पाणिनि  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

panini
panini ke samman men bharat sarakar dvara jari dak tikat
poora nam panini
janm 500 eesa poorv
janm bhoomi gandhar
mukhy rachanaen ashtadhyayi
prasiddhi snskrit ke vyakaranachary
vishesh yogadan snskrit bhasha ko vyakaran sammat roop dene men panini ka yogadan atulaniy mana jata hai.
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari panini ne apane samay ki snskrit bhasha ki sookshm chhanabin ki thi. is chhanabin ke adhar par unhonne jis vyakaran shastr ka pravachan kiya, vah n keval tatkalin snskrit bhasha ka niyamak shastr bana, apitu usane agami snskrit rachanaon ko bhi prabhavit kiya.

panini (angrezi:Pāṇini) snskrit bhasha ke prasiddh aur shreshth vyakaranachary hain. unake ashtadhyayi namak granth ke ath adhyay hain. har adhyay men char pad hain. pratyek pad men prastut vishay ke anusar kam athava adhik sootr snkhya hai. atyant snkshep men kahe hue niyam athava vidhan ko sootr kahate hain. atynt snkshipt hona hi paniniy sootron ka sabase nirala vaishishty hai. us snkshep ke lie maharshi panini ne ek svatntr paddhati taiyar ki hai. phalasvaroop sootron ki adhikansh rachana atyadhik takaniki aur lok vyavahar ki bhasha se bhinn ho gee hai. panini sootr ki bhasha snskrit hote hue bhi snskrit bhasha ke achchhe gyan matr se sootrarth ka gyan asnbhav hai: tathapi yah vyakaran bahut snkshipt ho gaya hai, balki kuchh ek had tak durbodh bhi ho gaya hai, phir bhi ek ek sootr se bada shabd samooh siddh ho jata hai. yah ek bada labh hai.

parichay

panini (500 eesa poorv) snskrit vyakaran shastr ke sabase bade pratishthata aur niyamak achary the. inaka janm pnjab ke shalatula men hua tha jo adhunik peshavar (pakistan) ke qarib tatkalin uttar pashchim bharat ke gandhar men hua tha. inaka jivanakal 520-460 eesa poorv mana jata hai. inake vyakaran ko ashtadhyayi kahate hain. inhonne bhasha ke shuddh prayogon ki sima ka nirdharan kiya, jo prayog ashtadhayayi ki kasauti par khare nahin utare aur unhen vidvanon ne 'apaniniy' kahakar ashuddh ghoshit kar diya. snskrit bhasha ko vyakaran sammat roop dene men panini ka yogadan atulaniy mana jata hai.

ashtadhyayi

ashtadhyayi matr vyakaran grnth nahin hai. isamen prakarantar se tatkalin bharatiy samaj ka poora chitr milata hai. us samay ke bhoogol, samajik, arthik, shiksha aur rajanitik jivan, darshanik chintan, khan-pan, rahan-sahan adi ke prasng sthan-sthan par ankit hain. panini ka samay eesa poorv 800 se 400 ke madhy hai, yadyapi vidvanh panini ka samay bhagavan buddh se poorv batate hain, to doosare kahate hain ki buddh bhagavan ke bad hue. artharahit aur atyant snkshipt ri, dhu, bh, dh ityadi sngyaen panini tantr ki ek advitiy visheshata hai. is prakar ke anek karanon se panini ka vyakaran shastr anek vaisheshtyon ki khan aur vyakaranakaron ke lie ek adarsh ban gaya hai.

prachin kathaon men ullekh

panini ka jivan vritt atyant svalp roop men milata hai. ashtadhyayi ki patnjali rachit tika, mahabhashy men usake vishay men kee ullekh ae hain. paramparik lok kathaon se svalparoop men jo kuchh gyat hai, use aitihasik saty samajhana bhool hogi. mahabhashyakar patnjali panini ko dakshiputr (1-1-20) kahate hain. narmada nadi ke uttaravarti bharat men panini ne pravas kiya aur us samay prachalit snskrit bhasha aur upabhashaon ka usane bahut sookshm buddhi se adhyayan kiya. panini ne us samay upalabdh ved sootradi vanmay ka bhi gahara adhyayan kiya hoga. yah bat usake sootron men ullikhit baton se bhali prakar se gyat hoti hai. panini ke poorv anek vyakaranakar ho chuke the, parantu unake vyakaranon men bahut adhoorapan tha aur vishesh pradesh, shakha, sampraday ki bhasha ka hi unake vyakaran men vimarsh kiya gaya tha. panini ka vyakaran sarvasamaveshak hone se mahabhashyakar us vyakaran ko sarvaved 'parishad' (2.1.58) yani sarvaved shakha aur sabhi paramparaon ka sngrahak kahakar any poorv vyakaranon se usaka vaishishtay spasht se batate hain.

prachin kal men bharat desh men vyakaran shastr ka any shastron se sambandh bahut gahara mana jata tha. vyakaran aur nyay ye do shastr granth sab shastron ke adhyayan ke lie atyavashyak samajhe jate the. visheshat: tatvgyan se vyakaran shastr ka sambandh do karanon se hota hai. tatvgyan vastuon aur ghatanaon ka yatharth gyan hai. kisi bhi vastu ka sahi svaroop vichar se hi nishchit karana sambhav hai. vicharon ka madhyam shabd hai aur yah jitana samuchit ho utana hi vichar men nishchitata hoti hai. aise atyant samuchit shabdon ka gyan vyakaran shastr se sambhav hai.

