प्रभाकर मिश्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

prabhakar mishr ek mahanh darshanik, jise anek vidvanon ne apane matanusar kumaril bhatt ka shishy svikar kiya hai. inaka samay ee. 7vin shati hai. prabhakar mishr mimansa kshetr men 'gurumat' ke snsthapak hain. inake guru kumaril bhatt ne inhen 'guru' ki upadhi se alnkrit kiya tha. prabhakar mishr ne apani do mahattvapoorn tikaon ki bhi rachana ki hain.

parichay evn granth

mimansa ke gurumat ke snsthapak prabhakar mishr ya prabhakar shabar bhashy par atyant mahattvapoorn evn svatntr vyakhya likhane vale advitiy vidvanh hain. inake jivanavritt aur kal ke vishay men vicharakon men ekamat nahin hai. inako guru nam se bhi jana jata hai. prachin parampara men inhen kumaril bhatt ka shishy mana gaya hai, kintu kuchh vidvanon ki ray hai ki ye kumaril se bhi prachin hain tatha mimansa ke ek navin sampraday ke snsthapak hain. bhattamat aur gurumat men anek maulik bhed hain.

granth

prabhakar ne shabar bhashy par do tikaen likhi hain-

  1. brihati ya nibandhan- yah shabar bhashy ki vyakhya hai aur vastavik arth men ise tika kaha ja sakata hai, kyonki isamen sarvatr bhashy ki vyakhya hi ki gee hai, kahin bhi usaki alochana nahin ki gee hai.
  2. laghvi ya vivaran- yah granth prakashit nahin hai. madhav sarasvati ke sarvadarshanakaumudi ke anusar laghvi men 6000 shlok hain aur brihati men 12000 shlok. in donon granthon par shanikanath mishr ne tikaen (pnchika) likhakar gurumat ki pushti ki hai. rijuvimalapnchika brihati ki tika hai aur dipashikhapnchika laghvi ki tika hai. shalikanath ne ukt do pnchikaon se alag prakaranapnchika namak ek svatntr granth likhakar prabhakar ke mat ka pratipadan kiya hai.

upadhi tatha tika rachana

prabhakar mishr ki alokik kalpana shakti par mohit hokar inake guru kumaril bhatt ne inhen ‘guru’ ki upadhi se gauravanvit kiya. tab se inaka ullekh ‘guru’ ke hi nam se hone laga. bharatiy darshan ke itihas men mishr ji ka shubh nam ek dedipyaman roop men ankit hai. apane svatntr mat ki pratishthapana karane hetu, inhonne ‘shabarabhashy’ par brihati athava nibandhan tatha laghvi athava vivaran namak do tikaen bhi likhi hain. unamen se brihati prakashit ho chuki hai. apani amogh vichar shakti ke bal par mishr ji ne mimansa darshan ko vichar shastr banane men sahayati ki, aur darshan par sthapit kumaril bhatt ke ekadhipaty ko door kiya.

vidvanh matabhed

kappusvami shastri ne prabhakar mishr ka kal sanh 610-690 ke bich tatha kumaril bhatt ka kal sanh 600 se 660 ke bich nishchit kiya hai. profesar kith va daauktar gnganath jha ke matanusar mishr ji sanh 600 se 650 ke bich hue tatha kumaril bhatt unase kuchh kal ke uparant hue. in vidvanon ka mat hai ki mishr ji ke granthon ke anushilan se ve bhatt ji se prachin pratit hote hain.[1]

gurumat ke achary

is mat ke samarthak anek achary hain, jinamen shalikanath mishr, bhavanath, rantidev, varadaraj, shnkar mishr, damodar tatha nandishvar ka nam vishesh ullekhaniy hai. in acharyon ne tika, tippani aur svatntr granth likhakar gurumat ka samarthan, prachar evn prasar kiya hai.

