पुर्तग़ाली  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

purtagali purtagal desh ke nivasiyon ko kaha jata hai. vaskodigama ek purtagali navik tha. vaskodigama ke dvara ki gee bharat yatraon ne pashchimi yoorop se 'kep aauf gud hop' hokar poorv ke lie samudri marg khol die the. jis sthan ka nam purtagaliyon ne gova rakha tha, vah aj ka chhota-sa samudr tatiy shahar 'goa-velha' hai. kalantar men us kshetr ko gova kaha jane laga, jis par purtagaliyon ne qabza kiya tha. 17 mee, 1498 ee. ko vaskodigama ne bharat ke pashchimi tat par sthit bandaragah kalikat pahunchakar bharat ke naye samudr marg ki khoj ki. kalikat ke tatkalin shasak 'jamorin' ne vaskodigama ka svagat kiya. jamorin ka yah vyapar us samay bharatiy vyapar par adhikar jamaye hue arab vyapariyon ko pasand nahin aya.

vyavaharik sambandh

yadyapi yoorop ke sath bharat ke vyavaharik sambandh bahut purane the, lekin vahan bharatiy vastuon ki mang men barahavin shatabdi ke akramanon ke sath hi vriddhi huee. arabi aur turki shasak varg ke aishvary poorn jivan ka prabhav yoorop ke shasak varg par bhi pada. roman samrajy ke vighatan ke pashchath jis vyapar aur nagar jivan ko dhakka pahuncha tha, vah phir se vikas karane laga aur isase bhi eshiya ke sath purtagaliyon ka vyapar badha. nagar men rahane vale logon men resham, hire-javaharat, itr, phulelon, chini-mitti, kapadon adi mnhagi chizon ke prati ruchi badhin yoorop men masalon ki bhi bahut mang thi, kyonki sardiyon men vahan chare ki kami ke karan janavaron ki ek badi snkhya ko mar kar unaka mans surakshit rakhana padata tha. is mans ko khane yogy banane ke lie masalon ki zaroorat padati thi.

bharatiy bndaragahon se saman le jane vale jyadatar arab hote the, halanki bharatiy vyapari bhi yah kam karate the. arab vyapari malabar tat par panchavi shatabdi se hi bas gaye the aur malayakhadi aur dakshini chin men sthit kaintan tak vyapar karane lage the. arabon ne sthaniy shaktiyon ke viruddh apane qile ya gadh banane ka prayatn nahin kiya aur n hi balapoorvak dharm-parivartan karane ki cheshta hi ki. unhonne poorv prachalit vyapar vidhiyon ko bhi nahin badala tha. isalie bharatiy vyapari dakshin poorv eshiya aur bharat-faras ki khadi se vyapar karate rahe the.

bharat pahunchane ka prayas

purtagaliyon ke agaman se is taur-tariqe men bahut parivartan a gaya. padrahavin shatabdi ke arambh men hi purtagal ke shasak don henerik, jise 'navik henari' ke nam se jana jata hai, ne bharat pahunchane ke lie sidhe samudri marg ki talash shuroo kar di. rajakumar henari ne 1418 se hi har sal do-tin jahaz pashchim aphrika tat ki khoj-chin aur bharat ke lie sidhe samudri ki talash men bhejane shuroo kar diye the. isaka uddeshy dohara tha, pahala arabi aur jenovi, vainisi adi yooropiy pratidvandviyon ko samriddhishali poorvi kshetr ke vyapar se hatana, aur doosara turki aur arabon ki badhati huee shakti ka muqabala karane ke lie aphrika aur eshiya ke 'vidharmiyon' ko eesaee banana. in donon uddeshyon ko prapt karane ke lie usane bade josh se kam kiya. vastutah ye donon uddeshy ek-doosare ke poorak aur ek-doosare ko nyay sngat siddh karane vale the. pop ne 1453 men ek bil pas karake is kary ko apana samarthan dete hue aphriki bndaragah kep nor ke age 'sada ke lie' is shart par de diya ki un deshon ke nivasiyon ko eesaee banaya jayega.

