प्रफुल्ल चंद्र राय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

praphull chndr ray
achary praphull chndr ray
poora nam achary praphull chndr ray
any nam achary ray, daau. ray
janm 2 agast, 1861
janm bhoomi rarauli ganv, (bangladesh)
mrityu 16 joon, 1944
mrityu sthan kalakatta (bharat)
abhibhavak harishchndr ray aur bhuvanamohini devi
karm-kshetr rasayangy, udyami, shikshak
bhasha bangla, angrezi
shiksha piech.di
vidyalay presidensi kaaulej, kalakatta evn edinabara vishvavidyalay, skaautalaind
prasiddhi bharat men rasayan vigyan ke janak mane jate hain.
any janakari yah svatntrata andolan men ek sakriy bhagidar the. inhonne asahayog andolan ke dauran bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke rachanatmak karyon men muktahast arthik sahayata di.

achary praphull chndr ray (angrezi: Prafulla Chandra Ray, janm: 2 agast, 1861; mrityu: 16 joon, 1944) bharat men rasayan vigyan ke janak mane jate hain. ve ek sadagipasnd tatha deshabhakt vaigyanik the, jinhonne rasayan praudyogiki men desh ke svavalnban ke lie apratim prayas kie. 'sada jivan uchch vichar' vale unake bahuayami vyaktitv se prabhavit hokar mahatma gandhi ne kaha tha, "shuddh bharatiy paridhan men aveshtit is saral vyakti ko dekhakar vishvas hi nahin hota ki vah ek mahanh vaigyanik ho sakata hai." praphullachndr ray ki pratibha itani vilakshan thi ki unaki atmakatha "laif end eksapiriyenses aauf bngali kemist" (ek bngali rasayangy ka jivan evn anubhav) ke prakashit hone par atipratishthit antararashtriy vigyan patrika "nechar" ne unhen shraddhasuman arpit karate hue likha tha ki "lipibaddh karane ke lie snbhavat: praphullachndr ray se adhik vishisht jivan charitr kisi aur ka ho hi nahin sakata."

jivan parichay

praphullachndr ray ka janm 2 agast, 1861 ee. men jaisor zile ke rarauli ganv men hua tha. yah sthan ab bangladesh men hai tatha khulna zile ke nam se jana jata hai. unake pita harishchndr ray is ganv ke pratishthit zamindar the. ve pragitashil tatha khule dimag ke vyakti the. achary ray ki man bhuvanamohini devi bhi ek prakhar chetana-sampann mahila thin. jahir hai, praphull par inaka prabhav pada tha. achary ray ke pita ka apana pustakalay tha. unaka jhukav angrezi shiksha ki or tha. isalie unhonne apane ganv men ek maaudal skool ki sthapana ki thi jisamen praphull ne prathamik shiksha payi. bad men unhonne albart skool men dakhila liya. san 1871 men praphull ne apane bade bhaee nalinikant ke sath devid heyar ke skool men pravesh liya. devid heyar khud shikshit nahin the parntu unhonne bngal men pashchimi shiksha ke prasar men mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. ray ne apani atmakatha men zikr kiya hai ki kis tarah heyar skool men unake sahapathi unaki khilli udaya karate the. chhatr unhen 'bngal' upanam se chidhane the. ray us skool men zyada din nahin padh sake. bimari ke karan unhen n sirph skool chhodana pada balki niyamit padhaee bhi chhod deni padi. lekin us dauran unhonne angrezi-klasiks aur bangla ki aitihasik aur sahityik rachanaon ka adhyayan kiya.

