पतंजलि (योगसूत्रकार)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg patnjali ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- patnjali
maharshi patnjali

patnjali athava 'patanjali' yogasootr ke rachanakar hain, jo hinduon ke chhah darshanon-(nyay, vaisheshik, sankhy, yog, mimansa, vedant) men se ek hai. bharatiy sahity men patnjali ke likhe hue tin mukhy granth milate hai-yogasootr, ashtadhyayi par bhashy aur ayurved par granth. patnjali ko naman karate hue bhritahari ne apane granth 'vakyapadiy' ke prarambh men nimn shlok likha hai-

yogen chittasy paden vachan, maln sharirasy ch vaidyaken.
yoapakaroth tn pravarn muninan, patnjali pranjaliranatoasmi..

arth- yog se chitt ka, pad (vyakaran) se vani ka v vaidyak se sharir ka mal, jinhonne door kiya, un muni shreshth patnjali ko main anjali baddh hokar namaskar karata hoon. maharshi panini ne 'ashtadhyayi' ki rachana ki jisamen vyakaran ke niyam hain. ye sootr atyant snkshipt hain. unaka arth janane ke lie arth bodhak vivechan ki avashyakata pratit hoti hai.

patnjali yogadarshan ke pramanit sootr yogasootr nam se vikhyat hain. in yogasootron ka rachanakar patnjali muni hain. yogasootr ke char pad (vibhag) hain. sootron ki kul snkhya ek sau pichyanave hai. padon ke nam samadhipad, sadhanapad, vibhootipad aur kaivalyapad hain. vishay ke anusar padon ke nam rakhe gaye hain, tatha prachalit ho gaye hain. prachin parampara manati hai ki isi patnjali ne panini muni ke vyakaran sootr par savistar tatha manoram aur vividh vishayon ka abhipray vishad karate hue mahabhashy likha, itana hi nahin, vaidyak shastrantargat charak snhita ka snskaran bhi kiya. prachin vanmay men upalabdh anek shlok aur anek ullekh is bat ka samarthan karate hain ki upavinirdisht granthon ka rachayita ekamev patnjali hi hai. udaharanarth nimnankit shlok drashtavy hain.

yogen chittasy paden vachan maln sharirasy ch vaidyaken. yoapakarottn pravarn muninan patnjali pranjaliranatoasmi..

shlok ka abhipray hai ki 'yogashastr se man ka, vyakaran shastr se vani ka aur vaidyak shastr se tan ka mal nasht karane vale patnjali muni ke sammukh main natamastak hoon.' vyakaran mahabhashy ka prarambh 'ath shabdanushasanamh' se hota hai. yogasootr ka prarambh bhi vaise hi 'ath yoganushasanamh' is sootr se hua hai. any darshanon ke arambh se mel n rakhane vale parantu vyakaran mahabhashy ke prarambh se milate julate is yogasootr ke karan, donon granth ek hi lekhak ne likhe honge, aisa parampara manati hai.

yogasootron ki bhi rachana patnjali ne hi ki, aisa prasiddh hai, kintu 'bhashyakar', 'yogasootrakar' tatha 'charakasnskarta' ko ek hi vyakti manana, anek vidvanon ko many nahin hai. unaka tark hai ki ye tinon patnjali bhinn kal ke bhinn vyakti hone chahie. yogasootron men arsh (rishi pranit) prayog nahin hai. sootron ke arthon ke lie adhyahar (vakyapoorti ke lie shabd-yojana) ki avashyakata nahin padati aur usaki rachana-shaili mahabhashy ke anusar anuroop spasht evn prasadik hai. in adharon par daauktar prabhudayal agnihotri, mahabhashyakarta ko hi yogasootron ka karta manate hain. any kisi bhi darshanik ki tulana men yogasootrakar ek shreshth vaiyakaran pratit hote hain. chakrapani namak ek prachin tikakar ne bhi nimn shlok dvara patnjali ko ek hi vyakti mana hai-

patnjal-mahabhashy-charakapratisnskritai:.
manovakkayadoshanan hantreahipataye nam:..

arth- yogasootr, mahabhashy tatha charak snhita ka pratisnskaran in kritiyon se, kramash: man, vani evn deh ke doshon ka nirasan karane vale patnjali ko main namaskar karata hoon.