yoorop aur bharat se vyapar

bartholomyoo diyaz ne 1487 men 'kep aauf gud hop' ka chakkar laga kar yoorop aur bharat ke bich sidhe vyapar ki adhar shila rakhi. itani lambi samudri yatraen kee nayi khojon ke karan sambhav ho saki. inamen se pramukh khojen thin- kutubanuma aur samudri yatra ke lie estrolob ko apanana. ye khoje bhi yoorop ke punarjagaran ka parinam thin. punarjagaran suni huee baton aur charch ke kathan par vishvas karane ki apeksha svayn khoj ka pratik tha. is nayi chetana ke karan hi us kal men barud, kagaz aur doorabin ka nirman sambhav hua. is nayi chetana ne sahasik karyon ke lie prerak-tatv ka kam kiya.

vasko d gama

vasko d gama 1498 men kalikat ke bndaragah par utara. usake sath men do jahaz the, tisara raste men hi nasht ho gaya. arab vyapariyon ne usaka virodh kiya. lekin zemorin ne purtagaliyon ka svagat kiya aur kali mirch aur davaeeyan jahazon par chadhane ki unhen anumati de di. purtagal men vasko d gama dvara laee gee vastuon ki qimat sari yatra par jitana kharch hua tha, usaka sath guna lagaee gee. isake bavajood bharat aur yoorop ke bich sidha vyapar bahut hi vilamb se vikasit hua. isaka ek karan is vyapar men purtagaliyon ka ekadhikar tha. prarambh se hi purtagali shasakon ka yah prayatn raha tha ki poorvi vyapar ko shahi-ekadhikar samajha jae. unhonne isake lie pratidvandvi yooropiy aur eshiyaee deshon ko hi bahar rakhane ka prayatn nahin kiya, balki niji kshetr ke purtagali vyapariyon ko bhi anumati nahin di.

shakti ka vistar

purtagaliyon ki badhati huee shakti se chintit hokar misr ke sultan ne ek jahazi beda taiyar kiya aur use bharat ki or ravana kar diya. gujarat ke shasak ka ek jahazi beda bhi isamen sammilit ho gaya. purtagaliyon par prarambhik vijay ke bavajood, jisamen purtagali gavarnar ka putr don alamida mara gaya tha, 1509 men is snyukt bede ki karari har huee. isase kuchh samay ke lie purtagali nausena hind mahasagar men sabase shaktishali ho gee aur purtagaliyon ko faras ki khadi aur lal sagar ki or apani gatividhiyan badhane ka mauqa mil gaya. kuchh samay bad hi purtagaliyon ke dvara hastagat poorvi pradeshon ka gavarnar albukark bana. vah is niti ka himayati tha ki poorvi vyapar men ekadhikar banaye rakhane ke lie eshiya aur aphrika men samarik mahatv ke sthanon par qile banayen jaen, usane is niti ka palan bhi kiya. inaki suraksha ke lie ek mazaboot nausena ki zaroorat thi. apane is vichar ke samarthan ke lie vah likhata hai ki "nausena dvara jita gaya koee pradesh tab tak hath men nahin rah sakata, jab tak qile n banaye jaen." usaka kathan tha ki "shasak n to vyapar karenge aur n tumase mitrata ke sambandh rakhenge."

nayi niti ka sootrapat

purtagali albukark ne bijapur se goa 1510 men chhinakar apani nayi niti ka sootrapat kiya. goa ka tapoo bahut achchha prakritik bndaragah aur qila tha. isaka samarik mahatv tha aur yahan se purtagali malabar ke sath vyapar bhi sambhal sakate the aur dakshin ke shasakon ki nitiyon par nazar bhi rakh sakate the. yah gujarat ke bndaragahon ke bhi nikat tha aur purtagali vahan apani upasthiti ka abhas de sakate the. atah goa purtagaliyon ke lie vyapar aur rajaniti donon drishtiyon se kendriy sthal tha. goa ke hath se nikal jane par bijapur ka shasak yoosuf adilashah hoshiyar ho gaya aur usane 1510 men purtagaliyon par chadhaee karake unhen khaded diya. kintu, usi varsh usaki mrityu ho gee aur albukark ne is avasar ka labh uthate hue goa par phir se adhikar kar liya. shahar men bis din tak lootamar chalati rahi. is lootamar men mazadooron aur brahmanon ke sivay kisi ko bhi nahin chhoda gaya. kyonki vahan ke logon ne adilashah ka sath diya tha. purtagali goa ke samane mukhy bhoomi tak pahunch gaye aur unhonne bijapuri bndaragahon danda-rajapuri aur dabhol tak ane vale margon ko avaruddh kar diya aur vahan par qabza kar liya. is prakar unhonne bijapur ka samudri vyapar nasht kar diya.

