फ़िराक़ गोरखपुरी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

firaq gorakhapuri
firaq gorakhapuri
poora nam raghupati sahay 'firaq gorakhapuri'
janm 28 agast, 1896
janm bhoomi gorakhapur, uttar pradesh
mrityu 3 march, 1982
mrityu sthan dilli
abhibhavak pita- munshi gorakh prasad
pati/patni kishori devi
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr sahity
mukhy rachanaen gul-e-nagama, gule-e-rana, roohe-kayanat, mashal, roop (rubaee), shabistan, saragam, bazm-e-zindagi rng-e-shayari, parachhaiyan, taran-e-ishq adi.
bhasha urdoo, farasi, hindi, brajabhasha
vidyalay ilahabad vishvavidyalay
shiksha em. e. (angrezi sahity)
puraskar-upadhi sahity akadami puraskar, gyanapith puraskar, padm bhooshan
prasiddhi urdoo shayar, shikshak
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari gandhi ji ke sath asahayog andolan men sammilit hue aur jel bhi gaye. kuchh dinon anand bhavan, ilahabad men pndit neharoo ke sahayak ke roop men kangres ka kamakaj bhi dekha.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

firaq gorakhapuri (angrezi: Firaq Gorakhpuri, vastavik nam- 'raghupati sahay', janm- 28 agast, 1896, gorakhapur, uttar pradesh; mrityu- 3 march, 1982, dilli) bharat ke prasiddhi prapt aur urdoo ke mane hue shayar the. 'phirak' unaka takhallus tha. unhen urdoo kavita ko boliyon se jod kar usamen nee loch aur rngat paida karane ka shrey diya jata hai. firaq gorakhapuri ne apane sahityik jivan ka arnbh gazal se kiya tha. farasi, hindi, brajabhasha aur bharatiy snskriti ki gahari samajh hone ke karan unaki shayari men bharat ki mool pahachan rach-bas gee hai. unhen 'sahity akadami puraskar', 'gyanapith puraskar' aur 'soviyat laind neharoo avard' se bhi sammanit kiya gaya tha. varsh 1970 men unhen 'sahity akadami' ka sadasy bhi manonit kiya gaya tha.

janm tatha shiksha

urdoo ke mashahoor shayar firaq gorakhapuri ka janm 28 agast, varsh 1896 ee. men gorakhapur, uttar pradesh men hua tha. firaq ka poora nam 'raghupati sahay firaq' tha, kintu apani shayari men ve apana upanam 'firaq' likhate the. unake pita ka nam munshi gorakh prasad tha, jo peshe se vakil the. munshi gorakh prasad bhale hi vakil the, kintu shayari men bhi unaka bahut nam tha. is prakar yah kah sakate hain ki shayari firaq sahab ko virasat men mili thi. firaq gorakhapuri ne 'ilahabad vishvavidyalay' men shiksha prapt ki thi. unhonne bi. e. men poore pradesh men chautha sthan prapt kiya tha. isake bad ve dipti kalektar ke pad par niyukt hue.

vivah

firaq ji ka vivah 29 joon, 1914 ko prasiddh zamindar vindeshvari prasad ki beti kishori devi se hua. vo bhi tab jab patni ke sath ek chhat ke niche rahate hue bhi unaki vyaktigat zindagi ekaki hi biti. yuvavastha men hua unaka vivah unake lie jivan ki sabase kashtaprad ghatana thi.[1]-

sunate hain ishq nam ke gujare hain ik bujurg
ham log bhi murid isi silasile ke hain

vyaktitv

firaq ka vyaktitv bahut jatil tha. 'tadbhav'[2] ke sataven ank men firak gorakhapuri par 'vishvanath tripathi' ne bahut vistar se snsmaran likha hai. phirak sahab milanasar the, hajirajavab the aur viti the. apane bare men tamam ulti-sidhi baten khud karate the. unake yahan unake dvara hi pracharit chutakule atmavigyapan pramukh ho gaye . apane du:kh ko badha-chadhakar batate the. svabhimani hamesha rahe. pahanave men ajib laparavahi jhalakati thi- 'topi se bahar jhankate huye bikhare bal, sheravani ke khule batan,dhila-dhala(aur kabhi-kabhi behad gnda aur musa hua) paijama, latakata hua ijarabnd, ek hath men sigaret aur doosare men ghadi, gahari-gahari aur gol-gol- das lene vali-si ankhon men unake vyaktitv ka phakkadapan khoob jahir hota tha.'