prarambhik shiksha

achary ray ki adhyayan men badi ruchi thi. ve barah sal ki umr men hi char baje subah uth jate the. pathy-pustakon ke alava ve itihas tatha jivaniyon men adhik ruchi rakhate the. 'chaimbars bayographi' unhonne kee bar padhi thi. ve sar dablyoo. em. jons, jaaun leden aur unaki bhashayi upalabdhiyon, tatha phrainkalin ke jivan se kafi prabhavit the. sanh 1879 men unhonne dasavin ki pariksha uttirn ki. phir age ki padhaee metropolitan kaaulej (ab vidyasagar kaaulej) men shuroo ki. yah ek rashtriy shikshan snstha thi tatha yahan phis bhi kam thi. parntu vahan dakhila unhonne sirph arthik karanon se nahin liya tha balki us samay poojaniy mane jane vale surendranath banarji vahan angrezi gady ke prophesar the aur prashant kumar lahidi vahan angrezi kavita padhate the. us samay rasayan vigyan gyarahavin kaksha ka ek anivary vishay tha. vahin par pedalar mahashay ki utkrishth prayogatmak kshamata dekhakar dhire-dhire ve rasayan vigyan ki or unmukh hue. ab praphull chndr ray ne rasayan vigyan ko apana mukhy vishay banane ka nirnay kar liya tha. pas men presidensi kaaulej men vigyan ki padhaee ka achchha intazam tha isalie vah bahari chhatr ke roop men vahan bhi jane lage.
achary praphull chndr ray

jagadish chndr basu se mitrata

praphull chndr ke man men gilakraist chhatravritti ke imtahan men baithane ki ichchha jagi. yah imtahan lndan vishvavidyalay ki maitrik pariksha ke barabar mana jata tha. is imtahan men laitin ya grik, tatha jarman bhashaon ka gyan hona zaroori tha. apane bhasha-gyan ko azamane ka praphull ke lie yah achchha avasar tha. is imtahan men saphal hone par unhen chhatravritti mil jati aur age ke adhyayan ke lie vah inglaind ja sakate the. akhir apani lagan evn mehanat se vah is pariksha men kamayab rahe. is prakar ve inglaind ke lie ravana ho ge. naya desh, ne riti-rivaz, par praphullachndr in sabase zara bhi chintit nahin hue. angrezon ki nakal utarana unhen pasnd nahin tha, unhonne choga aur chapakan banavaee aur isi vesh men inglaind ge. us samay vahan lndan men jagadish chndr basu adhyayan kar rahe the. ray aur basu men paraspar mitrata ho gee.

uchch shiksha

praphull chndr ray ko edinabara vishvavidyalay men adhyayan karana tha jo vigyan ki padhaee ke lie mashahoor tha. varsh 1885 men unhonne pi.ech.di ka shodhakary poora kiya. tadanntar 1887 men "tamr aur maignishiyam samooh ke 'kaaunjugeted' salpheton" ke bare men kie ge unake karyon ko manyata dete hue edinabara vishvavidyalay ne unhen di.es.si ki upadhi pradan ki. unake utkrisht karyon ke lie unhen ek sal ki adhyetavritti mili tatha edinabara vishvavidyalay ki rasayan sosayati ne unako apana upadhyaksh chuna. tadoparant ve chhah sal bad bharat vapas ae. unaka uddeshy rasayan vigyan men apana shodhakary jari rakhana tha. agast 1888 se joon 1889 ke bich lagabhag ek sal tak da. ray ko naukari nahin mili thi. yah samay unhonne kalakatta men jagadish chndr ke ghar par vyatit kiya. is dauran khali rahane par unhonne rasayan vigyan tatha vanaspati vigyan ki pustakon ka adhyayan kiya aur raauksaborg ki 'phlora indika' aur haaukar ki 'jenera planteram' ki sahayata se kee ped-paudhon ki prajatiyon ko pahachana evn sngrahit kiya.[1]

vyavasayik jivan

praphull chndr ray ko julaee 1889 men presidensi kaaulej men 250 rupaye masik vetan par rasayanavigyan ke sahayak prophesar ke pad par niyukt kiya gaya. yahin se unake jivan ka ek naya adhyay shuroo hua. sanh 1911 men ve prophesar bane. usi varsh british sarakar ne unhen 'nait' ki upadhi se sammanit kiya. sanh 1916 men ve presidensi kaaulej se rasayan vigyan ke vibhagadhyaksh ke pad se sevanivritt hue. phir 1916 se 1936 tak usi jagah emeritas prophesar ke taur par karyarat rahe. sanh 1933 men kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ke snsthapak pandit madan mohan malaviy ne achary praphull chndr ray ko di.es-si ki manad upadhi se vibhooshit kiya. ve desh videsh ke anek vigyan sngathanon ke sadasy rahe.