vyapar par adhikar

goa se hi purtagaliyon ne apani shakti ko badhaya aur shrilnka men, kolambon men, sumatra men achin men, aur malakka bndaragah, jo malay prayadvip aur sumatra ke bich ki tng khadi ka dvar tha, men qile banaye. purtagaliyon ne any deshon ke vyapar par bhi kadi sharten lagaeen. purtagali adhikariyon se yatra-patr prapt kie bina koee arab ya bharatiy jahaz arab sagar men yatra nahin kar sakata tha. ye yatra-patr pradan karate hue ve arab aur bharatiy jahajon ko kali mirch aur hathiyar adi le jane ki izajat nahin dete the. anadhikrit vyapar karane ka sndeh hone par jahaz ki talashi le sakane ka adhikar bhi unhonne apane lie surakshit rakha tha. jo jahaz talashi dene se inkar karate the, unhen yuddh puraskar man liya jata tha aur ve ya to dubo die jate the ya pakad lie jate the. unake yatriyon ko das bana liya jata tha. isase purtagaliyon aur is kshetr ke deshon men nirantar yuddh ki sthiti bani rahi. dakshini rajyon ki apani-ghudasenaon ke lie arabi aur eeraki ghodon ke ayat men bahut ruchi thi. aur goa inake lie ayat ka mukhy kendr tha. purtagaliyon ne ghodon ke sare vyapar par ekadhikar kar liya. purtagaliyon ke mitr rajy ghodon ko kharidane ke lie apane dalalon ko goa bhej sakate the. is prakar purtagaliyon ne ghodon ke vyapar par apane adhikar ko ek rajanitik astr ke roop men istemal kiya aur dakshini rajyon ko ek-doosare se ladavate rahe.

arab sagar par prabhutv

gujarat ke bndaragahon par adhikar aur arab sagar par apana prabhutv sthapit karane ki purtagaliyon ki mahatvakanksha ne ek lambe sngharsh ko janm diya. albukark ne gujarat ke raja se div aur basin par qile banane ki hi izajat nahin mangi, usase yah bhi kaha ki khambhat ke vyapari apana mal keval goa ki bndaragah ke atirikt aur kahin n bhejen aur n hi vah apane rajy men kisi roomi[1] ko ane de. isake sath-sath purtagaliyon ne lal sagar ke pravesh dvar, sokotra dvip par adhikar kar liya, adan ko gher liya aur oramuz ke shasak ko vivash kiya ki vah unhen vahan qila banane ki anumati de. adan faras ki khadi ka pravesh dvar tha.

atoman-purtagali sngharsh

purtagaliyon ki badhati huee shakti aur gatividhiyon ne atoman-turkiyon ko gambhirata se sochane par vivash kar diya. unnati karate hue atomanon ne 15vin shatabdi men n keval 1453 men kustunatuniya par adhikar karake eshiya mainar ki apani vijay ko poora kiya tha, balki unhonne 1529 men poorvi yoorop ke ek bade bhag par adhikar karake viena ke lie khatara paida kar diya tha, jo kendriy yoorop ki sabase mahattvapoorn rajadhani thi. isase pahale salim, jise kroor kaha jata hai, ne siriya, misr aur arab ko jit liya tha. lal sagar ke tat par aur faras ki khadi men turki vistar ne hind mahasagar par prabhutv ke lie turkiyon aur purtagaliyon ke madhy sngharsh ko zaroori bana diya.[2] purtagali is or se poori tarah sajag the.