vyakaran shastr

panini ne apane samay ki snskrit bhasha ki sookshm chhanabin ki thi. is chhanabin ke adhar par unhonne jis vyakaran shastr ka pravachan kiya, vah n keval tatkalin snskrit bhasha ka niyamak shastr bana, apitu usane agami snskrit rachanaon ko bhi prabhavit kiya. panini se poorv bhi vyakaran shastr ke any acharyon ne is vishal snskrit bhasha ko niyamon men bandhane ka prayas kiya tha, parantu panini ka shastr vistar aur gambhiry ki drishti se in sabhi men siramaur siddh hua. panini ne apani gahan antadrirshti, samanvayatmak drishtikon, ekagrata, kushalata, dridh parishram aur vipul samagri ki sahayata se jis anoothe vyakaran shastr ka upadesh diya, use dekhakar bade se bade vidvanh ashchary chakit hokar kahane lage – 'paniniyn mahatsuvirachitamh' – panini ka shastr mahanh aur suvirachit hai; 'mahati sookshmekshika vartate sootrakarasy' unaki drishti atyant paini hai; 'shobhana khalu panineah sootrasy kritiah' unaki rachana ati sundar hai; 'paninishabdo loke prakashate' sare lok men panini ka nam chha gaya hai, ityadi. bhashyakar ne panini ko pramanabhoot achary, mangalik achary, srihridh, bhagavan adi visheshanon se sambodhit kiya hai. unake anusar panini ke sootr men ek bhi shabd anarthak nahin ho sakata, aur paniniy shastr men aisa kuchh nahin hai jo nirarthak ho. unhonne jo sootr banae hain, ve bahut hi soch vichar kar banae ge hain. unhonne suhridh ke roop men vyakaran shastr ka anvakhyan kiya hai. rachana ke samay unaki drishti bhavishy ki or thi aur vah dooratar ki bat sochate the. is prakar unaki pratishtha bachche bachche tak phail gee aur vidyarthiyon men unhin ka vyakaran sarvadhik priy hua.

vyakaran aur tatvgyan men doosare prakar ka bhi sambandh bhi prachin kal se bahut granthon men bataya gaya hai. oopar diye ek sambandhon se bhi yah adhik mahattvapoorn mana gaya hai. usaka svaroop aisa hota hai- vyakaran shastr ka prachin kal men diya hua ek prasiddh nam 'shabdanushasan' hai. 'shabdanushasan' ka arth hai, sadhu (yogy) shabd se asadhu (ayogy) shabdon ko alag karana. parantu shabd ka sadhutv aur asadhutv arth sapeksh hai, jaise- 'svajan' shabd, apt, svakiy sambandhi ke arth men yogy (sadhu) hai. us arth men 'shvajan' shabd poorn asadhu hai. phir bhi shvajan shabd sarvatha asadhu hi hai, aisa kahana uchit nahin hoga, kyonki kutte ka (rakshak) manav, athava kutton ka samooh ityadi arth ke lie vah yogy hai. isi tarah 'sakal' shabd 'sarv sampoorn' ke arth men sadhu aur 'tukada' arth men asadhu hai. 'shakal' shabd sarv 'arth men asadhu aur tukada' arth men sadhu hai. is tarah shabdon ka sadhutv aur asadhutv arthavalambi hai, anyanirapeksh arthath keval svaroopashrit nahin hai. is vivechan ka matalab yah hai ki shabd sadhutv ka vichar vyakaran shastr ka pramukh uddeshy hote hue bhi shabd se pratit hone vale arth ka hi vyakaran shastr men upang roop se vichar karana anivary hai.

nity dainadin vyavahar men shabd se snketik arth pratit hota hai. lekin vyakaran shastr men prayukt kee shabdon se svayn shabd svaroop hi gyat hota hai. yah ek vishesh shabd shakti sootrakar ne 'svayn roop shabdasyashabd sngya' [1] sootr se spasht roop se bataee hai. any shastrakar, shabd keval arth ka hi bodhak hai, aisa kahate hain. par sootrakar panini ke anusar shabd bahy arth ka aur shabd ka hi bodhak hai. agnertak ityadi sootron men uchcharit agni shabd ka arth 'agni' shabd pratit hota hai aur anekanek sootron men 'yah shabd', amuk shabd kahane ki zaroorat nahin hoti, aur bada shabd ladhav siddh hota hai.

