फ़ारस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

eeran ko sanh 1935 tak faras nam se bhi jana jata tha. faras aur bharat ka atyant prachin kal se gahara sambandh raha hai. vishvas kiya jata hai ki faras men ja basane vale ary usi mool vnsh ke the, jisase bharatiy aryon ka vikas hua. avesta ki bhasha snskrit se itani milati-julati hai ki donon ek hi bhasha parivar ki mani jati hain. bharat se faras ka nikat sambandh chhathi shatabdi ee. poo. men sthapit hua, jab faras ke shahnshah sairas (kurush athava kuru) (lagabhag 555-530 ee. poo.) ne kabul nadi tatha sindhu nadi ke bich ka pradesh jit liya, jisamen ashvak adi ganon ka nivas tha. deriyas (darayavuh) (lagabhag 522-486 ee. poo.) ke rajyakal men faras ke samrajy ki simaon ka aur vistar hua aur gndhar tatha usase aur poorv men sindhu nadi tak ka pradesh usake antargat a gaya. gndhar se poorv ke pradesh ko eerani 'hind' kahate the aur vah faras ke samrajy ka bisavan prant tha. gndhar aur 'hind' deriyas ke putr evn uttaradhikari jareksij (kshayarsh) (486-465 ee. poo.) ke rajy ke antargat bane rahe. jareksij ne jab yoonan par chadhaee ki, tab usaki sena men gndhar aur 'hind' ke bhi sainik ladane ge the.

sikandar ka adhikar

faras aur bharat ke prachin sampark ke phalasvaroop uttar-pashchim bharat men kharoshthi lipi prachalit ho gayi tatha bharatiy vastukala par bhi farasi prabhav drishtigat hone laga. faras ke shahnshah deriyas tritiy (335-330 ee. poo.) ko makadooniya ke raja sikandar ne 331 ee. men gaugamel ki jis ladaee men haraya, usamen bharatiy senaon ne bhi faras ki senaon ke sath yuddh kiya tha. is yuddh ke bad hi deriyas tritiy ki mrityu ho gayi, jisake phalasvaroop sikandar faras ke samrajy ka svami ho gaya. isake bad hi sikandar ne 327 ee. poo. men pnjab tatha sindh par akraman kiya, jinake oopar faras ke samrajy ka niyntran shithil pad gaya tha aur jahan par anek chhote-chhote rajy sthapit ho ge the. sikandar ki mrityu ke bad pnjab ne faras ke samrajy ke niyntran se apane ko mukt kar liya, kintu faras aur bharat ke bich vyaparik aur sanskritik sambandh qayam rahe.

bharat se maitri sambandh

samrat ashok ne pashchim ke jin sudooravarti rajyon men dharm-vijay ke lie bauddh bhikshuon ko bheja tha, ve faras hokar un deshon men ge the. faras men us samay mani dharm prachalit tha. bauddh bhikshuon ne is mani dharm ko bhi prabhavit kiya. ajanta ki gufa snkhya 1 ke bhitti chitr se prakat hota hai ki faras aur bharat ke bich maitri sambandh barabar bana raha. is bhitti chitr men dikhaya gaya hai ki faras ke shah khusaro dvitiy ke dvara lagabhag 627 ee. men bheja gaya doot chaluky raja pulakeshi dvitiy (608-42 ee.) ko apana parichay patr prastut kar raha hai. savatin shatabdi ke madhy men arabon ne jab faras par adhikar karake vahan par islam dharm ka prachar kiya, jarathrust parasiyon ka ek dal, jo apani zamin aur daulat ki apeksha apane dharm se adhik prem karata tha, bhagakar bharat chala aya aur yahan par unhen ashray prapt hua. in parasiyon ke vnshaj aj bhi vartaman men hain aur bharat ke sammanit evn samuddhashali alpasnkhyak varg men unaki ganana ki jati hai.

farasi yuvakon ka bharat agaman

bharat par jin musalamanon ne vijay prapt kin, unamen adhikansh turk tatha sunni the. udhar faras ke log tatha vahan ke shah shiya matavalambi the. isalie musalaman shasan-kal men faras aur bharat ke sambandhasootr shithil pad gaye. phir bhi faras ke sahasi musalaman aksar daulat ki khoj men bharat ate rahate the aur unhen aksar yahan par ane par amir bana diya jata tha. is prakar ka ek eerani amir yusuf adilashah tha, jisane bijapur ka adilashahi vnsh (1490-1673 ee.) chalaya. prasiddh musalaman itihasakar farishta bhi faras ka rahane vala tha. usane bharat men musalamani rajy shakti ke utthan aur patan ka itihas likha hai. dilli ke sultan ke darabar men farasi bhasha ka prayog hota tha aur mugal darabar men bhi isi bhasha ka prayog jari raha. sare bharat men musalaman shasakon ke darabaron men farasi bhasha, farasi pahanave aur farasi shishtachar ka prachalan tha.

nadirashah

doosare mugal badashah humayoon ko faras ke shah tahamasy ke darabar men sharan mili thi aur usi ki fauji sahayata se usane dubara dilli ka takht prapt kiya. 1649 ee. men faras ne kndahar chhin liya aur shahajahan tatha aurngazeb dvara us par dubara adhikar kar lene ke sare prayatnon ko viphal kar diya. faras ne bharat ko sabase zabaradast chot 1738 ee. men pahunchaee, jab faras ke shasak nadirashah ne bharat par chadhaee ki, dilli ko nirdayatapoorvak loota tatha takhtetaoos, kohinoor hira aur bahut si daulat lekar faras laut gaya. 1747 ee. men nadirashah ki mrityu ke bad hi afaganistan men ahamadashah durrani ki rajy shakti ke uday se faras aur bharat ke bich navasthapit rajanitik sambandh phir bhng ho gaya. parantu, nadirashah ke hamale se bharat ko jo kshati pahunchi, usase vah phir ubar nahin paya. nadirashah ke hamale ne mugal samrajy ko jarjar kar diya. 1761 ee. men panipat ki tisari ladaee men mugalon tatha marathon ki parajay tatha usake bad hi bharat men british samrajy ka uday, nadirashah ke kroor hamale ka hi parinam tha.

nam parivartan

unnisavi shatabdi men faras ko lekar briten aur roos men kafi pratidvandvita chali. donon hi faras ko apane snrakshan men lena chahate the. phalat: bharat aur faras ka rajanitik sambandh briten aur roos ki kootanitik chalon se sambaddh ho gaya. 1907 ee. men briten aur roos men samajhauta ho gaya, jisake dvara donon ne faras ki akhandata banaye rakhane ki pratigya ki. isake sath hi ve is bat par bhi sahamat ho ge ki uttari faras ko roosi prabhav kshetr men tatha dakshin poorvi faras ko british prabhav kshetr men mana jaega. roos ne yah svikar kar liya ki faras ki khadi men inglaind ka vishesh svarth hai. is prakar yoorop ke do sabhy deshon ne ek svatntr desh ka apas men jis niti se bntavara kar lene ka nirnay liya, vah unaki sabhyata ke vasvatik chehare ko benaqab karane vala tha. 1934 ee. se faras ka nam sarakari taur se badalakar eeran kar diya gaya hai. eeran ab shaktishali adhunik rashtr ban gaya hai. bharatiy ganarajy se usaka maitripoorn sambandh hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bhattachary, sachchidanand bharatiy itihas kosh, dvitiy snskaran - 1989 (hindi), bharat diskavari pustakalay: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan, 254.

snbndhit lekh

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