vyapar aur tatavarti ilakon men badhate purtagali khatare ko dekhate hue gujarat ke sultan ne atoman sultan ke pas rajadoot bhejakar usaki niyamon ke lie badhaee di aur sahayata mangi. badale men atoman sultan ne kafiron arthath purtagaliyon se sngharsh ki ichchha prakat ki. jinhonn arab ke tat ki shanti bhng kar di thi. is samay se donon deshon ke madhy rajadooton aur patron ka adan-pradan hota raha. purtagaliyon ko lal sagar se khadedane ke bad, gujarat ke sultan bahadurashah ki madad karane ke lie 1529 men suleman rees ke netritv men ek mazaboot beda bheja gaya. bahadurashah ne isaka svagat kiya aur do turk adhikariyon ko bharatiy nam dekar soorat aur div ka gavarnar bana diya. isamen se ek roomi khan ne bad men topachi ke roop men bahut nam kamaya.

vyaparik mudda

atoman sultan svayn ko islam ka pracharak manate the aur isilie purtagaliyon ke virodhi the. poorv aur yoorop ke madhy hone vale vyapar ka ek bada labh turki ko milata tha. kyonki jyadatar saman vahin se hokar jata tha. vyapar marg badalane se unake hiton ko dhakka pahunchata tha. turki nausena bhi kamazor nahin thi. pndrahavin aur solahavin shatabdiyon men turkiyon ne bhi gola-barood men pashchim se kam unnati nahin ki thi. nauka-vigyan men bhi ve unase bahut kam pichhe nahin the. poorvi bhoomadhy sagar par turk adhipaty tha aur unhonne jibraltar ke par tak bhi akraman kie the. phir bhi, purtagaliyon ke dvara 'kep af gud hop' ko par karake hind mahasagar men ek shakti ke roop men pravesh karane tak turkiyon ne lal sagar ki chinta nahin ki thi. arab ke tat par achchhi qism ki lakadi ke abhav aur bhoomadhy sagar se lal sagar tak jahazon ko lane ki sambhavana ke karan[3] unaki kathinaiyan badh geen.[4] gujarat ke sath dridh sndhi se unhen jahaz-nirman ke lie achchhi lakadi mil sakati thi aur sath hi achchhe bndaragah bhi unhen upalabdh ho sakate the.

qile ka nirman

sthaniy adhikariyon ke sath jhagade ke bad 1531 men purtagaliyon ne daman aur div par akraman kar diya. kintu turk senapati roomi khan ne unhen pichhe khaded diya. phir bhi purtagali dakshin men chaul ke tat par ek qila banane men saphal ho ge. isase pahale ki turki gujarat sahayog dridh ho pata, gujarat ko mugalon ki or se khatara paida ho gaya. humayoon ne gujarat par akraman kar diya. is khatare ka samana karane ke lie bahadurashah ne basin dvip purtagaliyon ko de diya. mugalon ke sath bhi ek suraksha akraman ki sndhi kar li gee aur purgaliyon ko div men ek qila banane ki izajat de di gee. is prakar gujarat men purtagaliyon ke pair jag ge. purtagaliyon ko di gee chhoot ko lekar bahadurashah jaldi hi pachhatane laga. gujarat se mugalon ko khadedane ke pashchath usane phir atoman sultan se sahayata ki prarthana ki aur div men purtagaliyon ke vistar ko simit karane ka prayatn kiya. qile ke gavarnar ke jahaz par varta ke dauran bahadurashah ko dhokhe ka sndeh hua aur parinamasvaroop huee ladaee men purtagali gavarnar mara gaya aur kinare ki or tairate hue bahadurashah bhi doob kar mar gaya. yah ghatana 1536 men huee.

turk beda

is bich turkon ne purtagaliyon ke viruddh sena bhejane ke lie ek bada beda taiyar kar liya. is bede men 45 jahaz aur 7,000 paidal sainikon athava jainisariyon[5] 20,000 adami the. bahut se navik alaikjaidriya sthit vainis ke jahazon ke the. is bede ka snchalan saltanat ka sabase vishvasapatr vyakti 82 varshiy suleman pasha kar raha tha. pasha ko kahira ka gavarnar banaya gaya tha. yah beda 1538 men div pahunch gaya aur use gher liya. durbhagy se turk senapati ka vyavahar apattijanak tha, isalie gujarat ke sultan ne apana samarthan vapas le liya. do mahine ke ghere ke bad div ki raksha ke lie purtagali jngi bede ke agaman ki khabar milane par turki beda pichhe hat gaya.