shabd ke arth

shabd se pratit hone vala arth kya jatiroop hai ya vyaktitv hai ya jati aur vyakti donon shabd se pratit hote hain. us arth se shabd ka koee sambandh hai ya nahin. agar koee sambandh ho to us sambandh ka svaroop kya hai. vah sambandh nity hai ya anity hai. koee sambandh n ho to shabd se arth gyan ki utpatti kaisi. is karan shabd aur arth ka koee sambandh to avashy hi svikar karana hoga. shabd se vachy, gaun, vyng, dyoty ityadi roop se bhinn bhinn arth pratit hote hain. tatpayarth bhi koee shastrakar alag roop se svikar karate hain. vakyarth kya keval shabd samooharth roop se ya usase bhinn hain. ye sab arth bhinn bhinn to hain hi, lekin kabhi kabhi viruddh bhi pratit hote hain. vyakaran shastr men jo shabd siddhi batalaee gee hai, isase is sab anyany arthon ka koee sambandh hai ya nahin. us sab arthon ke vichar ki zaroorat hai ya nahin. pratyaksh aur anuman se jo arth ka svaroop pratit hota hai, vahi shabd se pratit hota hai ya koee bhinn svaroop pratit hota hai. arth ka bodhak shabd vyakaran shastr men pravritti pratyayadi prakriya se siddh kiya hua shabd ek hi hai ya alag hai. alag ho to un donon ka sambandh kya hai. ek hi ho to vah vyakaran men siddh kiya hua shabd anity hi manana padega. phir shabd nity hai, aisa vyakaran shastr ka siddhant 'siddhe shabdarth sambandhe' is pramanabhoot pratham vartik se gyat hota hai. shabd, arth aur sambandh in tinon ka svaroop vyakaran shastr men siddhant roop se kaisa svikrit kiya gaya hai. poorvamimansa, nyay adi any shastrakaron ne usaka jo svaroop bataya hai, usamen vyakaran shastr men bataye hue svaroop ka kya bhed hai. is prakar ki anekanek samasyaen upasthit hoti hain. sab samasyaon ka nivaran karake shabd, arth aur sambandh ka svaroop nishchit karana prarambh men hi atyavashyak hota hai.

sootrakar panini shabdon ke sadhutvasadhutv ke vishay men atyant vastavavadi hain. usane mukhy roop se tatkalin bhasha aur samay upalabdh prachin vedadi vanmay men prayukt bhasha ka yatharth svaroop snkshep men batalane vala granth sootr roop men taiyar kiya. is snkshipt roop ke karan sootrakar ne uparinirdisht anekanek prashnon ka nirnay pratyaksh roop se kiya nahin hai, phir bhi is sambandh men usake sootron men kuchh ullekh milate hain. kee sthanon par sootrakar panini ne atyant parimit shabdon men aur spasht roop se apane svikrit siddhant kahe hain. donon prakar ke (sanketik aur spasht) ullekhon ke adhar par bahut oohapoh karake usake tikakaron ne kuchh siddhant sthir kie hain.

shabd se jati roop arth pratit hota hai ya vyakti roop, is vishay men prachin shastron men anek mat hain. panini ne is vishay men aisa kaha hai ki sndarbh ke anusar shabd kee sthanon par jati aur kee sthanon par vyakti ka bodhak hota hai. is karan se har ek shabd dvayarthi hai. phir bhi jab shabd jatiparak ho to jati ke ek hi hone ke karan shabd ek vachan men hi prayukt karana uchit hone par bhi usaka bahuvachan prayog bhi ho sakata hai. 'jatyakhyayabhekasminh bahuvachan manyatarasyamh [2] is sootr se uparinirdisht vyavastha usane batalaee hai aur is vivady vishay men sndarbh arthath lok vyavahar ke anusar arth karana chahie, yah siddhant apanaya hai.

shabd ka prayog

vyavahar men shabd ka prayog arth bodh ke lie yani arthaparak hota hai. parantu vyakaran shastr men shabd ka upayog vishishtarth bodhak shabd ka bodh karane ke lie yani shabdapoorak hota hai. shabd ke upayog men yah bhed dhyan men rakhakar agar shabd arthaparak ho to panini ke anusar use vyakaran shastr men di huee sarvanam, avyay, dhatu ityadi sngya di jae aur agar shabdaparak ho to usako sarvanam avyayadi vyakaran sngya n di jae aur us sngya se prayukt koee bhi pratyayadeshadi kary n kiya jae. yah shabd ka arthaparatv aur shabdaparatv ka bhed sootrakar ne sakshath upayog karake batalaya hai. 'idamh' shabd ka arthaparak upayog ho to usako sarvanam sngya di jati hai aur us sngya ke anusar ime, asmai, eshamh ityadi roop vishesh pratyayadi prakriya se ban jate hain, usaka shashthi ek vachan ka vishesh roop 'asy' ho jayega. lekin yadi usaka upayog shabdaparak ho to usaki sarvanam sngya nahin hogi aur n hi isase prayukt vishesh kary hoga. usaka shashthi ek vachan ka roop 'idamh:' banega. 'idayom:' [3], is sootr men shabdaparak hone se 'idam:', aisa roop (n ki asy) sootrakar ne prayukt kiya hai. isi prakar prate:, pratita, anu:, aye, bhuv:, vas:, din:, lash:, ityadi avyay aur dhatuon ke vibhaktyant prayog panini ne prayukt kie hain. par samany niyam se avyay aur dhatuon ka vibhaktyant prayog nahin ho sakata hai.