  • lekin bisavin sadi ke is mahanh shayar ki gahan gnbhirata aur vidvata ka andaj unaki shayari se hi pata chalata hai. jab ve likhate hain :-

jao n tum hamari is bekhabari par ki hamare
har khh‍़vab se ik ahh‌d ki buniyad padi hai.

  • phirak sahab ki kavita men saundary ke bade komal aur achhoote anubhav vyakt huye hain. ek sher hai:-

kisi ka yoon to hua kaun umr bhar phir bhi
ye husnon ishk dhokha hai sab magar phir bhi.

  • 1962 ki chin ki ladaee ke samay phirak sahab ki yah gajal bahut mashahoor huee:-

sukhan ki shamman jalao bahut udas hai rat
navae mir sunao bahut udas hai rat
koee kahe ye khayalon aur khvabon se
dilon se door n jao bahut udas hai rat
pade ho dhundhali phijaon men munh lapete huye
sitaron samane ao bahut udas hai rat.

  • shayad apane jivan ke akhiri dinon men phirak sahab ne likha:-

ab tumase rukhasat hota hoon ao snbhalo saje़- gajal,
naye tarane chhedo़, mere nagh‍़mon ko nind ati hai.

  • apane bare men apane khas andaj men likhate huye phirak sahab ne likha tha:-

ane vali naslen tum par rashk karengi hamasron
jab ye khyal ayega unako, tumane firaq ko dekha tha.[3]

andolan men bhagedari

isi bich desh ki azadi ke lie sngharsharat rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ne 'asahayog andolan' chheda to firaq gorakhapuri ne apani naukari tyag di aur andolan men kood pade. unhen giraphtar kiya gaya aur dedh sal ki saza bhi huee. jel se chhootane ke bad pndit javaharalal neharoo ne 'akhil bharatiy kangres' ke daphtar men 'andar sekretari' ki jagah par unhen rakhava diya. bad men neharoo ji ke yoorop chale jane ke bad unhonne kangres ka 'andar sekretari' ka pad chhod diya. isake bad 'ilahabad vishvavidyalay' men varsh 1930 se lekar 1959 tak angrezi ke adhyapak rahe.

sahityik jivan

firaq gorakhapuri ne apane sahityik jivan ka arnbh gazal se kiya tha. apane sahityik jivan ke arnbhik samay men 6 disnbar, 1926 ko british sarakar ke rajanitik bndi banae ge the. urdoo shayari ka bada hissa roomaniyat, rahasy aur shastriyata se bndha raha hai, jisamen lokajivan aur prakriti ke paksh bahut kam ubhar pae hain. firaq ji ne parnparagat bhavabodh aur shabd-bhndar ka upayog karate hue use nayi bhasha aur ne vishayon se joda. unake yahan samajik dukh-dard vyaktigat anubhooti banakar shayari men dhala hai. dainik jivan ke kadave sach aur ane vale kal ke prati ummid, donon ko bharatiy snskriti aur lokabhasha ke pratikon se jodakar firaq ji ne apani shayari ka anootha mahal khada kiya. farasi, hindi, brajabhasha aur bharatiy snskriti ki gahari samajh ke karan unaki shayari men bharat ki mool pahachan rach-bas gee hai.