tatv vichar

nyay vaisheshik darshan ke saman prabhakar bhi jagath ki satta ko vastavik tatha indriy dvara gamy manate hain. tatv vichar ki pushti se prabhakar bhi anekatatvavadi, vastavavadi evn vyavaharavadi kahe ja sakate hain. prabhakar ath padarthon ki satta manate hain- dravy, gun, karm, samany, samavay (paratntrata), shakti sadrishy evn snkhya. inamen dravy, gun aur karm ka lakshan evn bhed pray: vaisheshik darshan ke saman hai. samany (athava jati) ki satta vyaktiyon se prithakh nahin mani ja sakati hai. vah vyaktiyon men hi rahata hai. paratatrnta vaisheshik darshan ka samavay hai. yah jati aur vyakti ke bich vidyaman sambandh hai. yah nity nahin hai, kyonki anity padarthon men bhi rahata hai. shakti bhi ek svatntr padarth hai, jaise- agni ki dahakata, jisake rahane par agni dahan karati hai aur jisake avaruddh ho jane par agni dah nahin kar pati. is tarah dravy, gun, karm adi se kary utpann karane ki shakti hai, jo ek svatntr padarth hai. isi prakar sadrishy aur snkhya ko bhi prabhakar ne svatntr padarth mana hai. vaisheshik darshan men shakti pratibandhakabhav roop hai aur sadrishy evn snkhya gun ke antargat a jate hain.

dravy

gun aur kriya ka ashray dravy hai. vaisheshik darshan men keval tin dravy 'prithvi, jal aur agni' ko hi pratyaksh mana jata hai, kintu prabhakar prithvi, jal aur agni ke sath vayu ka bhi pratyaksh manate hain. unaka kahana hai ki shit aur ushn sparsh men bhed rahane par bhi 'yah vahi vayu hai', is prakar ki pratyabhigya hoti hai. at: vayu ka sakshath pratyaksh hota hai. vaisheshik darshan sharir ki utpatti men samast bhoot dravyon ko karan manata hai. kintu prabhakar ke anusar keval prithvi se hi bhautik sharir utpann hota hai. any bhooton ka sharir men sarvatha abhav rahata hai. vaisheshik darshan men sharir men char prakar bhed mane jate hain. unamen se prabhakar keval tin 'jarayuj, andaj aur svedaj' ko hi sharir manate hain. inake anusar udbhijj (jaise ped-paudhe) ko sharir manana uchit nahin hai, kyonki bhog (sukh-du:kh ki anubhooti) keval tin shariron men hi hota hai. at: inhin ko sharir mana ja sakata hai. udbhijj men bhog nahin hota, at: ise sharir kahana thik nahin hai. vaisheshik men atma ka manav pratyaksh mana jata hai, kintu prabhakar ka kahana hai ki atma gyanashray hai, usaka manav pratyaksh vishay ke roop men svikar karana uchit nahin hai. triputi pratyaksh men gyata ke roop men usaka pratyaksh ho jata hai. prabhakar kumaril ke mat ke andhakar ko dravy nahin manate hain.

praman

prabhakar ke anusar snvit ya gyan do prakar ke hote hain- smriti aur anubhooti. smriti keval snskar se utpann gyan hai. smriti se bhinn snvith (gyan) anubhooti hai. anubhooti hi pran hai. smriti yatharth gyan hone par bhi praman nahin hai, kyonki praman gyan hone ke lie vishay ko agyat hona avashyak hai. smriti ka vishay pahale se gyat rahata hai.

pramanabhed

praman panch prakar ka hai- pratyaksh, anuman, shabd, upaman aur arthapatti.