roodh arthath yadchchha shabdon ke do upavibhag yani avantar bhed hain. atyant roodh aur sadiroodh. jin shabdon ka vyavahar men vishisht arth bodh ke lie pratham prayog kisane kiya, is bat ka pata nahin chalata, ye shabd atyant roodh athava anadiroodh kahalate hain. prachin eeshvaravadiyon ka mat aisa hai ki kalp ke prarambh men sakshath eeshvar ne hi kee shabdon ka arth sahit upadesh maharshiyon ko diya. ve shabd maharshiyon ke vyavahar se us samay ki manav jati ko maloom hue. parampara se aj tak ve shabd us arth men prayukt hote a rahe hain. doosara upavibhag sadiroodh ya adhunik snketit shabdon ka hai. panini adi rishiyon ke dvara kie hue ri. ghu. bh., adi shabd aur any logon dvara prayukt ditth, uvitth adi ne shabd is prakar ke hain. in donon prakar ke roodh shabdon men prakriti pratyayadi nahin hote hain. aisa mat doosari vicharadhara valon ka hai. yaugik shabd prakriti pratyay vibhag yukt hote hain. vyakti aur vastu men vidyaman vishesh gun ya kriya is prakar ke shabd se gyat hoti hai, jaise pachak, nayak, chor, ashray, gopal, raja, gyani ityadi. is karan se in shabdon men mool dhatu aur antim pratyay aisa vibhag spasht riti se gyat hota hai. isalie in shabdon ko yaugik arthath prakriti pratyay se sadhit samajhana thik hoga.

shabdon ke bhed

shabdon ke ye do bhed roodh aur yaugik, sab bhashaon men sab samay men rahate hi hain. is mat ke anuyayi bahusnkhyak bhasha vidvanh hain aur bhagavan panini ko bhi yahi mat vishesh many tha, phir bhi shabd ka arth jati hai ya vyakti, is vishay men jaise panini agrah vale nahin, vaise hi shabd vibhag, shabd sadhana ke bare men bhi ve kisi ek mat ke pakshapati nahin hain. jin shabdon men prakriti pratyay vibhag spasht roop se nahin dikhata hai phir bhi shakatayan athava yask ke matanusar jo yaugik siddh kiye ge hain, unaki vyutpatti ko unadayi bahulamh [4] sootr se panini ne vikalp roop se manyata di hai. shabd roodh ho ya yaugik ho, donon ke lie vyakaran, shastriy snskar prakriya saman roop se hoti hai. roodh shabd ke arth men panini 'sngya' shabd prayukt karata hai. vyakaran shastr ka antim praman lok vyavahar hi hai. lok vyavahar men jo shabd jis arth men jis ling, vachan men prayukt hota hai, vaisa hi vyakaran shastr se siddh karana aur many karana chahie. lokon men jo roodh samajha gayay hai, vah roodh samajhana chahie. vyavahar ke visnvadi tark aur yuktiyan athava niyam vyarth hain. vyavahar se viruddh niyam ko ashastriy arthath sarvatha tyajy hi samajhana chahie. aisa spasht mat sootrakar panini ne 'tadashishyn sngyapramanatvanh [5] sootr se vyakt kiya hai. panini ka vyakaran aur bhasha donon ke sambandh men kya mat tha, is vishay men [6] tak ke panch sootr atyant vicharaniy aur margadarshak hain.

panini ki vicharadhara

panini ne shabd ka shabd bodhakatv 'svn roopn shabdasyashabd sngya' [7] is sootr se siddhant roop se svikrit kiya hai. is siddhant ka vishesh samarthan 'shabd poorvak evn arthasnpratyay:' [8] 'n sosti pratyayo loke y: shabdanugayadrite' [9] ityadi vivaran ke dvara usake tikakaron ne kiya hai.

shabd se pratit hone vale arth ke bare men panini ne uparinirdisht sootr dvara any shastrakaron ke maton ki apeksha kuchh nirala sa mat prakat kiya hai. shabd aur arth in donon ke sambandh ke bare men prachin shastrakaron ke bhinn bhinn mat hain. koee is sambandh ko nity aur svabhav siddh samajhate hain to koee keval sanketik aur anity samajhate hain. naiyayik use ichchharoop aur nity anity batate hain. arth ke saman shabd bhi shabd ka bodhy hota hai, yah siddhant manakar sootrakar panini shabd aur arth donon 'tadatmy' sambandh soochit karata hai. bodhak shabd ka bodhy shabd se tadatmy se alag koee bhi sambandh sambhav nahin hai. bodhak shabd se jaisasa tadatmy sambandh hai, usi tarah bodhy arth se bhi vahi tadatmy sambandh manana uchit hoga lekin yah tadatmy bhedabhed roop hi hota hai. kabhi abhed vastav yani saty aur bhed kalpit hota hai to kabhi bhed vastav aur abhed kalpit hota hai. jab shabd ka arth shabd hi ho to abhed vastav aur bhed kalpit hota hai. aur jab vyavahar men shabd se bahy arth ka bhed hota hai, tab bhed vastav aur abhed kalpit hai. 'puravn chandr:' 'griharalati balak:' ityadi prayogon men upaman aur upamey men hone vala bhed vastav aur abhed kalpanik hota hai aur 'phool ka rng', 'vriksh ki shakha', 'sone ka alnkar (gahana)' ityadi men phal aur rng, vriksh aur shakha tatha sona aur alnkar inamen hone vala abhed vastav men aur bhed kalpanik hota hai. isi tarah shabd aur arth donon ke sambandh ke vishay men panini ko tadatmyavadi manana hi thik hoga.