vidvanh vichar

'charak' shabd ke kalpit arth lekar vidvanon ne jo tark prastut kie hain, unamen dvivedi kahate hain-'adhyay ki samapti ke pashchath, patnjali kuchh samay ke lie charak arthath bhramanashil rahe.' vibhinn pradeshon v gramon men ghoom-phirakar, unhonne panini, katyayan ke pashchath snskrit bhasha ke shabd-prayogon men jo parivartan roodh hue unaka adhyayan kiya, aur unaka niroopan karane ke lie 'ishti' ke nam se kuchh naye niyam banae. pune nivasi karndikar ne charak ke 'char' arthath guptachar is arth ke adhar par apani sambhavana vyakt karate hue likha hai-

'prarambh men patnjali ne ek guptachar ki bhoomika se bharat bhraman kiya hoga. us sthiti men unaka samavesh, arthashastr men varnit satri namak guptacharon men hua hona chahie. ary chanaky ne apane arthashastr men kaha hai ki pitrihin v aptahin balakon ko samudrik, mukh-pariksha, jadoo-vidya, vashikaran, ashram-dharm, shakun-vidya adi sikhakar, unamen se snsarg athava samagam dvara vratt-sngrah karane vale guptacharon ka chunav kiya jana chahie. patnjali ko gonika-putr kahakar hi pahachana jata hai. at: unake pita ki akal mrityu huee hogi aur ve niradhar rahe honge. parinamasvaroop satri namak guptacharon ke bich hi unaki shiksha-diksha huee hogi, athava unhonne svechchha se hi us sahasi vyavasay ko svikar kiya hoga.'

yogasootr

lekin uparyukt ullekh patnjali ke anantar kee sau varshon ke bad likhit granthon men upalabdh hote hain, jisase ve praman nahin mane ja sakate hain. antarng aur bahirng sakshy se yah gyat hota hai ki in tinon granthon ke rachayitaon men saikadon varshon ka antar hai. vyakaran mahabhashy ka rachana kal eesa poorv dvitiy shatak, charak snhita ka snskaran kal eesavi dvitiy shatak aur yogasootr ka eesavi tritiy v chaturth shatak hai. is sthiti men sndarbhit tinon granthon ka karta ek hi vyakti hai, yah mat asngat lagata hai. parantu nam sadrishy ke karan uparyukt granthon ka ek hi patnjali karta tha, yah mat roodh ho gaya. bhinn shatakon men tin svatntr patnjali hue, aisa itihas ke nootan shodhakon ka mat hai. yogasootrakar patnjali ka kal nirdharit karane ke lie antarng saboot upalabdh nahin hain. keval tarkasnmat bahirng samagri se upalabdh adharon par yogasootr aur unake rachayita patnjali ka kal eesavin tisara ya chautha shatak nishchit kiya gaya hai. yogasootrakar ke mata, pita tatha guru aur shishy parampara adi ke snbndh men janakari upalabdh nahin hai. yogashastr ke ady pravartak hiranyagarbh mane jate hain. hiranyagarbh se prarambh huee yogashastr parampara guru aur shishy ke upadesh dvara patnjali tak akhnd chalati rahi. patnjali ne us parampara ko sootrabaddh karake sngrahit kiya. at: yogashastr ki parampara any shastron ke saman ati prachin kal se jari hai. is bat ki pushti karane vale anek praman prachin ved vanmay men milate hain. yogasootr ke pahale hi sootr se yah spasht hai. yah pahala sootr hai 'ath yoganushasanamh'. is sootr men anushasan shabd ka arth hai 'bad men kiya hua upadesh'.