purtagaliyon ke lie turki khatara do shatabdi bad tak bana raha. peri rees ne 1551 men kalikat ke zamorin ki sahayata se maskat aur oramuz ke qilon par akraman kar diya. is bich daman par adhikar karake purtagaliyon ne apani sthiti aur bhi mazaboot kar li. ali rees ke netritv men 1554 men antim atoman akraman kiya gaya. in chadhaiyon men mili asaphalataon se turk drishtikon men badalav aya. san 1566 ee. men purtagaliyon ya atoman ne ek samajhauta kar liya ki ve bharat men bhidenge nahin. atoman ne ek bar phir apana dhyan yoorop par lagaya aur purtagaliyon se poorvi-vyapar ko apas men bantane ka samajhauta kar liya. isase unhen mugalon ki badhati huee shakti ke sath sndhi karane ki avashyakata nahin rahi.

dakshini tat ke adhipati

talikota men 1565 ki vijayanagar ki parajay se dakkani rajyon ko itana sahas bndha ki unhonne dakshin tat se purtagaliyon ko bhagane ke lie snyukt prayatn kiya. jab tak dakshin men bijapur ko vijayanagar se khatara bana raha, tab tak purtagaliyon ke sath shanti usake lie avashyak thi. kyonki ghodon ke vyapar par unaka adhikar tha aur unake sath chhed-chhad ka matalab tha ki vah vyapar vijayanagar ke paksh men ho jata. bijapur ke sultan ali adilashah ne 1570 men ahamadanagar ke sulman se ek samajhauta kiya. kalikat ke jemorin ko bhi is samajhaut men shamil kiya gaya. in sultanon ne apane-apane kshetr men purtagali sthalon par akraman karane ka nishchay kiya. goa par akraman ka netritv svayn adilashah ne kiya, jabaki chaul par nizamashah ne ghera dal diya. lekin ek bar phir purtagali surakshapnkti ne jisaki sahayata ke lie nau-sena tainat thi, unake lie bahut mazaboot siddh huee. is prakar purtagali bharatiy samudron aur dakshini tat ke adhipati bane rahe.

purtagali prabhutv ka prabhav

pndrahavin-solahavin shatabdiyon men bharatiy samudron aur poorvi vyapar par purtagali prabhutv ke bahut vyapak prabhav hue, jinaka lekha-jokha dhyan se karane ki avashyakata hai. sambhavatah purtagaliyon ki dharmik madanndhata aur vaigyanik kshetron men unaka pichhadapan hi, bharat par yooropiy punarjagaran ke prabhav n padane ka mahattvapoorn karan tha. doosare, shatabdi ke madhy men mugalon ke punah adhikar se desh ka dhyan ek bar phir madhy eshiya ki or chala gaya. mugalon ke shasanakal men jis nayi mishrit snskriti ka uday hua, usane bharat ke badhate vaigyanik aur takaniki pichhadepan ko dhak diya. isi dauran purtagaliyon ne bharatiy samudron ke madhyam se eshiyaee vyapar ka adhikansh apane hath men le liya aur samay bitane ke sath-sath dach, angrez aur fransisi bhi bharatiy samudr men pahunch gaye. in deshon ki arthik aur vaigyanik unnati ka adhar eshiyaee deshon ke sath vyapar men hone vala labh tha. satrahavin shatabdi men pashchim aur poorv ke bich badhane vali takaniki asantulan spasht hone laga tha. atharahavin shatabdi men eshiyaee deshon par isaka nishchit rajanitik prabhav pada.