vaidik kal se shabdon ke vishay men do vichar dharaen chalati thin. ek vichar dhara kahati hai ki bhasha men prayukt har ek shabd, ek ya anek dhatuon se bana hai. shakat rishi ka putr shakatayan achary is mat ka bada samarthak tha. aisa kathan nirukt aur mahabhashy ityadi granthon men milata hai. svayn niruktakar yask bhi is mat ka hi samarthak tha. usane jo anekanek shabdon ki vyutpattiyan badi khinchatan se bataee hain, usase yah bat prakat hoti hai. shabd men keval ek varn kisi dhatu se milata ho to bhi ni:snshay hokar keval us varn ki samanata ko lekar us dhatu se shabd ka nirvachan karana, lekin amuk shabd ka nirvachan shaky nahin hai, aisa kabhi n kahana, is bat ka soochak hai. is mat ke anusar bhasha men prayukt sab shabdon ka nam, sarvanam, visheshan, hi kya avyayon ka bhi nirvachan dhoondhane ki badi koshish zaroor karani chahie. panini adi shastrakaron ne jo keval svechchha se roodh kie hain, aise lat, lit, ith adi yadrichchha shabdon ka jinaka upayog paribhashik arth men keval vishisht shastr men hi kiya gaya hai aur jo vyavahar men kabhi prayukt nahin hai, aise arthahin shabdon ka bhi nirvachan kisi n kisi riti se karane ka prayatn karane se usamen bhi kuchh saphalata mil jaegi, aisa is mat ko manane valon ka kahana hai. vartaman samay men us shabd se jo arth nikalata hai, us arth se vah nirvasan se sngati rakhane vale arth men prayukt tha aur kal pravah men bhinn athava atyant viruddh arth ka bodhak ho gaya, aisa sambhav hai. tadanusar har ek shabd ki vyutpatti arthath dhatu, pratyay adi se vibhajan atal roop se prarambh men hona hai.

doosari vicharadhara aisi hai ki bhasha men kee shabd roodh aur yogik hote hain. roodh shabd ko hi shastrakar yadchchha shabd kahate hain. jin shabdon ka dhatu, pratyay ityadi men vibhajan spasht roop se maloom hota hai, aise shabd yaugik hain.

ashtadhyayi athava paniniyashtak

panini ka vyakaran shabdanushasan ke nam se vidvanon men prasiddh hai, parantu ath adhyayon men vibhakt hone ke karan yahi shabdanushasan lok men ashtadhyayi athava paniniyashtak ke roop men jana jata hai. panini ne apani ashtadhyayi se snskrit bhasha ko amarata pradan ki. unaki vyakaran ki riti se snskrit bhasha ke sabhi ang alaukit ho uthe. sarvashastropakarak ke roop men paniniy ashtadhyayi ki sahayata se hamen kahin bhi apana marg dhoondhane men kathinaee nahin hoti hai. snsar ki anek bhashaen niyamit vyakaran ke abhav men ya to lupt ho geen hain, ya itani durooh hain ki unhen samajhana hi dushkar hain. kintu snskrit bhasha ke gady aur pady donon panini shastr se niyamit hone ke karan sada hi subodh bane rahe hain. aj bhi ham paniniy ashtadhyayi ki sahayata se snskrit ke prachinatam sahity se lekar navinatam rachanaon ka rasasvad kar sakate hain.

apane vyakaran ko poorv evn sarvagrahi banane ke lie panini ne deshatan kar bharat ke vibhinn janapadon ki bhasha, unake riti–vyavahar, veshabhoosha, udyog–dhandhe tatha unake vyakti aur jati–vachak namon ka poorn gyan prapt kiya. atah unaka vyakaran n keval shabdanushasan ki drishti se paripoorn hai, apitu vah tatkalin sabhyata aur snskriti ka vishvasaniy aur pramanik itihas bhi hai. paniniy vyakaran itana suvyavasthit, vaigyanik, laghavapoorn aur sarvangapoorn siddh hua ki unake samane samast vyakaran gaun ho ge. yahan tak ki dhire dhire pradeshik vyakaranon ka prachalan band ho gaya aur kalantar men ve nashtapray ho ge. paniniy ashtadhyayi ke ath adhyayon men se pratyek adhyay men char pad hain aur kul milakar lagabhag char hazar sootr hain. ashtadhyayi ki sootr snkhya ke vishay men vidvanon men thoda vivad hai. kuchh vidvanh isake sootron ki snkhya 3981 manate hain. inamen yadi 14 pratyahar–sootr jod den to yah snkhya 3995 ho jati hai. ashtadhyayi ko vedang manane valon ki parampara men prachalit maukhik path men yah snkhya 3983 hai. kashika aur siddhant–kaumudi ke paramparagat path ke anusar 3983 snkhya hi di huee hai.