vidvanon se matabhed

kuchh vidvanon ka mat hai ki patnjali se pahale kee shatakon se yog darshan prachalit tha, parantu badarayan ke dvara usaka khndan brahmasootr granth men kiye jane ke karan vah darshan tyajy mana gaya aur anantar poorn tatha vilupt bhi ho gaya. us yog darshan ke doshon ko hatate hue naye vidvatsnmat yogashastr ki rachana patnjali ne ki. yah nootan yog darshan upanishath siddhanton se mel rakhane ke karan vedgy vidvanon ke dvara svikrit kiya gaya. yogasootr ki rachana ke bad bhi shnkarachary adi bhashyakaron ne apani apani rachanaon men jis yog ka khndan kiya aur jisaka avaidikatv siddh karane ka prayas kiya, vah prachin yog darshan hai, patnjal yog darshan nahin. in vidvanon ke matanusar patnjali rachit yog darshan vaidik tatha sarvatha grahy hai. shrimadbhagavadagita men isi yogashastr ka ullekh anek jagah ativ adar bhav se kiya gaya hai tatha yogashastr ko manyata di gee hai. yogashastr pranit sadhana mumukshu matr ke lie atyavashyak hai. yah tathy vahan pun: pun: dhyan men laya gaya hai. pratyek adhyay ke shirshak men hi yog shabd snlagn karake yah soochit karane ka prayas kiya gaya hai ki manushy ko jivan men kshan pratikshan yog ka adhar lena hi padata hai, tabhi usaka jivan kritarth ho sakata hai. isilie patnjali ka yog darshan vaidik aur advait vedant ke virodh men nahin hai, yah kahana yuktiyukt hoga.

uparyukt mat men tin mudde hain- pahala pantajal yog darshan vaidik hai. doosara advait darshan se usaka virodh nahin hai, balki vah use pushti pradan karata hai aur badarayanachary adi bhashyakaron ke dvara khndit evn tyajy batalaya hua yog darshan patnjal yog darshan nahin hai, balki vah ati prachin yog darshan hai. tisara brahmasootr aur advaitavadiyon ke dvara khndit hone se prachin yog parampara tyajy hokar nashtapray ho gee. in tinon muddon ki samalochana patnjali ke sndarbh men karana avashyak hai.

darshan ke vibhag

prachin parampara ke anusar darshan ke do vibhag hain. ek vaidik aur doosara avaidik. vaidik darshanon ki snkhya chh: hai, jisamen yog darshan samavisht hai. at: yog darshan prachin ho ya arvachin, usaka avaidikatv siddh karane ka agrah vyarth hai. vedon men yog sadhanaon ka ullekh anek sthalon par upalabdh hai. yog sadhana ki upayuktata bhi vaidik vanmay men visheshat: upanishadon men anek bar svikrit ki gayi hai. yah vastavikata hote hue bhi badarayanachary ne brahmasootr men yog ka khndan kiya aur anugami bhashyakaron ne bhi usamen apana svar milaya. badarayanachary tatha unaki parampara ke any bhashyakar svayn ko vaidikon ke agrani samajhate hain. tathapi vaidik yog ka khndan unhonne kyon kiya, yah samasya prashnankit rahati hai.

advaitavadiyon ne karmavad ka bhi badi kadaee se khndan kiya hai. karmavad vedangabhoot hi hai. kuchh sima tak karmavad ko advaitavadiyon ne manyata di hai. saransh, vedon men anek vishay kathit hain. unaki upayogita anuroop paristhiti men tatha vibhinn svabhavon ke manavon ke utkarsh ke lie hai hi. vishayon ki upayogita tatha mahatta kuchh sima tak hi rahati hai. sima par hone par upayogita samapt ho jati hai. antim dhyey ki drishti se karmavad, yogabhyas adi sab sidhiyan hain. ye sab sadhan hain. sadhanon ko antim sadhy ka roop manana kadapi yuktiyukt nahin ho sakata.

mumukshu ke lie chittavritti virodh roop yog sadhana anivary hai. moksh ki siddhi prapt karane ke lie patnjali muni ke dvara prakashit yogamarg atyutkrisht tatha atyavashyak hai. patnjali pranit rah ke rahiyon ko rah men ane vale vighnon, khataron tath snkaton se manaviy man ka svaroop dhyan men rakhakar spashtataya savadhan kiya gaya hai. isaka koee advait tatvabhimani prativad karane ka prayas nahin karega. tathapi jagat, jiv, eeshvar aur moksh adi vishayon ke bare men patnjali ke yoshashastr men jin siddhanton ki sthapana ki gee hai, ve adhikrit sankhy pranali se mel rakhate hain. at: ve siddhant sampoornataya avaidik hain- yah advaitavadiyon ka mat hai. uparyukt baton se yah anugat hota hai ki badarayan ne prachin yogashastr ka khndan kiya, parantu patnjali pranit naye yogashastr ka unhonne aur unake anuyayiyon ne khndan nahin kiya, yah kahana dosh men mukt nahin hai. prachin yogashastr ke jin siddhanton ka khndan advaitiyon ne kiya hai, ve siddhant is prakar se hain- pradhan trigunatmak, anadi, anant tatha jagadutpatti ka karan hai, purush anek hain ityadi. yahi siddhant patnjali ne svikrit kiye hain. at: patnjali pranit yogashastr ke mahattvapoorn siddhanton ka advaitavad ke virodh men rahane ke karan advaitavadiyon ke khndan se mukt rahana asambhav hai.