pratyaksh

sakshath utpann gyan ko pratyaksh kahate hain. pratyek pratyaksh gyan men pramata, pramey aur prama in tinon ka bhan hota hai. jab ham kahate hain ki 'ham ghode ko janate hain', tab hamen isase tin ansh dikhate hain- 'ham', 'ghoda' aur 'gyan'. isamen ham pramata hai, ghoda pramey hai aur janana prama hai. pratiti pramey aur pramata se bhinn hoti hai, kintu prama se bhinn nahin hoti. prama svayn prakashasvaroop hai. pramey aur pramata ki pratiti ek tarah ki hai. inaki pratiti ke lie prakash ki apeksha hoti hai. pratiti ya gyan svaynprakash hai. vahi pramey aur pramata ko bhi prakashit karati hai. indriy tatha vishay ke sakshath sambandh (sannikarsh) se pratyaksh gyan hota hai. pratyaksh gyan ke lie indriy aur vishay men sambandh do prakar se hota hai- gyan ke vishayon ke sath indriy ke snyog se, vishay men snyukt ke sath samavay tatha samavet samavay se. is prakar prabhakar ke mat se sannikarsh tin prakar ke ho jate hain. snyog, snyukt samavay aur samavay. pratyaksh ki prakriya men char sannikarsh hote hain- indriy ka vishay ke sath, dravy ke gunon ke sath indriy ka, indriy ka man ke sath aur man ka atma ke sath. sukh-du:kh aur isi prakar ke any atm gunon ke pratyaksh men keval do hi sannikarsh hote hain- sukh-du:kh ka man ke sath aur man ka atma ke sath. pratyaksh ke vishay ko tin vargon men rakha gaya hai-

  • dravy
  • samany
  • gun

prabhakar bhi prabhakar ke nirvikalpak aur savikalpak do bhed svikar karate hain. kintu prabhakar ke anusar nirvikalpak pratyaksh men vyakti aur samany visheshat: donon ki pratiti si hoti hai, parantu any se bhed ka bodh nahin ho pata, jo ki vyakti ke vishisht bodh ke lie avashyak hota hai. savikalpak pratyaksh men vyakti, samany visheshata aur any se bhed ka gyan hone ke karan vishisht bodh sambhav ho jata hai.

anuman

kumaril ke saman prabhakar bhi anuman ko praman manate hain. yah sadhy aur hetu ke nity, anivary evn sarvabhaum sambandh par adharit hota hai. is sambandh ki sthapana karan evn kary men sampoornh? evn ansh men, dravy aur gun men tatha ek hi dravy men vidyaman guni men ki ja sakati hai. inake mat men bhi avayav vaky tin hi hote hain- udaharan, upanay aur nigaman athava udaharan, hetu aur nigaman (ya pratigya).

shabd

shabd ke vigyan se parokshabhoot vishay ke gyan ko shabd praman kaha jata hai. arthath jab shabd ke vigyan se atma ke sannikarsh ke dvara adrishy vishay ka gyan prapt hota hai, tab use shabd praman kahate hain. prabhakar ke anusar yatharth shabd gyan keval ved vakyon men bhi vahi praman hain, jo vidhyarthak hain, jaise- 'svarg ki kamana karane vala purush ygy kare'. shabd ke sambandh men prabhakar ke mat ki spasht samajhane ke lie yah avashyak hai ki shabd aur dhvani ka bhed spasht kar liya jaye. jo kan ko sunaee padata hai, vah dhvani hai. vah nity shabd ka pratik ya snket hai. dhvani anity hai. isake dvara nity shabd ko abhivyakt kiya jata hai. das bar 'ghada' ke uchcharan se das dhvaniyan utpann hoti hain, kintu ek hi shabd abhivyakt hota hai. isase yah spasht ho jata hai ki dhvani anity hai, vah utpann hoti hai aur nasht ho jati hai. kintu shabd nity hai, jo vibhinn dhvaniyon se abhivyakt hota hai. shabd ke sath arth ka sambandh bhi nity hai. ved vaky apaurushey hone ke karan nity nirdosh evn svat: praman hai.

upaman

sadrishy ke dvara vishay ke gyan ko upaman kahate hain. jaise- gay ko janane vala manushy jab gavay ko dekhata hai, tab gavay ke pratyaksh gyan se sadrishy ke dvara pratyaksh roop men avidyaman gay ka gyan bhi use ho jata hai. isi gyan ko 'upaman kahate hain. gavay ya nilagay ke pratyaksh hone par usamen gay ka sadrishy pratyaksh hota hai aur gay men nilagay ke sadrishy ka, upaman se gyan hota hai.

arthapatti

isake svaroop ke sambandh men zprabhakar ka mat adhikansh men kumaril ke mat ke saman hai. kintu prabhakar ka kahana hai ki kisi bhi praman se gyat vishay ki upapatti ke lie arthapatti ho sakati hai. keval drisht aur shrut se hi arthapatti manana yuktisngat nahin hai. jo arthapatti se gyat hota hai, vah sadharanataya pratyaksh, anuman adi pramanon se siddh nahin ho pata. at: arthapatti ko svatntr praman mana gaya hai.

svat:pramanyavad

prabhakar ke anusar sabhi gyan yatharth hai tatha svat: prakash hai. yadi gyan apane gyan ke lie any gyan par ashrit hoga to gyan ka gyan kabhi bhi nahin ho sakega aur anavastha dosh a jayega. at: gyan ko svat: prakash manana hi yukti sngat hai. gyan ko mithya manana vadatovyaghat hai, kyonki ya to gyan nahin rahega aur yadi rahega to yatharth rahega, mithya ho hi nahin sakata. prabhakar ke mat men gyan ke svat: pramany ka tatpary yah hai ki jab gyan utpann hota hai, tab us gyan ki samagriyon se hi gyan men pramany ya satyata utpann hoti hai. vah kahin bahar se nahin ati. at: pramany apani utpatti ki drishti se bhi svat: hai. gyan jab utpann hota hai, tab us gyan ka aur usake pramany ka gyan bhi usi gyan se ho jata hai. at: gyan ke pramany ka gyan bhi svat: ho jata hai. gyan ki svaprakashata aur anivary yatharthata ko manane ke karan prabhakar spasht roop se svat: pramany ka samarthan karate hain.

bhram

prabhakar ke anusar sabhi gyan yatharth hote hain. at: bhram gyan kahana yukti sngat nahin hai. jahan tak rassi ko sanp samajhane aur sip ko chandi samajhane ka prashn hai, jise log bhram gyan manate hain, vastav men yah koee ek gyan nahin hai. do anshik kintu yatharth gyan men bhed ka gyan n hone se use bhranti samajh liya jata hai. arthath yah 'yah sarp hai' ya 'yah chandi hai', is gyan men do ansh hain- 'yah' aur 'sarp' athava 'chandi'. isamen yah ansh pratyaksh dikh padata hai kintu isamen rassipan ya chandipan nahin gyat hota. usi prakar sarp ya chandi ka gyan smaran dvara hota hai, kintu usamen poorvadesh aur poorvakal ke gyan ka abhav rahata hai. ye donon gyan saty evn yatharth hain, kintu anshik hain. inamen vivek ya bhed ka agyan rahata hai, at: log ise bhram man lete hain. vastav men inamen bhed hai aur donon alag alag anshik saty gyan hain. is mat ko vivekagrah (bhed ka abhav) athava akhyati kaha jata hai.

karm evn bandhan moksh

prabhakar ke anusar ved vihit karmon ko kartavyabriddhi se hi karana chahie. unase n sukh pane ki ichchha rakhani chahie aur n hi phal pane ki ichchha. kamy karmon men phal ka nirdesh sachche adhikari ki pariksha karane matr ke lie hai. nity karm ved vihit hone ke karan hi anushthey hai. at: ved ki agya ko anulnghaniy manakar inaka anushthan karana chahie. moksh ki prapti puny aur pap ki samapti se sambhav hai, kyonki inhin ke karan praniyon ko janm lena padata hai aur sharir, indriy, buddhi aur bhog samagriyon se sambandh hota hai, jise bandhan kahate hain. jab puny aur pap samapt ho jata hai, tab bhog ke karan ke samapt hone se atma ko sharir adi bhogayatan aur bhog samagri ke sambandh se sada ke lie chhutakara mil jata hai. ise hi moksh kaha jata hai. moksh ka sadhan nishkam karmayog hai. arthath samast karmon ko phal ki ichchha se rahit hokar karate rahane se moksh prapt hota hai. ise hi viniyog siddhi kaha jata hai aur viniyog siddhi hi moksh hai.  

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bharatiy snskriti kosh, bhag-2 |prakashak: yoonivarsiti pablikeshan, nee dilli-110002 |snpadan: profesar devendr mishr |prishth snkhya: 515 |

  1. sn.va.ko. (dvitiy khand), prishth 377

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