ne panch jagahon par kiya hai. unamen se pahala ullekh ygy ka upahas karane ke lie kiya hai. ygy ki nishphalata batane vala vah shlok bhraj namak shlok sngrah granth ka hai. yah ygy ki nishphalata, charvak, bauddh ityadi ke anusar ho ya upanishad parampara ke anusar us samay bhi ygy ka upahas, sarvalok prasiddh tha. mahabhashyakar ygyadi vedokt dharmanushthan ke vishay men prachin karmavadiyon ki tarah akalp shraddha rakhate the.

satkarm karane se, vyakaran shastr ke paramparayukt adhyayan se vyakaranashuddh shabd soch samajhakar prayukt karane ke karan, annadanadi karane se svarg prapt hota hai. n keval uparokt prakar se vyavahar karane vala vyakti balki usake mata aur pita bhi svarg men sukhapoorvak nivas karate hain. svargiy apsaraen patni banakar usaki seva karati hain. is prakar ka svarg se snbndhit vivechan patnjali ne kiya hai.

lokayat arthath charvak mat ka ullekh do jagah aya hai. unhonne yah bhi kaha hai ki charvak mat pratipadak granth ki do prakar ki tikaen, varni evn vartika thin. isase yah anuman lagaya ja sakata hai ki usake mat ke mool granth evn tika granth patnjali ke samay upalabdh rahe honge.

sharir ko shariratma kahakar evn jivatma ko antaratma kahakar mahabhashyakar unaka ullekh karate hain aur unake dvara kie hue karmon ke phal ek doosare ko bhugatane padate hain. is prakar donon ko bhi bhoktritv evn kartritv laga rahata hai, aisa unaka pratipadan hai. donon ka yah kartritv aur bhoktritv vastavik hai ya aropit, isaka spashtikaran unhonne kiya nahin hai. sambhav hai ki keval vyavaharik roop se unaka yah vachan ho. saiddhantik roop se yah mat nyay, vedant, inamen se kis se adhik milata hai. 'abhyas' ki advaitavedantiyon ke dvara svikrit kalpana bij roop men patnjali janate the. shayad yah kalpana, tatkalin darshan shastr ke granthon men rahi hogi. is vishay men utsahapoorvak kuchh bhi kahane ka sahas karana uchit n hoga.

'maskari' (maskarin) mat ko siddh karate samay patnjali ke dvara diya gaya spashtikaran is snbndh men vishesh vicharaniy siddh hoga. koee bhi karm karana tumhen uchit nahin hai, shanti hi sarvottam shubh hai. is prakar ka upadesh jo karata hai, vah maskari arthath parivrajak (snnyasi) kahalata hai. yah patnjali ka vivechan hai. isaka arth yah hai ki sarvakarm sannyasapoorvak gyanamarg ka upadesh karane vala koee ek sampraday unake samay astitv men raha hoga.

mahabhashyakar ne akash, dyau ityadi ka ullekh nity roop men kiya hai. upanishadon men us atma se hi akash ki utpatti huee, is prakar ka vivechan hai.

mahabhashy men 'brahma' shabd anek bar prayukt hua hai. usake arth brahman, ved, vrat ityadi hain. upanishadon men many arth mahabhashy men kahin par bhi nahin hain. moksh, apavarg ityadi shabd ya in shabdon se vyakt hone vali snkalpanaen bhi nahin milati hain. ved ke mntr bhasha se bahut uddharan hain. anek prakar ke ygy-yag adi ka nirdesh bhi hai. anek upanishad shabd upanishadgat nirdesh upalabdh nahin hote.

svarg hi manavi jivan ka antim sadhy hai aur ygy-yag adi vedokt karm ka sadhan hain, ved eeshvar ke dvara kathit hain, isalie ve hi param praman hain. jagath jaisa ab hai, vaisa hi pahale ya age annt kal tak rahega. aisa poorv mimansakon ka pratipadan hai. unaka yah karmakand pradhan, pravritti pradhan aur bhogavadi tatvgyan kuchh ansh se sankhy tatv se mishrit hokar patnjali ke mahabhashy men pratibimbit hota hai. us kal men sarvamany yah darshan patnjali ka bhi snmat hoga aur us darshan par unaki avichan shraddha hogi, aisa nishkarm yadi nikala jae to uchit hoga.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bhagavat, pndit vaman ba. vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 271.

  1. (3-3-147, prishth snkhya 332)
  2. (mahabhashy, 3-1-26)
  3. (paninijh grametik)
  4. sn.va.ko. (dvitiy khand), prishth 360-363
  5. us vastu ko pahachanane men indriyan asamarth siddh hoti hain

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