purtagaliyon ka patan

purtagaliyon ka chupake-chupake vyapar karana ant men unhin ke lie ghatak siddh hua. brajil ka pata lag jane par purtagal ki upanivesh snbndhi kriyashilata pashchim ki or unmukh ho gayi. antatah unake pichhe ane vali yooropiy knpaniyon se unaki pratidvndita huee, jisamen ve pichhade gaye. adhikansh bhag unake hath se nikal ge. dach aur british kampaniyon ke hind mahasagar men a jane se purtagaliyon ka ekadhikar samapt ho gaya. 1538 ee. men 'adan' par turki adhikar ho gaya. 1602 ee. men dachon ne 'vantam' ke samip purtagali bede par akraman kar use parajit kar diya. 1641 ee. men dachon ne purtagaliyon ke mahattvapoorn malakka durg ko jit liya. 1628 ee. men farasi sena ki sahayata se angrezon ne 'haramuj' par adhikar kar liya tatha marathon ne 1739 ee. men salaset dvip aur basin par adhikar kar liya. 1661 ee. tak keval gova, daman aur div hi purtagaliyon ke adhikar men raha.

bharat men saphalata ke karan

hind mahasagar aur dakshini tat par purtagaliyon ke prabhutv ke lie nimnalikhit karan zimmedar the-

  • eshiyaee jahazon ki tulana men purtagali nausena ka adhik hona.
  • samajik evn vyaparik drishtikon se sthapit mahattvapoorn vyaparik bastiyon tatha sthaniy logon ka sahayog.

purtagali samudrik samrajy ko 'estado d indiya' nam diya gaya. unhonne hind mahasagar men hone vale vyapar ko niyantrit karane ka prayas kiya. unhonne 'katarj-armeda-kafila' vyavastha dvara eshiyaee vyapar par gahara prabhav dala. purtagaliyon dvara apane prabhutv ke adhin samudrik margon par suraksha kar vasool karane ko 'katarj vyavastha' kaha jata tha. purtagal adhigrahit kshetron men vyapar ke lie akabar ko bhi ek niahshulk katarj prapt karana padata tha. purtagali apane ko 'sagar svami' kahate the. koee bhi bharatiy, arabi jahaz purtagali adhikariyon se katarj (paramit) lie bina, arab sagar men nahin ja sakata tha. 1595 ee. tak purtagaliyon ka hind mahasagar par ekadhikar bana raha.

eesaee dharm ka prachar

1542 ee. men purtagali garvanar 'alfanson disooja' ke sath prasiddh jesuit snt jeviyar bharat aya. purtagaliyon ne kanyakumari evn edamabrij ke madhy rahane vale janajatiy machhuvaron aur malavar samudr tat ke mukuva machhuvaron ko eesaee dharm men parivartit kiya. purtagaliyon ne 1560 ee. men gova men eesaee dharm nyayalay ki sthapana ki thi. mugal shasak shahajahan ne 1632 ee. men purtagaliyon se hugali chhin liya, kyonki purtagali vahan par lootamar tatha dharm parivartan adi nindaniy kary kar rahe the. shahajahan ne isaka dayitv mugal gavarnar kasim ali khan ko saunpa tha. purtagali malabar aur konkan tat se sarvadhik kali mirch ka niryat karate the. malabar tat se adarakh, dalachini, chndan, haldi, nil adi ka niryat hota tha.

bharat ko den

bharat men 'godhik sthapaty kala' ka agaman purtagaliyon ke sath hua. purtagaliyon ne gova, daman aur div par 1661 ee. tak shasan kiya. unake agaman se bharat men tambakoo ki kheti, jahaz nirman tatha printing pres ki shuruat huee. bharat men pratham printing pres ki sthapana varsh 1556 ee. men gova men huee. yah purtagaliyon ki bharatavasiyon ke lie ek mahattvapoorn den thi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. atoman
  2. atoman vazir-e-azam, lutphi pasha ne 1541 ke bad turk sultan suleman mahanh se kaha tha ki pahale ke sultanon ke adhin to bahuton ne zaminon par rajy kiya hai, kintu samudr par raj karane vale bahut kam hue hain. nauka yuddh men kafir ham se age hain. hamen unako harana hai.
  3. tab svej nahar nahin thi
  4. ek atoman bhoogol vaigyanik ne 1580 men sultan murad tritiy ko svej ke istamas se ek nahar khudavane ka tatha nausena bana kar hind aur sindh ke bndaragahon par adhikar karane aur kafiron ko nikalane ki salah di.
  5. turk sultan ke angarakshak sahit

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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