kritiyan

firaq gorakhapuri ne badi matra men rachanaen ki thin. unaki shayari badi uchchakoti ki mani jati hain. ve bade nirbhik shayar the. unake kavita sngrah 'gulenagma' par 1960 men unhen 'sahity akadami ka puraskar mila aur isi rachana par ve 1969 men bharat ke ek aur pratishthit samman 'gyanapith puraskar' se sammanit kiye gaye the. unhonne ek upanyas 'sadhu aur kutiya' aur kee kahaniyan bhi likhi thin. urdoo, hindi aur angrezi bhasha men unaki das gady kritiyan bhi prakashit huee hain. firaq gorakhapuri ki kuchh pramukh rachanaen nimnalikhit hain-

firaq ki pramukh shayari, nazmen aur rubaiyan
kr. s. rachana kr. s. rachana
1. gul-e-nagama 2. mashal
3. roohe-kayanat 4. nagm-e-saj
5. gajalistan 6. sheristan
7. shabistan 8. roop
9. dharati ki karavat 10. ramj v kayanat
11. chiragan 12. shoala v saj
13. hazar dastan 14. bazm-e-zindagi rng-e-shayari
15. gulabag 16. juganoo
17. nakoosh 18. adhirat
19. parachhaiyan 20. taran-e-ishq
firaq sahab ke samman men dak tikat

shaili

firaq gorakhapuri ne gazal, nazm aur rubaee tinon vidhaon men kafi kaha hai. rubaee, nazm ki hi ek vidha hai, lekin asani ke lie ise nazm se alag kar liya gaya. unake kalam ka sabase bada aur aham hissa gazal hai aur yahi firaq ki pahachan hai. vah saundaryabodh ke shayar hain aur yah bhav gazal aur rubaee donon men barabar vyakt hua hai. firaq sahab ne gazal aur rubaee ko naya lahaja aur nee avaz ada ki. is avaz men atit ki goonj bhi hai, vartaman ki bechaini bhi. farasi, hindi, brajabhasha aur hindoo dharm ki snskriti ki gahari janakari ki vajah se unaki shayari men hindustan ki mitti rach-bas gee hai. yah tathy bhi vichar karane yogy hai ki unaki shayari men ashik aur mahaboob parnpara se bilkul alag apana svatntr snsar basaye hue hain-

sham bhi thi dhuan-dhuan, husn bhi tha udas-udas.
dil ko kee kahaniyan yad si a ke rah gee॥

firaq sahab ki rubaiyon men tootakar mohabbat karane vali hindustani aurat ki aisi khoobasoorat tasviren milati hain, jinaki misal mushkil se milegi-

nirmal jal se naha ke ras se nikali putali,

balon men agarache ki khushaboo lipati.
satarng dhanush ki tarah hathon ko uthaye,

phailati hai alagani par gili sadi॥[4]

'roop' ki rubaiyan

firaq gorakhapuri ka kahana tha ki 'roop' ki rubaeeyon men ni:ssndeh hi ek bharatiy hindoo stri ka chehara hai, chahe rubaeeyan urdoo men hi kyon n likhi gee hon. 'roop' ki bhoomika men ve likhate hain- "muslim kalchar bahut oonchi chij hai, aur pavitr chij hai, magar usamen prakriti, bal jivan, naritv ka vah chitran ya ghareloo jivan ki vah boo–bas nahin milati, ve jadoo bhare bhed nahin milate, jo hindoo kalchar men milate hain. kalchar ki yahi dharana hindoo gharanon ke bartanon men, yahan tak ki mitti ke bartanon men, dipakon men, khilaunon men, yahan tak ki choolhe-chakki men, chhoti-chhoti rasmon men aur hindoo ki sans men isi ki dhvaniyan, hindoo lokagiton ko atyant manaviy sngit aur svargik sngit bana deti hai."[5]

babul mor nihar chhutal jae
oo dayodhi to parabat bhee, angan bhayo bides

gajal, nazm aur rubaee

"bahut pahale se un kadamon ki ahat jan lete hain,
tujhe ai zindagi ham door se pahachan lete hai"

  • ya phir ...