amoniyam naitrait ka snshleshan

ek din achary ray apani prayogashala men pare aur tejab se prayog kar rahe the. isase markyooras naitret namak padarth banata hai. is prayog ke samay da. ray ko kuchh pile-pile kristal dikhaee die. vah padarth lavan bhi tha tatha naitret bhi. yah khoj bade mahattv ki thi. vaigyanikon ko tab is padarth tatha usake gunadharmon ke bare men pata nahin tha. unaki khoj prakashit huee to duniya bhar men da. ray ko khyati mili. unhonne ek aur mahatvapoorn kary kiya tha. vah tha amoniyam naitrait ka usake vishuddh roop men snshleshan. isake pahale mana jata tha ki amoniyam naitrait ka teji se tapiy vighatan hota hai tatha yah asthayi hota hai. ray ne apane in nishkarshon ko phir se lndan ki kemikal sosayati ki baithak men prastut kiya.[1]

svadeshi udyog ki ninv

us samay bharat ka kachcha mal sasti daron par inglaind jata tha. vahan se taiyar vastuen hamare desh men ati thin aur oonche damon par bechi jati thin. is samasya ke nirakaran ke uddeshy se achary ray ne svadeshi udyog ki ninv dali. unhonne 1892 men apane ghar men hi ek chhota-sa karakhana nirmit kiya. unaka manana tha ki isase berozagar yuvakon ko madad milegi. isake lie unhen kathin parishram karana pada. ve har din kaaulej se sham tak lautate, phir karakhane ke kam men lag jate. yah sunishchit karate ki pahale ke ardar poore hue ki nahin. daau. ray ko is kary men thakan ke bavajood annd ata tha. unhonne ek laghu udyog ke roop men desi samagri ki madad se aushadhiyon ka nirman shuroo kiya. bad men isane ek bade karakhane ka svaroop grahan kiya jo aj "bngal kemikals aind pharmasyootikal varks" ke nam se suprasiddh hai. unake dvara sthapit svadesi udyogon men saudepur men gndhak se tejab banane ka karakhana, kalakatta paautari varks, bngal enamel varks, tatha stim nevigeshan, pramukh hain.[1]

vyaktittv

achary ray ko gramy jivan bahut akarshit karata tha. ve aksar graminon se unaka sukh-du:kh, halachal liya karate the. ve apani man ke bhndare se achchhi achchhi khadyasamagri le jakar graminon men bant dete the. sanh 1922 ke bngal ke akal ke dauran ray ki bhoomika avismaraniy hai. 'mainachestar gardiyan' ke ek snvadadata ne likha tha; “in paristhitiyon men rasayan vigyan ke ek prophesar pi. si. ray samane ae aur unhonne sarakar ki chook ko sudharane ke lie deshavasiyon ka ahvan kiya. unake is ahvan ko kafi utsahajanak pratisad mila. bngal ki janata ne ek mahine men hi tin lakh roope ki madad ki. dhanadhy parivar ki mahilaon ne silk ke vastr evn gahane tak dan kar die. saikadon yuvaon ne ganvon men logon ko sahayata samagri vitarit ki. daau. ray ki apil ka itana utsahajanak pratyuttar milane ka ek karan to bngal ki janata ke man men maujood videshi sarakar ko dhikkarane ki ichchha thi. isaka anshik karan piditon ke prati upaji svabhavik sahanubhooti thi, par kafi had tak usaka karan pi. si. ray ka asadharan vyaktitv evn unaki samajik pratishtha thi. vah achchhe shikshak ke sath ek saphal sngathanakarta bhi the.[1]

