प्रशस्तपाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

prashastapad vaisheshik darshan ke ek bade pravakta the. kanad ka racha hua vaisheshik sootr hi vaisheshik darshan ka many mool granth hai, par bahut hi samasatmak tatha klisht hone ke karan tatha vaisheshik sootr par sahi arth men koee achchha-sa bhashy upalabdh n hone ke karan prashastapad ke 'padarth dharmasngrah' namak granth ko hi vaisheshik darshan men mool granth jaisi manyata mili. bad men padarth dharmasngrah par hi bahut achchhe aur mahattvapoorn tika granth rache ge. vyomashivachary ki 'vyomavati tika', udayanachary ki 'kiranavali', shridharachary ki 'nyayakndali' tatha shrivatsachary ki 'nyayalilavati' ityadi bahut si vyakhyan padarth dharmasngrah par likhi geen. isase padarth dharmasngrah ka mahattv spasht hota hai.

bhashy ka mukhyarth

padarth dharmasngrah ka hi doosara nam 'prashastapadabhashy' hai. yadi 'bhashy' shabd ka mukhyarth liya jae to padarth dharmasngrah bhashy nahin hai, kyonki kanad ke vaisheshik sootr men jo sootron ka tatha vishayon ka kram hai, us kram se prashastapad ne vaisheshik darshan ko prastut nahin kiya hai.

'sootrarthovarnyate yatr vakyai: sootranusaribhi:. svapadani ch varnyante, bhashyn bhashyavido vidu:..'

bhashy ki is paribhasha par padarth dharmasngrah khara nahin utarata. vyomashiv, udayan adi bhashyakaron ne soochit kiya hai ki padarth dharmasngrah sachche arth men bhashy nahin hai, lekin yah granth 'sngrah' ka udaharan hai. sootrabhashyon ke vichar ka snkalit roop men pratipadan jis nibandh men kiya jata hai, vah sngrah hai. isi arth men padarth dharmasngrah sngrah granth hai.

kal matabhed

prastut padarth dharmasngrah ke lekhak prashastapad, frauvalnar ke anusar chhathi shatabdi ke uttarardh men hue. kee vidvanon ke anusar prashastapad ka samay adhik prachin hai. sherabatski ne yuktiyan dete hue mat pradarshan kiya hai ki prashastapad bauddh darshanik vasubandhu ke samakalin the. unake mat men vasubandhu ne jo vichar 'vaisheshik darshan' ke nam se uddhrit kie hain, ve prashastapad ke padarth dharmasngrah men prakatit vicharon se barabar milate hain. lekin raindel ke anusar sherabatski ka yah kathan galat hai ki vah is vishvas par adharit hai ki kanad ke bad prashastapad tak vaisheshik darshan ka kuchh vikas hua hi nahin. agar sherabatski ka yah vishvas galat ho sakata hai to prashastapad se pahale bhi koee vaisheshik achary hue honge, jinaka mat vasubandhu ke lekh men prakat kiya gaya hai. sherabatski se badhate hue kee vidvanon ne vichar prakat kiya hai ki prashastapad ka kal vasubandhu se bhi poorv hai.

pahale to sherabatski ka mat uparyullikhit mat ke bilkul viruddh tha. unhonne yah siddh karane ka prayas kiya ki prashastapad vasubandhu tatha dinanag se uttarakalin the. dinanag ke darshan men hetu ke tin roopon ka tatha isase snbndhit tin hetvabhason ka jo vivaran milata hai, usake samantar vivaran prashastapad ke padarth dharmasngrah men milata hai. hetu ke trairoopy ka vichar anumanavichar ke itihas men buniyadi parivartan lane vale vichar hai. is vichar ke pratham gaveshan ka shrey prashastapad ko milana chahie, ya dinanag jaise kisi bauddh achary ko. yah vivad ka mudda bhi is kalanirnay vishayak charcha men ek prerak vichar bana hai. isalie yah bhi sambhav hai ki prashastapad ne hetu trairoopy ka vichar vasubandhu se liya ho. shayad prashastapad ko vasubandhu ka samakalin batane men sherabatski ka yahi tatpary hai.