adhyay

vyakaraniy prakriya ki drishti se ashtadhyayi ko mukhy roop se tin bhagon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai. ek, vakyon ke padon ka snkalan (1–2 adhyay); do, padon ka prakriti–pratyay men vibhag (3–5 adhyay); tin, prakriti–pratyayon ke sath agam adeshadi ka snyojan kar parinishthit padon ka nirman (6–8 adhyay). ashtadhyayi ke pratham do adhyayon men padon ke subant, tinant bhedon aur vakyon men unake paraspar sambandh par vichar kiya gaya hai. tritiy adhyay men dhatuon se shabd–siddhi ka vivechan tatha chaturth aur pancham adhyay men pratipadikon evn shabd siddhi ka vichar hai. shashth evn saptam adhyayon men subant evn tinant shabdon ki prakriti–pratyayatmak siddhi evn svaron ka vivechan hai, tatha ashtam adhyay men sannihit padon ke shighrochcharan se varnon ya svaron par padane vale prabhav ki charcha hai. yadi pratipady vishayon ki drishti se vichar kiya jae to sngya aur paribhasha, svaron aur vynjanon ke prakar, dhatusiddh kriyapad, karak, vibhakti, ekashesh samas, kridant, subant, taddhit, agam aur adesh, svar vichar, ditv aur sandhi – ye ashtadhyayi ke pratipady vishay hain.

ashtadhyayi snhita

panini ne sampoorn ashtadhyayi snhita path men rachi thi. mahabhashy men likha hai[10] 'ubhayatha hi tulya snhita sthaneantaratam uranh raparah iti.' is prakar ke pramanon se spasht hai ki panini ne ashtadhyayi snhita path men rachi thi. yadyapi panini ne pravachan kal men sootron ka vichchhed avashy kiya hoga (kyonki usake bina sootrarth ka pravachan sambhav nahin), tathapi patanjali ne unake snhita path ko hi pramanik mana hai. paniniy vyakaran men kee sthanon par prachin vyakaranon ke shlokanshon ki spasht jhalak upalabdh hoti hai. jaise ‘tadasmai diyate yuktn shranamansaudanattathin.’ ye anushtuph ke do charan the. isamen panini ne ynktn ka niyuktn padhakar do sootron ka pravachan kiya hai. achary yudhishthir mimansak ji ke anusar yadyapi panini ne apane shastr ke pravachan men sampoorn prachin vanmay ka upayog kiya hai, to bhi panini ka pradhan upajivy apishal vyakaran hai.

sootr

ashtadhyayi ke pratyek pad ki vibhinn sngyaen us–us pad ke pratham sootr ke adhar par rakhi geen hain.

panini ki ashtadhyayi ke anushilan se yah spasht pratit hota hai ki ve jis snskrit bhasha ka vyakaran likh rahe the, vah lokabhasha thi. sainkadon aise sootr hain jinaka upayog vyavahar–gamy shabdon ki siddhi ke nimitt hi hota hai, kisi shastriy shabd ke lie nahin. udaharanarth – plutavidhan ki yuktimatta – plutavidhan ke nimitt anek sootr hain.

  1. door se bulane ke lie prayukt vaky ke ti ki plut sngya hoti hai – saktoonh pib devadatt 3 yahan datt ka antim akar plut hua hai.
  2. devadatt ko door se pukarana hoga to devadatt men tin sthanon men kramashah plut hoga – devadatt, devadatt, devadatt 3.[16]

panini ne vyavahar men prayukt hone vali vastuon ke nam siddh karane ke lie sootron ka nirman kiya hai. in vastuon ka sambandh shastron se n hokar lok–snskriti se hai. udaharanarth– jitana anaj ek khet men boya jata hai, utane se usaka namakaran panini ne kiya hai. prasthik, draunik tatha kharik adi shabd isi niyam se banate hain.[17] ashtadhyayi men us samay prachalit aise muhavare ka prayog hai jo snskrit ko lokabhasha siddh karate hain. vividh prayog ise spasht siddh karate hain. shayyotthann dhavati–sej se sidhe uthakar daudata hai.[18] arthath shighrata ke karan vah any avashyak karyon ki paravah kie bina daudata hai.

granth

panini ne poorvacharyon ke dvara nirdisht prabhoot sngyaon ka prayog apane granth men kiya hai, parantu laghav ke nimitt unhonne anek svopgy sngyaen udbhavit ki hain jaise 'ghu' sngya– dadhaghvadaph[19], 'gh' sngya– taratamapau ghah[20], vriddh sngya – vriddho yoona[21] gotr sngya – apatyn pautrapubhriti gotramh.[22]

pathantar

panini ashtadhyayi ke bhi pathantar upalabdh hote hain. in pathantaron ko tin bhagon men bant sakate hain:–

  1. kuchh pathantar aise hain, jo panini ke svakiy pravachan–bhed se utpann hue hain. yatha– ubhayatha hyacharyen shishyaah sootrn pratipaditaah[23],
  2. vrittikaron ki vyakhyaon ke bhed se– kantheviddhibhyah ityanye pathanti[24],
  3. lekhak ke pramad se. yatha– evn chatakadairatyetath sootramasith. idanin pramadath chatakaya iti pathah.

