प्लेटो  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pleto
pleto
poora nam pleto
any nam afalatoon
janm 428 ee. poo.
janm bhoomi ethens
mrityu 347 ee. poo.
mrityu sthan ethens
abhibhavak pita 'ariston' tatha mata 'perikton'
guru sukarat
karm bhoomi yoonan
karm-kshetr pashchaty darshan
mukhy rachanaen 'd ripablik', 'd staitsamain', 'd lag', 'iyon', 'simpojiyam'
prasiddhi darshanik
nagarikata grik
snbndhit lekh sukarat, arastu
any janakari 404 ee. poo. men pleto sukarat ka shishy bana tatha sukarat ke jivan ke antim kshanon tak unaka shishy bana raha. sukarat ki mrityu ke bad prajatntr ke prati pleto ko ghrina ho gee. usane misr, itali, sisali adi deshon ki yatra ki tatha ant men ethens laut kar akadami ki sthapana ki.

pleto (angrezi: Plato; janm- 428 ee. poo., ethens; mrityu- 347 ee. poo., ethens) yoonan ka prasiddh darshanik tha, jo bad men ek maulik chintak ke roop men vikhyat hua. use 'afalatoon' nam se bhi jana jata hai. vah yoonan ke suprasiddh darshanik sukarat ka shishy tatha arastu ka guru tha. pleto homar ka samakalin tha. sukarat ka param medhavi shishy pleto grik ka hi nahin, varanh vishv ki vibhooti mana jata hai. pashchaty jagath men sarvapratham suvyavasthit dharm ko janm dene vala pleto hi mana jata hai. usane apane poorvavarti sabhi darshanikon ke vichar ka adhyayan kar sabhi men se uttam vicharon ka paryapt snchay kiya tha.

parichay

pleto ka janm ethens ke samipavarti eejina namak dvip men hua tha. usaka parivar samant varg se tha. usake pita 'ariston' tatha mata 'perikton' itihas prasiddh kulin nagarik the. 404 ee. poo. men pleto sukarat ka shishy bana tatha sukarat ke jivan ke antim kshanon tak unaka shishy bana raha. sukarat ki mrityu ke bad prajatntr ke prati pleto ko ghrina ho gee. usane megora, misr, saerin, itali aur sisali adi deshon ki yatra ki tatha ant men ethens laut kar akadami ki sthapana ki. pleto is akadami ka ant tak pradhan achary bana raha.[1]

suvyavasthit dharm ki sthapana

pashchaty jagath men sarvapratham suvyavasthit dharm ko janm dene vala pleto hi hai. pleto ne apane poorvavarti sabhi darshanikon ke vichar ka adhyayan kar sabhi men se uttam vicharon ka paryapt snchay kiya, udaharanarth- 'maileshiyan ka dravy', 'paithagoras ka svaroop', 'hereklaitas ka parinam', 'parmenaidij ka param saty', 'jeno ka dvandvatmak tark' tatha 'sukarat ke pratyayavad' adi usake darshan ke pramukh srot the.

pleto ka mat

ph‍leto ke samay men kavi ko samaj men adaraniy sh‍than praph‍t tha. usake samay men kavi ko upadeshak, margadarshak tatha snskriti ka rakshak mana jata tha. ph‍leto ke shishh‍y ka nam arastoo tha. ph‍leto ka jivanakal 428 ee.poo. se 347 ee.poo. mana jata hai. usaka mat tha ki "kavita jagath ki anukriti hai, jagath svayn anukriti hai; atah kavita saty se doguni door hai. vah bhavon ko udvelit kar vyakti ko kumargagami banati hai. at: kavita anupayogi hai evn kavi ka mahattv ek mochi se bhi kam hai."

rachanaen

pleto ki pramukh kritiyon men usake snvad ka nam vishesh ullekhaniy hai. pleto ne 35 snvadon ki rachana ki hai. usake snvadon ko tin bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-

  1. sukarat kalin snvad - isamen sukarat ki mrityu se lekar megara pahunchane tak ki rachanaen hain. inamen pramukh hain- hippiyas mainar, aipolaauji, krito, protagoras adi.
  2. yatrikalin snvad - in snvadon par sukarat ke sath-sath 'iliyaee mat' ka bhi kuchh prabhav hai. is kal ke snvad hain- klaisis, kretilas, jaaujiyas ityadi.
  3. praudhakalin snvad - is kal ke snvadon men vigyanavad ki sthapana mukhy vishay hai. is kal ke snvad hain- simpeasiyan, philebuhras, trimeryas, ripablik aur phido adi.[1]

ph‍leto ki rachanaon men 'd ripablik', 'd staitsamain', 'd lag', 'iyon', 'simpojiyam' adi pramukh hain.

kavy ke mahattv ki svikaryata

pleto kavy ke mahatv ko usi sima tak svikar karata hai, jahan tak vah ganarajy ke nagarikon men saty, sadachar ki bhavana ko pratishthit karane men sahayak ho. pleto ke anusar "manav ke vyaktitv ke tin antarik tattv hote hain-

  1. bauddhik
  2. oorjasvi
  3. satrishn

kavy virodhi hone ke bavajood pleto ne vir purushon ke gunon ko ubharakar prastut kie jane vale tatha devataon ke stotr vale kavy ko mahattvapoorn evn uchit mana hai.[1]

pleto ke kavy vichar

  1. pleto kavy ka mahattv usi sima tak svikar karata hai, jahan tak vah ganarajy ke nagarikon men saty, sadachar ki bhavana ko pratishthit karane men sahayak ho.
  2. kala aur sahity ki kasauti pleto ke lie ‘annd evn saundary’ n hokar upayogitavad thi.
  3. vah kahata hai- "chamachamati huee svarn se jadit anupayogi dhal se gobar ki upayogi tokari adhik sundar hai.
  4. usake vichar se kavi ya chitrakar ka mahattv mochi ya badhee se bhi kam hai, kyonki vah anueriti matr prastut karata hai. saty roop to keval vichar roop men alaukik jagath men hi hai. kavy mithya jagath ki mithya anukriti hai. is prakar vah saty se doguna door hai. kavita anukriti aur sarvatha anupayogi hai, isalie vah prashnsaniy nahin apitu dndaniy hai.
  5. pleto kavi ki tulana men ek chikitsak, sainik ya prashasak ka mahattv adhik manata hai. vah kahata hai ki "kavi apani rachana se logon ki bhavanaon aur vasanaon ko udvelit kar samaj men durbalata aur anachar ke poshan ko bhi aparadh karata hai. kavi apani kavita se annd pradan karata hai, parntu durachar evn kumarg ki or prerit karata hai; isalie rajy men suvyavastha hetu use rajy se nishkasit kar dena chahie.
  6. pleto ka manana tha ki kisi samaj men saty, nyay aur sadachar ki pratishtha tabhi snbhav hai, jab us rajy ke nivasi vasanaon aur bhavanaon par niyntran rakhate hue vivek evn niti ke anusar acharan karen.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 pleto evn usake darshanik vichar (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 01 mee, 2014.
  2. pleto ka anukaran siddhant (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 01 mee, 2014.

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