"shame-gam kuchh us nigahe-naz ki baten karo,
bekhudi badhati chali hai raz ki baten karo"

  • ya phir ...

"n hairat kar tere age jo ham kuchh chup se rahate hain
hamare daramiyan-ai-dost lakhon khvab hayal hai"

  • phiraq sahab ek saundaryapriy vyakti the. badasoorati unhen kisi soorat men bardasht nahin thi shayad yahi karan tha jisane unake parivarik jivan ko tahas-nahas kar diya tha. phiraq ke ek vaktavy ke anusar, "unaka ek aisi badasoorati se pala pada jisane unake khoon men zahar ghol diya". shayad yahi vajah hai ki phiraq ne jis bivi ko thukara diya tha, usaki talash "roop" ki rubaiyon men karate rahe. unaki rubaee ki jhalak dekhiye-

ain e nil goon se phooti hai kiran
akash pe adhakhile knval ka joban
yoon udi faza men lahalahati hai shafak
jis tarah khile tere tabassum ka chaman.

dabng shakhsiyat

phiraq ek behad munhaphat aur dabng shakhsiyat the. ek bar ve ek mushayare men shirakat kar rahe the, kafi der bad unhen mnch par amntrit kiya gaya. phiraq ne maik snbhalate hi chutaki li aur bole, 'hajarat! abhi ap kavvali sun rahe the ab kuchh sher sunie'. isi tarah ilahabad vishvavidyalay ke log hamesha phiraq aur unake sahapathi amaranath jha ko lada dene ki koshish karate rahate the. ek mahaphil men phiraq aur jha donon hi the ek sahab darshakon ko snbodhit karate hue bole,'phiraq sahab har bat men jha sahab se kamatar hain" is par phiraq turnt uthe aur bole, "bhaee amaranath mere gahare dost hain aur unamen ek khas khoobi hai ki vo apani jhoothi tariph bilakul pasnd nahin karate". phiraq ki hazir-javabi ne un hazarat ka mijaz durust kar diya.[6]

samman aur puraskar

  1. 'sahity akadami puraskar' - 1960 men 'gul-e-nagama' ke lie.
  2. 'soviyat laind neharoo avard' - 1968
  3. 'gyanapith puraskar' - 1969 men 'gul-e-nagama' ke liye .
  4. 1968 men firaq gorakhapuri ko sahity evn shiksha ke kshetr men bharat sarakar dvara 'padm bhooshan' se bhi sammanit kiya gaya.

nidhan

apane antim dinon men jab sharirik asvasthata nirntar unhen gher rahi thi vo kafi akele ho ge the. apane akelepan ko unhonne kuchh is tarah bayan kiya-

'ab aksar chup-chup se rahe hain, yoon hi kabhoon lab khole hain,
pahale phiraq ko dekha hota ab to bahut kam bole hain'.

3 march, 1892 men firaq gorakhapuri ka dehant ho gaya. phiraq gorakhapuri urdoo nakshatr ka vo jagamagata sitara hain jisaki raushani aj bhi shayari ko ek naya maqa de rahi hai. is alamast shayar ki shayari ki goonj hamare dilon men hamesha jinda rahegi. bakaul phiraq 'ai maut ake khamosh kar gee too, sadiyon dilon ke andar ham goonjate rahenge'.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. firaq gorakhapuri:hizabon men bhi too numayan noomayan (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 4 march, 2013.
  2. firaq varta- vishvanath tripathi- tadh‌bhav -ank 7 aprail, 2002
  3. raghupati sahay firaq’ gorakhapuri (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 4 march, 2013.
  4. gnga-jamuni tahajib ke shayar firaq gorakhapuri (hindi) yahoo jagaran daaut kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 3 march, 2012.
  5. bharatiy saundary aur prem ka jadoo (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 2 march, 2013.
  6. alamast shayar firaq gorakhapuri (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 4 march, 2013.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh