प्राकृत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

prakrit bhasha bharatiy aryabhasha ka ek prachin roop hai. isake prayog ka samay 500 ee.poo. se 1000 ee. sanh tak mana jata hai. dharmik karanon se jab snskrit ka mahattv kam hone laga to prakrit bhasha adhik vyavahar men ane lagi. isake char roop visheshat: ullekhaniy hain.

ardhamagadhi prakrit

isamen jain aur bauddh sahity adhik hai. isaka mukhy kshetr magadh tha. is sambndh men prophesar mahavir saran jain ki manyata bhinn hai. prophesar jain ne magadhi prakrit evn ardh-magadhi men antar kiya hai. unake matanusar magadhi magadh ki bhasha thi. isaka prayog natakon men nimn shreni ke patron ke sambhashanon ke lie kiya gaya hai. maharashtri aur shauraseni ki tulana men magadhi ka prayog bahut kam hua hai. magadhi men ‘-rh’ ka abhav hai. ‘rh’ ka ‘lh’ ho jata hai. purushah > pulishe / samar > shamal. magadhi men ‘sh’, ‘shh’ ke sthan par ‘shh’ ka prayog hota hai. udaharan - sapt > shatt. magadhi men ‘jh’ ke sthan par ‘yh’ ka prayog hota hai. janati > yanadi / janapade > yanapade. magadhi men dyh , rjh , ryh ke sthan par ‘yyh’ ka prayog hota hai. ady > ayy/ arjun > ayyun / ary > ayy / kary > kayy tatha karta karak ekavachan men prayah ‘ aah ’ ke badale ‘ e ’ paya jata hai. sah > she.

arddh magadhi

arddh-magadhi ki sthiti magadhi aur shauraseni prakriton ke bich hai. isalie usamen donon ki visheshataen payi jati hain. arddh-magadhi ka mahatv jain sahity ke karan adhik hai. ardh-magadhi men ‘rh’ evn ‘lh’ donon ka prayog hota hai. isamen danty ka moordhany ho jata hai - sthit > thip. ardh-magadhi men shh, shh, sh men keval sh ka prayog hota hai tatha anek sthanon par sparsh vynjanon ka lop hone par ‘y’ shruti ka agam ho jata hai. sagar > sayar / krit > kayn . is niyam ka apavad hai ki ‘gh’ vynjan ka samanyatah lop nahin hota. ardh-magadhi men karta karak ek vachan ke roopon ki siddhi magadhi ke saman ekarant tatha shauraseni ke saman okarant donon prakar se hoti hai.

paishachi prakrit

isaka kshetr desh ka pashchimottar bhag tha aur vidvanh kashmiri adi bhasha ko isaki uttaradhikari bhasha manate hain.

maharashtri prakrit

yah vyapak roop se prachalit thi aur maharashtr men phaili hone ke karan is nam se pahichani jati thi.

shauraseni prakrit

isaka kshetr mathura aur madhy pradesh ka anchal tha. is bhasha men anek grnth rache ge jinamen jain dharmagrnthon ki snkhya adhik hain snskrit ke prachin natakon men bhi stri patron aur janasamany ke snvadon ke lie prakrit bhasha ka hi prayog hua hai. madhyadeshi bhasha hi bad men shauraseni prakrit ka kshetr bani. prachin 'shoorasen' janapad ke nam par isaka namakaran kiya gaya. mathura isaka kendr tha. isi kshetr men shauraseni ka kalantar men vikas arvachin lokavyapi brajabhasha ke roop men hua. shauraseni n keval apane kshetr ki vyapak bhasha thi, varanh any prakriton ke bhasha-kshetron ko bhi isane yathesht roop men prabhavit kiya tatha kee uttar aur pashchimottar bhashaon ke udbhav men sahayata ki. is kshetr men adhik rajanitik uthal-puthal hone ke karan isaka sahity upalabdh nahin hota. keval snskrit natakon tatha jain dharm ke granthon men yah surakshit milati hai. varuchi tatha hemachandr ne isaki visheshataon ka vistrit parichay diya hai.


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