ashtadhyayi aur usake khilapath (dhatupath, ganapath, unadipath) ke vividh pathon ka sookshm anven karake is nishkarsh par pahuncha jata hai ki achary panini ke panchang vyakaran ka hi trividh path hai– prachy path- ashtadhyayi ke jis path par kashika vritti hai, vah prachy path hai.
audichy path– kshirasvami adi kashmir pradeshiy vidvanon se ashriyaman sootrapath hai.
dakshinaty– jis path par katyayan ne apane vartik likhe hain, vah dakshinaty path hai.
mahabhashyakar ne ashtadhyayi ka prayojan shisht prayogon ke gyan ka marg pradarshan karana likha hai – 'shishtaparigyanartha ashtadhyayi'.[25]

paniniy tantr ke khil granth

paniniy sampraday ki athava kisi bhi vyakaran sampraday ki samagrata ke hetu panch angon se yukt hona nitant avashyak hota hai. isalie sampoorn vyakaran ko panchang vyakaran kaha jata hai. in panchon angon men sootrapath to mukhy hi hai, aur usake sahayak athava poorak hone se any angon ki bhi upayogita hai. inhin ko khil–granth athava parishisht granth ke nam se pukarate hain– 1. dhatupath, 2. ganapath, 3. unadipath, 4. linganushasan.

ashtakn ganapathashch dhatupathastathaiv ch.
linganushasann shiksha paniniya ami kramath..

dhatupath

panini ka dhatupath paniniy vyakaran ka ek mahattvapoorn ang hai. panini–prokt dhatuon ki snkhya lagabhag do sahastr hai. ye dhatuen bhvadi–adadi das ganon men vibhakt hain. pratyek dhatu ke sath arth–nirdesh kiya gaya hai. pashchatty bhashavettaon ne paniniy dhatu–path ki prachur mimansa ki hai.

ganapath

ganapath ashtadhyayi ka ek atynt mahattvapoorn evn avashyak ang hai. paraspar bhinn kintu kisi ek vishay men samanata rakhane vale shabdon ko vyakaran ke ek niyam ke antargat lane ke lie achary ji ne ganapath ka kathan kiya. ganapath ke dvara panini ne ashtadhyayi roopi gagar men gram, janapad, sngh, gotr, charan adi se sambandhit bhaugolik, rajanitik aur sanskritik samagri ka sagar bhar diya hai. vyakaran niyamon ki rachana men sahayak ganapath ki shaili panini ke hathon men sanskritik samagri ka bhandar ban gee. kuchh gan to aise the jinaka panini ke dvara hi poora path ek bar men de diya gaya tha. ye pathit gan kahalae. gotr aur sthan–namon ki ganasoochiyan isi prakar ki hain. doosare gan akritigan kahalae. in akritiganon ke dvar bhasha men utpann hone vale ne–ne shabdon ke lie sarvatha khule hue the. ganapath ki is visheshata ke karan ne–ne shabd panini–shastr ke anushasan men ate rahe hain aur bhi yah ek jita–jagata shastr bana hua hai.

unadi sootr

vyakaran shastr ke anusar shabd do prakar ke hote hain– roodh tatha yaugik. roodh avyutpann hote hain, arthath unaki vyutpatti kisi dhatu se nahin dikhaee ja sakati. yaugik shabd dhatu se nishpann hote hain, isalie ve vyutpann hote hain. unadi sootr pratyek shabd ki sadhuta pratyay ke yog se siddh karate hain. phalatah unaki drishti men koee shabd avyutpann nahin hai, arthath dhatu–vishesh se unaki siddhi avashy dikhaee ja sakati hai. in sootron men arambhik sootr unh pratyay ka vidhan karata hai. kri–va–pa–jimi–svad–sadhyashoobhyn unh – is pratyay ke adim hone ke karan yah samast pratyay–samuchchay unadi ke nam se prakhyat hai. pratyek vyakaran–sampraday ka unadi avibhajy tatha avashyak ang hai. paniniy sampraday men unadi ke dvividh roop men milate hain–

  1. panchapadi,
  2. dashapadi.

panchapadi panch padon men vibhakt hai aur sootron ki poori snkhya 759 hai; dashapadi dashapadon men vibhakt hai, aur sootron ki snkhya 727 hai.

linganushasan

snskrit men lingon ka nirdharan karana kathin hai. stribodhak hone vala dar shabd punllig hai aur kalatr napunsak hai. purush–suhridh vachak hone par bhi mitr napunsak hai, shatruvachak 'amitr' pulling hai. isi kathinaee ko door karane ke lie achary ji ne linganushasan ki rachana ki. vyadi hi linganushasan ke sarvapratham sarvaprachin granthakar hain. panini ka linganushasan sootratmak hai. samagr sootron ki snkhya 188 hai. isamen panch adhikar hain– stri adhikar, pulling adhikar, napunsak adhikar, punnapunsak adhikar. paniniy linganushasan ke pravakta svayn sootrakar panini hi hain. linganushasan ka 30van sootr hai– 'aph–sumanash–sama–varshanan bahutvamh'. isamen nity bahuvachanant striling shabdon ka pariganan hai. ye shabd hain– ap, sumanas, sama, sikata tatha varsha.

paribhasha path

paribhasha kisi bhi vyakaran–shasan ka anivary ang hai. paribhasha ka lakshan hai– 'aniyame niyamakarini paribhasha'. samanyatah paribhasha do prakar ki hoti haiah ek to paniniy ashtadhyayi men sootraroop se gathit hai, kyonki panini ke anek sootr 'paribhasha–sootr' ke nam se vikhyat hain. doosare prakar ki paribhashaen ve hain jo ya to kisi sootr se gyapit hoti hain (gyapakasiddha), athava lok men prachalit nyay ka anugaman karati hain (nyayasiddha paribhasha).