yogashastr

brahmasootron ka advaitavadiyon ke dvara prachin yogashastr ka parityag kie jane ke karan prachin yogashastr ki parampara nasht ho gayi hai. yah bat bhi yuktiyukt nahin hai, kyonki advaitavadiyon ne yogadarshan ke sath sath charvak, bauddh, jain adi avaidik darshanon ka, itana hi nahin, poorv mimansa, nyay, vaisheshik adi vaidik darshanon ka bhi khndan kiya. parantu isake pashchath bhi un darshan shastron ki parampara nasht nahin huee balki chhante hue vriksh ki bhanti vah parampara vikasit tatha suphalit huee. at: prachin yog darshan aur patnjali ka yog darshan sarvatha alag alag hai, yah kahana tatha un darshanon men vyavachchhed manana tark sngat nahin ho sakata. balki parampara se prachalit yogashastr ki kushal sootrabaddh rachana patnjali muni ne ki, aur vahi patnjali ka yogasootr hai, aisa ham kahen to tarkasngat lagega.

vastut: jiv, jagath aur eeshvar adi ka saty svaroop, unaka anyony snbndh tatha manaviy jivan se snbndh nanavidh koot samasyaon ka samadhan, praman mimansa adi sooksht tatha jatil vishayon par vichar karana yogashastr ka uddeshy nahin hai. yogashastr ka ekamev dhyey hai chittavrittinirodh ki avastha prapt karana, arthath manushy ke man ko vishayon ki or hone vali daud rokakar usako poornataya antarmukh karana. is uddeshy ki poorti ke dauran sadhak ke sanmukh upasthit hone vali apattiyan, man ki bahari or pravritt kyon hoti hain, adi vishayon ke spashtikaran ke lie jiv aur jagath ka saty svaroop, eeshvar ka svaroop adi vishayon ka vivechan avashyak hone ke karan unaka samavesh yog darshan men kiya gaya hai. man ki ekatanata prapt karane ke lie yog darshan ekamev darshan hai. vyavahar aur paramarth ya pravritti aur nivritti in donon jivan margon men saphalata ke lie man ki ekagrata ativ avashyak hai. at: yog darshan ka yah dhyey tatha usamen vivechit sadhanaen manushy matr ke lie mahattv rakhati hain. man ki yah ekagrata kisi ko yogashastr ke abhyas se prapt ho sakati hai. kisi ko yogashastr se parichay n hote hue bhi janmat: ya svabhavat: prapt ho sakati hai. kisi adami ko paristhitivash is ekagrata ka labh ho sakata hai. phalat: in tinon men antar hone ke karan nahin hai. vibhinn prakaron se man ki ekagrata ki siddhi ke anekanek udaharan pratyaksh vyavahar men milate hain.