svatntrata andolan men yogadan

achary ray ne svatntrata andolan men bhi sakriy bhagidari nibhaee. gopal krishn gokhale se lekar mahatma gandhi tak se unaka milana julana tha. kalakatta men gandhi ji ki pahali sabha karane ka shrey da. ray ko hi jata hai. ray ek sachche deshabhakt the unaka kahana tha;- "vigyan pratiksha kar sakata hai, par svaraj nahin". vah svatntrata andolan men ek sakriy bhagidar the. unhonne asahayog andolan ke dauran bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke rachanatmak karyon men muktahast arthik sahayata di. unhonne apane ek bhashan men kaha tha- "main rasayanashala ka prani hoon. magar aise bhi mauke ate hain jab vakt ka takaza hota hai ki test-tyoob chhodakar desh ki pukar suni jae".

shodh grnth

samman men jari dak tikat

shodh sambandhi jarnalon men ray ke lagabhag 200 parache prakashit hue. isake alava unhonne kee durlabh bharatiy khanijon ko soochibaddh kiya. unaka uddeshy mendaliph ki avart sarani men chhoote hue tatvon ko khojana tha. unaka yogadan sirph rasayan vigyan sambndhi khojon tatha lekhon tak simit nahin hai. unhonne anek yuvakon ko rasayan vigyan ki taraph prerit kiya. achary ray ne ek aur mahattvapoorn kam kiya. unhonne do khandon men 'histri aauf hindoo kemistri' namak mahattvapoorn grnth likha. isase duniya ko pahali bar yah janakari mili ki prachin bharat men rasayan vigyan kitana samunnat tha. isaka pratham khand sanh 1902 men prakashit hua tatha dvitiy khand 1908 men. in kritiyon ko rasayan vigyan ke ek anoothe avadan ke roop men mana jata hai. achary ray ne bangla tatha angrezi, donon bhashaon men lekhan kiya. san 1893 men unhonne 'simpal zualaji' namak pustak likhi, jisake lie unhonne jiv vigyan ki manak pustaken padhin, tatha chidiyagharon aur sngrahalayon ka svayn daura kiya. unhonne 'basumati', 'bharatavarsh', 'bngabani', 'banglarabani', 'pravasi', 'anndabazar patrika' aur 'manasi' jaisi patrikaon men bahut sare lekh likhe. aisa kaha jata hai ki unhonne apani ay ka 90 pratishat dan kar diya. sanh 1922 men unhonne mahanh bharatiy kimiyagar nagarjun ke nam par varshik puraskar shuroo karane ke le das hazar rupaye die. san 1936 men unhonne ashutosh mukharji ke nam par bhi ek shodh-puraskar shuroo karane ke lie das hazar die. kalakatta vishvavidyalay ko unhonne rasayan vibhag ke vistar tatha vikas ke lie 1,80,000 roope ka anudan diya.[1]

nidhan

achary praphullachndr ray ka 16 joon, 1944 ko kalakatta men dehavasan ho gaya. unake bare men yoonivarsiti kaaulej aph sains, lndan ke prophesar eph. ji. donan ne likha tha : "sar pi. si. ray jivan bhar keval ek snkirn dayare men bndhe prayogashala-visheshgy ban kar nahin rahe. apane desh ki tarakki tatha atmanirbharata hamesha unake adarsh rahe. unhonne apane lie kuchh nahin chaha, tatha sadagi evn mitavyayita ka kathor jivan jiya. rashtr evn samaj seva unake lie sarvopari rahe. ve bharatiy vigyan ke praneta the". unhonne sannyast tatha vrati ka jivan bitaya. unhonne parivar nahin basaya, tatha ajivan avivahit rahe. sansarik bndhanon tatha mohamaya evn parigrah se apane ko koson door rakha. apane dehavasan se poorv achary praphull chndr ray ne apani samast snpatti samajik karyon ke lie dan kar di thi. aisa tha rishituly evn preranadayi unaka vyaktitv evn krititv. sachamuch, ve bharatiy vigyan jagath ke jvajalyaman nakshatr hain.[1]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 achary praphullachndr ray (hindi) shaikshik ee-samagri. abhigaman tithi: 16 disambar, 2013.

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