phit–sootrapath

paniniy sampraday men phith ka apana mahattv hai. phitsootr snkhya men 87 hain aur char padon men vibhakt hain. 'phith' shabd ka prathama ekavachan hai. 'arthavadadhaturapratyayah pratipadakimh'[26] tatha 'krittaddhitasamasashch'[27] in sootron ke dvara arthavanh mool shabd ki pratipadik sngya paniniy mat men vihit hai. samany riti se kah sakate hain ki suph vibhakti ke yog se pahale arthavanh shabd ka jo mool svaroop rahata hai, jaise– ram, hari, go, bhanu adi vahi pratipadik hai. aur yahi pratipadik 'phith' ke nam se is tantr men prakhyat hai. phith–sootr–path ke 87 sootron men shabdon ke svar snchar par vichar hai. in sootron ki avashyakata to shabdon ke avyutpann manane ke avasar par ati hai. 'avyutpannani pratipadikani' paniniy mat ka ek bahucharchit paksh hai. vidvanon ke anusar phith sootron ke pravakta achary shantanu hain. shantanu–pranit hone se hi ye sootr shantanav nam se prakhyat hain. shantanu achary dvara pranit in sootron ko paniniy sampraday bhi apane shastr ka upadey ang manata hai.

panini ne snskrit bhasha ko ek alaukik evn adbhut shastr pradan kiya. is shastr ke vidhi vidhan panini ne atyant vichar poorvak sthir kie the. vivadaspad maton ke bich panini samanvay aur santulan ka madhyamarg svikar karate hain. panini ke kal men vyakaran–sambandhi anek mat–matantar prachalit the. udaharanarth– vyakaran men svabhavik ya prachalit sngya uchit hai ya kritrim sngya, shabd ka arth jati hai ya vyakti, anukaranatmak shabdon ka astitv hai ya nahin, upasarg vachak hai sa dyotak, dhatu ka arth kriya hai ya bhav, shabd vyutpann hote hain ya avyutpann adi. panini inamen se kisi bhi ek mat ka nirakaran nahin karate, apitu ve inake samanvay ka marh svikar karate hain. samast ashtadhyayi men samanvayatmak aur santulit drishti ki pradhanata hai. is karan yah shastr itani vishal shabd–samagri ko sametane, navin shabd–bhandar ko apane men sthan dene aur sootrabaddh karane men saphal hua. isi karan ise lok men itani adhik pratishtha prapt huee aur panini ka nam bachche–bachche tak pahunch gaya – 'akumarn yashah panineah'.

ne darshanikon ka samarthan

panini ke pashchath jo usake tikakar hue unhonne shabdadvait arthath sphotavad ke nam se ne darshanik mat ka samarthan kiya hai. panini men usaka nirdesh atyant aspasht roop se bhi upalabdh nahin hota hai. poorvacharyon ke nam nirdesh anek sthanon par panini ne kie hain. ek achary 'sphotayan' ka namollekh 'avan sphotayanasy' sootr men hai. usamen sphot shabd ka ullekh matr hai, jo sphot siddhant panini se anek shatabdiyon ke pashchath bhartuhari adi vaiyakaranon ne svikrit aur samarthit kiya hai, usaka svalp matr sambandh bhi panini ke sootron men gyat nahin hota hai. 'sphotayan' achary ke nam nirdesh se yah sphot siddhant sootrakar panini ko snmat athava kam se kam gyat to avashy tha, aisa anuman anek prachin vidvanh karate hain, phir vah tark snmat nahin hai.

sphot siddhant panini ke pashchath anek shatabdiyon ke vyatit hone ke bad ek vishesh paristhiti ke karan tikakar vidvanon ne naya hi pratipadit aur samarthit kiya hai, aisa adhunik vidvanon ka mat hai aur vahi mat yuktiyukt arthath svikaraniy hai. varn samooh se vyakt hone vali varnasamoohatirikt sphot namak svatntr vastu sootrakar panini ko sarvatha agyat hi thi. snmat thi ya nahin, yah prashn utpann hi nahin hota.

snkshep men, panini rishi poornh vastavavadi tha aur tatkalin lok bhasha aur shastriy bhasha, donon varnanatmak vyakaran usane racha. is vishay men vah poorn yashasvi aur adarsh vyakaranakar tha. yah nishchit roop se manana padega.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1. 2. 86
  2. manyatarasyamh 1. 2. 58
  3. 7. 2. 108
  4. 3. 3. 1
  5. 1. 2. 53
  6. 1. 2. 53 se 1. 2. 57
  7. svn roopn shabdasyashabd sngya1. 1. 68
  8. p. bha. 1. 1. 68
  9. va. p. 1. 123
  10. 1.1.50
  11. 1.2
  12. 1.3
  13. 2.4
  14. 3.4
  15. 6.4
  16. 8.2
  17. tasy vapah 5.1.45
  18. 3.4.52
  19. 1.1.20
  20. 1.1.22
  21. 1.2.65
  22. 4.1.162
  23. kashika– 6.2.104
  24. padamanjari–4.1.81
  25. 6.3.109
  26. 1.2.45
  27. 1.2.46

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