ekagrata

'chittavrittinirodh' ka abhipray hai man ki atyntik ya paramavadhi ki ekagrata. yahi yog darshan ka uddeshy hai. is ekagrata ki sadhana aur phal yogasootron men suspasht kiye ge hain. patnjali yog ashtangayog nam se bhi prasiddh hai, kyonki patnjali ne yog ke yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dharana, dhyan aur samadhi ye ath ang batae hain. ath angon ke lakshan aur unake anushthan se praptavy, laukik tatha alaukik labh adi ka vivechan bhi patnjali ne kiya hai. ahinsa, saty, astey, brahmachary aur aparigrah ye panch yam hote hain. shauch, sntosh, tap, svadhyay aur eeshvar pranidhan, ye panch niyam hain. inamen yam sarvabhaum hain, yah patnjali ka mat hai. inake acharan ke lie desh kal paristhiti ka koee bndhan nahin hai. ye mahavrat hain aur kisi bhi karan inaka acharan tala nahin ja sakata. ek drishti se ham yah bhi kah sakate hain ki panch yam samaj dharana ke lie atyavashyak hain. at: ve samajik kartavy siddh hote hain. shauch adi niyam vaiyaktik kartavy roop hain. vyakti jivan vikas ke lie unaka acharan avashyak hai. yamon ka palan n karane vala, arthath hinsak, asatyabhashi, chor karmi, kamasakt aur atyadhik lobhi manushy samajik svasthy ke lie ghatak siddh hota hai. parantu niyamon ki avgya karane vala arthath malin, asntusht, achchhrinkhal, anabhyasi aur nastik manushy, yadyapi samaj dharana ko pratyakshat: ast vyast to nahin karega, par vaiyaktik jivan zaroor barabad karega. yah manana padega ki asvachchhata ya asntushtata ke karan samaj bhi kuchh matra men avyavasthit hoga, lekin samaj dharana ke sath niyamon ka snbndh yamon ke snbndh ki apeksha apratyaksh hai. isilie patnjali ka yam aur niyam donon men kiya hua antar dhyan dene yogy hai. asan, pranayam adi chh: ang keval vyaktigat utkarsh ke lie mahattv rakhate hain.

samadhipad

samadhipad men chittavrittinirodh ka phal varnit hai. vah hai 'jiv ka svasvaroop men avasthan'. yah batate hue nirodh rahit sthiti men jiv kin kin vrittiyon men avagunthit ho jata hai, vrittiyan kitani aur kaun kaun si hain, adi baten patnjali ne batayi hain. patnjali batate hain ki pratyaksh, anuman aur agam gyan ke sadhan arthath praman hain. isi pad men shabd se vikalpatmak gyan hota hai, yah kalpana patnjali ne prastut ki hai. patnjali ne vikalp ka lakshan bataya hai 'shabdagyananupati vastushoonyo vikalp:' kabhi, shabdochchar ke turant bad kisi vishay ka gyan hota hai. parantu is gyan men gyat vishay arthath vastu kahin bhi astitv men nahin rahata. jaise, vndhyaputr, kharagosh ka sing, man ke mol gadhe, gol trikon, purush ka chaitany adi shabd prayog sun lene ke bad kuchh gyan hota hai, parantu gyat vastu ka snsar men astitv kabhi hota nahin hai. bolane vala kisi vastu ki sthool kalpana karake bolata hai tatha sunane vala bhi kalpit vastu ka gyan pata hai. yah manushyamatr ka anubhav hai aur isi ki or nirdesh patnjali ne kiya hai. is vikalp roop padarth ko ham saty bhi nahin kah sakate tatha sarvatha asaty bhi nahin kah sakate. patnjali dvara prastut is vikalp ki kalpana abhinav tatha maulik hai. isi pad men patnjali eeshvar ka svaroop aur usaki avashyakata batate hain. eeshvari avidya, asmita adi panch kleshon se tatha karm, janm-maran aur vasana se sadaiv mukt rahata hai. jivan ka mool svaroop bhi yahi hai. parantu vah kaivaly prapti ke bad prakat hota hai. usake poorv evn baddhavastha men jiv avidyadi upadhiyon se grast hi rahata hai. mukti ke pashchath jiv avidyarahit ho jane par bhi eeshvar se alag rahata hai. eeshvar sarvadhik sarvgyta se apoorit hota hai, lekin jiv men is prakar ka sarvgytv kabhi nahin paya ja sakata. jiv aur eeshvar men yah antar sadaiv rahata hai.

naiyayikon ne eeshvar ka astitv anuman se siddh kiya hai. kshitynkuradi srishti ka utpadak koee avashy hona chahie. marty manushy to is srishti ka srijan kabhi nahin kar sakata. aty nitygyan, nity ichchha aur nityakriti in tin gunon se mndit eeshvar anuman ke adhar par siddh hota hai. vedanti shruti ke adhar par eeshvar ko siddh karate hain. eeshvar vastut: jagath ka nimitt karan bhi nahin hai aur upadan karan bhi nahin. balki mayavishisht svapradhan eeshvar jagath ka upadan karak siddh hota hai. eeshvar aur usaka yah dvividh svaroop pradhanataya shruti tatha shruti-anukool anuman ke adhar par nirdharit karate hain. is sthiti men yah prashn uthata hai ki yogiyon ke eeshvar ke nity gyan sampann rahate hue bhi usamen kartritv ya ichchha nahin hoti, phir aise eeshvar ki satta kaise siddh hoti hai aur agar siddh huee bhi to aise eeshvar ki satta ka labh bhi kya ho sakata hai.