lekin bat ulti bhi ho sakati hai. vasubandhu aur prashastapad agar samakalin the, to prashastapad ka hetu trairoopy ka siddhant vasubandhu ne svikrit kiya hoga, yah bhi snbhav hai. yahan yah dhyan dene yogy hai ki yadyapi hetu trairoopy ka vichar prashastapad tatha vasubandhu donon ne prakat kiya hai, tathapi prashastapad ka hetu trairoopy ka vivaran dinanag ke vistrit vivaran men jitana milata hai, utana vasubandhu ke ullekhatmak vivechan men nahin. isalie prashastapad ke vasubandhu ka samakalin hone ki kam hi sambhavana hai. 'prashastapad' ke alava 'prashast' tatha 'prashastamati' nam bhi darshanik vanamay men milate hain. 'mallavadin' namak jain darshanik ne kisi prashastapad namak vaisheshik darshanik ka tatha usake 'tika', 'vaky' tatha 'bhashy' ka ullekh kiya hai. shantarakshit ne anek bar 'prashastamati' namak darshanik ka ullekh kiya hai. kintu yah prashast ya prashastamati aur ek hi darshanik ke nam hain, ya alag alag darshanikon ke, yah ek vivad ka vishay bana hua hai.

sootr tatha bhashy

prachin parampara ke anusar aisa mana jata hai ki jo sootr men hai, vahi vritti me (bhashy men) ya vartik men hota hai.[1] vrittikar ya vartikakar ka kuchh bhi apana naya yogadan nahin hota. sab sootr ka hi vivaranamatr hota hai. tadanusar yah kaha ja sakata hai ki prashastapad bhashy men prashastapad ka apana yogadan kuchh bhi nahin hai. lekin sookshm drishti se agar is sootrabhashy parampara ki or dhyan den, to maloom padega ki yadyapi bhashy, vartik adi granthon ke bahayang se unaka vivaranatmak svaroop hi soochit hota hai, tathapi unake antarng men kee nee baten chhipi hoti hain, jo bharat men hue vichar parivartan tatha vichar vikas ki or hamara dhyan akrisht karati hain. prashastapad bhi is niyam ka apavad nahin hain.

kanad ke sootr men paya gaya hai ki samany aur vishesh men koee spasht sima nahin khinchi gayi hai. jo ghatatv sab ghaton men ek hone ke karan samany hai, vahi ghatatv, kanad ke anusar, pat men n hone ke karan vishesh bhi hai. isilie kanad ne samany tatha vishesh ko buddhayapekshgyanasapeksh mana. kanad ne antyavishesh ko apavadabhoot samajha, kyonki antyavishesh sirf vishesh hai, samany nahin, tatha 'satta' ko bhi ham apavadabhoot samajh sakate hain, kyonki 'satta sirf' samany hai, vishesh nahin. prashastapad ne samany aur vishesh men sima rekha spasht karate hue antyavishesh ko hi vishesh mana, baki sab samany dharmon ko samany. is tarah prashastapad bhashy men 'vishesh' ek paribhashik shabd samajha gaya, jisamen pahale ka arth snkoch kiya gaya hai. aj vaisheshikon ke 'vishesh' ko jis roop men pahachanate hain, vah roop use pahale prashastapad ne hi diya.

gunon ki snkhya

kanad ki tarah prashastapad ne bhi dravy, gun, karm, dharm, samany, vishesh tatha samavay, ye chh: padarth mane. 'abhavapadarth' nahin mana. kanad ne gunon ki jo soochi di thi, usamen prashastapad ne sudhar kiya. kanad ne keval satrah gun batalae the. prashastapad ne atirikt sat gunon ka nirdesh karate hue gunon ki snkhya chaubis kar di. aj vaisheshik darshan men sammat chaubis gun yahi hain. jin atirikt sat gunon ka samavesh prashastapad ne gunon ki soochi men kiya, unaka nirdesh kanadasootr men idhar udhar milata hai. lekin in sat gunon ko gun ke roop men kanad ne manyata di thi ya nahin, isake bare men spasht snket nahin milata. prashastapad ne in sat gunon ko unaka samuchit sthan diya hai.

eeshvaravad

kanad ke sootron men ham dekhate hain ki eeshvar ka spasht nirdesh kahin nahin hai. prashastapad bhashy men lakshaniy bat yah hai ki prashastapad ne eeshvaravad ko vaisheshik darshan men spasht roop se sthan diya hai. prashastapad ke bad vaisheshik darshan ek eeshvaravadi darshan ban gaya. shayad kanad ke samane jo prashn tha, vah jagath ki srishti tatha snhar kis tarah se, kis prakriya se hota hai?, yah nahin tha. is prashn ki charcha vaisheshikasootr men kahin nahin milati. ham jis jagath men paida hue, vah jagath hamare lie 'datt' hai. is jagath ki prakriyaen kis-kis tarike ki hain, is jagath ke ghatak kaun-kaun se hain, yah jagath kaise jana ja sakata hai, kis tarah se usaka tatvik vishleshan kiya ja sakata hai, ye sari baten kanad ke lie chinta ka vishay thin. shayad kanad ke anusar yah 'datt' jagath anadi aur anant tha. lekin prashastapad ne apane bhashy men jagath ki srishti tatha snhar ka prashn mahattvapoorn samajha aur vaisheshik darshan ke anukool srishti tatha snhar ki prakriya kya ho sakati hai, isaka vivechan kiya. prashastapad ne mana ki srishti se pahale jagath ek alag-alag nity dravyon ka samuday tha. usamen halachal nahin thi. tab atmaen bhi thin aur atmaon ke poorv karm se aya hua adrisht bhi tha, par yah adrisht bhi jadamoodh sa atmaon ko chipaka hua tha. us adrisht se koee karm nahin utpann ho raha tha. eeshvar ki ichchha se hi in sab atmaon ke adrisht karm ke lie prerit hue.

snhar ke samay bhi, snsar se thake hue praniyon ko vishranti dene ke lie eeshvar ko jab snhar ki ichchha hoti hai, tab in sab dharmadharmaroop adrishton ka kary sthagit karane vala, atma tatha anuon ke snyog se karm utpann karate hue sab dravyon ka sharir tatha indriy ke karan dravyon ka paramanu paryant vibhag karane vala bhi eeshvar hi hai. is prakar prashastapad ke anusar eeshvar jagath ka sirf nimitt karan hai, upadan karan nahin. eeshvar koee sarvatha nee chiz paida nahin karata. jo chizen nity svaroop men hain, unamen gati paida karata hai, unhen ek doosari se jodate hue unaki nee rachana utpann karata hai. eeshvar jagath ka nirman tatha snhar kis lie karata hai. prashastapad ke matanusar, eeshvar kuchh bhi apane labh ke lie nahin kar raha hai, balki praniyon ko apane apane karmon ke phal bhugatane k lie tatha kabhi-kabhi unhen vishranti dene ke lie, eeshvar yah sab kar raha hai. is prakar srishti tatha snhar ki prakriya ka varnan karate hue prashastapad ne eeshvaravad ko spasht svikriti di hai.

tatvgyan ka prasar

prashastapad ne kanad ke tatvgyan ko atibhautik disha men age badhaya tatha sath-sath bhautik disha men bhi age badhaya. bhautik dravy, jo adhikatar paramanuon se nimitt mana jata hai, kis tarah snyukt ya vibhakt hota hai, isaka vishad vivechan prashastapad bhashy men paya jata hai. akash ke sivay sab bhautik dravy paramanuon se bane hain. paramanu unaka sabase chhota ghatak hai. kanad ne sirf itana spasht kiya tha ki anu pariman sookshm hai, atindriy hai tatha mahatpariman pratyakshagrahy hai. lekin kin-kin chizon ka anu pariman hai tatha kin chizon ka mahatvaparinam hai, isaka vivechan pahale prashastapad bhashy men milata hai. do paramanuon se ek trayanuk banata hai. paramanu ki tarah dvayanuk bhi sookshm hai, anu pariman vala hai. vah hamari parthiv drishti se dikhaee nahin deta. tin dvayanukon se ek trayanuk banata hai, jo mahath hai, jise ham dekh sakate hain arthath ghat ityadi padarthon ke antim drishy ghatak trayanuk hain, tatha antim adrishy ghatak hain paramanu. is prakar paramanu adi ka pariman prashastapad ne nishchit kiya hai.

snkhyaon ka mahattv tatha gyan

snkhya namak gun ke bare men bhi kanad ki apeksha prashastapad ne vishesh vichar kiya hai. kanad ne apane vaisheshik darshan men snkhya namak svatntr gun ki siddhi karate hue yah spasht kiya ki 'snkhya ko kisi any gun ya kisi any padarth ke roop men samajhana sambhav nahin hai. prashastapad ne adhik vichar karate hue in snkhyaon men maulik snkhya kaun-si hai, aur kaun-si snkhyaen us maulik snkhya se nishpann ki jati hai, is prashn par bhi vichar kiya. unhonne dikha diya ki 'ekatv' bhautik snkhya hai, tatha do se shuroo hone vali sab snkhyaen ekatvabuddhi par avalambit hain. 'ek' ka gyan hone ke lie 'do' ka gyan zaroori hai. 'do' ka gyan hone se pahale jo 'ek' 'ek' aisa gyan hota hai, use prashastapad ne 'apekshabuddhi' nam diya. isase dvitv, tritv adi snkhyaen hamari apekshabuddhi par avalambit hain, yah vichar spasht hua. vastut: isase any gun, jo vastugat hain, aur apani satta ke lie kisi any alag gyan ki apeksha nahin rakhate, in dvitv adi se bilkul bhinn siddh hote hain. dvitvadi dharm aropit dharm jaise maloom hote hain. lekin vaisheshik darshan men in dvitv adi ka 'gunatv' tatha 'dravyagatatv' kyon qayam rakha gaya, yah ek ajib si bat lagati hai. isaka karan yah maloom padata hai ki vaisheshik darshan ki jaden vastavavadi thin aur inhen ukhadane ki harek koshish ka pratikar karana vaisheshikon ne apana kartavy samajha. is sngharsh men bad men vaisheshikon ki dvitvadi snkhyaon ke spashtikaran ke lie 'paryapti' namak vishesh snbndh ki parikalpana karani padi.

shabdon ki utpannata

shabdagun ki prashastapad ne jo charcha ki hai, vahan shabd ham kis tarah sunate hain, isaki bhi thode men charcha ati hai. kanad sootr men yah charcha nahin milati. shabd sntan ki kalpana prastut karate hue prashastapad kahate hain ki jab ek pradesh men snyog tatha vibhag se shabd utpann hota hai, tab vah utpann shabd apane ap us pradesh ko chhodakar hamare shrotrendriy tak nahin ata hai aur n hamara shrotrendriy un tak jata hai. jis prakar jal men patthar dalane par ek tarng uthati hai, aur tarng se doosari, doosari se tisari, tisari se charthi ityadi tarngon ki ek sntan utpann hoti hai, usi prakar ek shabd utpann hone se najadik ke pradesh men doosara shabd, doosare se usake najadik ke pradesh men tisara, is tarah shabdon ki ek sntan utpann hoti hai. us sntan men hi jo shabd hamare shrotrendriy ke pradesh men utpann hota hai, vah hamen sunaee deta hai. shabd ki sntan ki yah kalpana adhunik kalpana se milati hai. is prakar prashastapad ne kanad ke sootron men grnthit vicharon ko vishad karate-karate vicharon ka vikas bhi kiya.

vaisheshik darshan men yogadan

praman mimansa ke kshetr men bhi prashastapad ka vaisheshik darshan men mahattvapoorn yogadan hai. kanad ne apane sootron men pratyaksh tatha anuman ke alava agam praman ka prithakh nirdash kiya tha. shabdadi pramanon ka antarbhav anuman men hi karana chahie, yah vaisheshikon ka vichar kanad ke sootron men kahin nahin dikhaee deta. lekin prashastapad ne, shayad bauddhon ka vichar apanate hue, shabdadi any pramanon ka spasht roop se anuman men antarbhav kiya. kanad ke sootron men anuman praman ki jo charcha milati hai, vah thodi aur prathamik hai. prashastapad men anuman ki bahut hi vistrit tatha suvyavasthit charcha milati hai. yadyapi isake bare men vivad hai ki anuman ka yah vichar prashastapad ne bauddh naiyayikon se liya hai ya svayn svatntr roop se prastut kiya hai tathapi isamen koee sndeh nahin hai ki yah vichar vaisheshik tatha nyay darshan ke vikas ke lie sahayak siddh hua.

lingon ka varnan

anuman men jo ling ke tin roopon ka varnan prashastapad ne kiya hai, jisake bare men anuman kiya jata hai (anumey, jaise ki parvat), usase vah chihn (jaise ki dhoom) snbaddh hona chahie (pahala roop). jisaka anuman kiya jata hai (jaise ki agni) vah jahan-jahan hai, (tadanvit, saman jatiy, jaise ki pakashala) vahan-vahan vah chihn hona chahie (doosara roop), tatha jisaka anuman kiya jata hai, vah jahan-jahan nahin hai) –tadabhav, asaman jatiy, jaise ki jalashay, vahan-vahan us chihn ka bhi niyamit roop se abhav hona chahie (tisara roop) lingi ke in tin roopon yani tin avashyak dharmon ko batakar prashastapad ne anuman vichar ko ek suvyavasthit roop diya. prashastapad ka dava hai ki ling ka yah trairoopy pahale kashyap ne yani kanad ne bataya. yadyapi kanad ke sootron men is prakar ka koee spasht snket nahin milata, tathapi prashastapad ne kanad ka jo sootr 'aprasiddh.anapadesh: asanh sandigdhashch' uddhrit kiya hai, usase gyat hota hai ki hetu sadhy snbndh ke bare men kanad ke man men ek vyavasthit rooparekha thi.

ling ke roop yani avashyak niyam tin hone se un niyamon ke bhng se utpann hone vale 'aling' ya 'anapadesh' (hetvabhas) bhi moolat: tin hain. yah vichar bhi prashastapad ne prastut kiya hai. yahan prashastapad bhashy men milane vala ling, anapadesh (hetvabhas) tatha nidarshanabhas ka vivaran dinanag namak bauddh naiyik ke nyayamukh adi granthon men milane vale vivaran se bahut hi milata hai. isalie yah snbhav hai ki prashastapad ne dinanag ka anuman vichar apana liya tatha vaisheshik sootr men milane vale anuman vichar ke moolasrot ko pakadakar usase dinanag ka vichar milakar vah vichar vaisheshikon ki niji shabdavali men prakat kiya. aj yahi zyadatar vidvanon ka mat hai. lekin isake bare men aj bhi charcha jari hai. isalie nirnayak roop se kuchh nahin kaha ja sakata.


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sootreshvev hi tatsarv yadh vritti yachch vartik.

snbndhit lekh