patnjali ke praman

patnjali ne pratyaksh, anuman aur shabd ye tin praman svikrit kiye hain. in tin pramanon men se eeshvar ka astitv siddh karane vala praman kaun sa hai, yah patnjali ne nahin bataya hai. 'lakshan pramanabhyan vastusiddh:' kisi bhi vastu ka astitv siddh karane ka yah sarvasnmat tarika hai. eeshvar ka lakshan patnjali ne 'klesh karmavipakashayairaparabhrisht: purush vishesh eeshvar:', is sootr men vishad kiya hai. parantu eeshvar ka yah svaroop hai, yah unhonne kaise nirdharit kiya. kisi bhi vastu ke gyan ke bina us vastu ka lakshan karana asambhav hai. praman ke bal par hi usake saty svaroop ka akalan hota hai.

'eevar pranidhanadva' tatha 'samadhisiddhirishvar pranidhanath' in do sootron men eeshvar ki manaviy jivan men upayogita varnit hai. eeshvar pranidhan ek niyam bhi hai. isase eeshvar pranidhan ka vishay nishchit hota hai. patnjali is kathan se apratyaksh roop se soochit karate hain ki pranidhan roop praman se eeshvar ka gyan hota hai. pratham padantargat eeshvar pranidhan prakaran men pranidhan ka svaroop 'tajjapastadarthabhavanamh' aisa vishad kiya gaya hai. vahan eeshvar vachak onkar ka jap tatha us onkar ke arth ki eeshvar ki bhavana arthath akhnd chintan eeshvar pranidhan ka svaroop bataya gaya hai. arthath pranidhan ek tarah ka ekagr manas gyan siddh hota hai. is manas gyan ka vishay eeshvar hai. tatpary yah hua ki eeshvar ke astitv ka praman manas pratyaksh hai aur eeshvar avidya asmitadi panch kleshon se tatha karm, janm maran aur vasana se sadaiv mukt rahata hai, yah usaka lakshan hai. uparyukt lakshan pramanon ke eeshvarasiddhi patnjali ne ki hai. ab is eeshvar ka kary kya hai. yah prashn uthata hai. vastut: kisi bhi vastu ki lakshan pramanon siddhi hone par usake astitv ko manyata dena shastr ka kam hai. usaki upayogita ki, usase hone vale labh ya hani ki kalpana vyavahar sapeksh hai. at: astitv ki svikriti ke sndarbh men aprastut hai. ham aisa bhi kah sakate hain ki shastr ke lie vastu ka astitv hi usaka upayog hai. eeshvaravadi vaisheshikadi shastrakaron ki tarah patnjali ne eeshvar ko srishti ke kary men nahin lagaya, kyonki yog ki drishti se trigunatmak vishv ki utpatti sahaj, svabhavik hi hai, jaise- nimn bhoomi ki or bahana jal ka sahaj svabhav hi hai. nimn bhoomi ki or jal ko dhakelana nahin padata hai. par agar eeshvar ki jagath ki rachana ke kam men vyavaharik upayogita siddh nahin huee, to bhi eeshvar ka astitv asaty siddh nahin ho sakata hai. 'lakshan pramanabhyan vastusiddhi:' is nyay ke anusar vastu ke astitv ka avalokan karane vali lakshan aur praman, ye do hi ankhen hain. yah hote hue bhi manaviy jivan men eeshvar ki upayogita hai, yah patnjali ka mat hai.

jivan ka antim uddeshy

manushy jivan ka antim uddeshy kya hai? patnjali ka uttar hai kaivaly prapti. us kaivaly ki prapti ke lie chittavrittinirodharoop yog anivary hai. is yog ke anek marg hain. unamen ek hai 'eeshvar pranidhan' arthath ativ ekagr man se eeshvar chintan. yahan yah dhyan men rakhana chahie ki eeshvar pranidhan ko ekamatr marg patnjali ne nahin mana hai tatha abhyas, vairagy adi ka pratham ullekh karane ke bad eeshvar pranidhan ka ullekh kiya hai. isase pratit hota hai ki yog ka pradhan tatha svabhavik path, abhyas evn vairagy hi hai. kintu jin logon ko abhyas ya vairagy ka path kathin maloom hota hai, unake lie eeshvaropasana yog ka sadhan hai, yah patnjali ne soochit kiya hai. patnjali ne chetan tatha achetan srishti ke bare men sankhy mat ko mana hai. in donon prakar ki srishtiyon ki utpatti ke lie eeshvar ki zaroorat kahin bhi avashyak n hone ke karan sankhyanuyayiyon ne vishuddh vaicharik tatha tatvik star par eeshvar ke astitv ko manyata nahin di hai. patnjali ne eeshvar ka astitv mana tatha usaka lakshan aur vaikalpik avashyakata bhi niroopit ki. isaka koee samajik, rajakiy ya bahirng (tattviketar) karan ho sakata hai. keval shuddh vichar ke pravakta, nastik ya nirishvaravadi darshanikon ko tatkalin samaj men darja ya rajashray prapt karana sadharan manushy ki samarthy ke bahar hai. sambhavat: isi karan patnjali ne eeshvar ki satta ko mana, eeshvar ya usake pratik onkar ko upasana ke lie prayukt kiya aur samajik kshetr men is shastr ko darja prapt karavaya.

pratikopasanaen

upanishadon men kuchh pratikopasanaen prastut ki gayi hain. un pratikopasanaon ka adhar patnjali pranit vikalpatmak gyan hi hai. eeshvar ya isht devata vikalp roop hi hota hai, parantu kisi vishesh avastha men manushy ko pratikopasana ke lie unaki zaroorat padati hai, aisa patnjali ka abhipray kuchh abhyasakon ne mana hai. eeshvar ka svaroop aur usake upayog ke sath sath pratham pad men samadhi ke prakar, chitt ki prasannata prapt karane ke sadhan adi vishay charchit hain.

sadhanapad

doosare sadhanapad men klesh, drashta ka arthath purush ka svaroop, avidya ka karan, yog ke ath ang aur unaki phalashruti adi varnit hain.

vibhootipad

tisare vibhootipa men yog ke antarng sadhan, yoganushthan se prapt hone vali vibhinn siddhiyan adi vishayon ka pratipadan karate hue patnjali ne soochit kiya hai ki siddhiyon ka moh karana samadhi ke lie anishtakari tatha kaivaly prapti ke marg men vighn hi hai.

vigyanavad

chauthe pad men vigyanavad ke khndan ke sath sath svaroop pratishtha arthath kaivaly ka varnan kiya hai. yog ke yam, niyam adi ath angon men se asan tatha pranayam ka hathayog se nikat snbndh hai. shesh chh: angon ka vishesh rajayog hai. kuchh phal sabaki anubhooti ka vishay ho sakate hain tatha vartaman kal men bhi svikaraniy hain. chittavrittinirodh se drishta apane keval vishuddh roop men rahata hai aur vahi hai svaroop pratishtha ya kaivaly. ahinsavritti dridh hote hi vairabhav chhoot jata hai. sntosh se utkrisht sukh ka labh hota hai ityadi. parantu asteyavritti sthir hote hi sakal ratn prapt hote hain. aparigrahavritti sthir hote hi poorvajanm tatha punarjanm ka gyan hota hai, shabd, arth aur anubhav ka bhed gyat ho to sab praniyon ki bhashaen samajh men ati hain. is prakar ki phalashruti aur vibhootipad men kathit anek any vibhootiyon ka ullekh sadharanajan ki yamaniyamon ke prati pravritti jagrit karane ke lie pralobhan matr hai ya ve vibhootiyan vastav men hain. vastav men hon to unake karyakaranabhav ki sngati vartaman kal men kaise bithayi jae. puranantargat varnanon ki tarah aise ullekh kya keval padhakar chhod dene chahie. vartaman vaigyanik yug men aisi siddhiyan shayad buddhi sngat n lagen.

isamen tanik bhi sndeh nahin hai ki patnjali ne yogasootr ki rachana karake ek ativ upayukt shastr ki parampara pradipt ki aur manushy jati ko aihik tatha paralaukik annd ka akhnd nirmal nirbhar upalabdh kara diya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh