बंगाल विभाजन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bngal vibhajan
akhandit bngal ka manachitr
vivaran bngal athava 'akhandit bngal' uttarapoorvi dakshin eshiya men ek kshetr hai.
vibhajan sanh 1905 men bharat ke british vaisaraauy laaurd karzan dvara bharatiy rashtravadiyon ke bhari virodh ke bavajood bngal ka vibhajan (pashchim bngal aur poorvi bngal) kiya gaya tha. jisamen poorvi bngal bad men bangladesh ke roop men svatantr rashtr bana.
rashtriy shok divas vibhajan ke din 16 aktoobar, 1905 ee. ko poore bngal men 'rashtriy shok divas' ke roop men manane ki ghoshana ki gayi.
vibhajan ke khilaf andolan vibhajan ke khilaf andolan ke lie janasabhaen, gramin andolan aur british vastuon ke ayat ke bahishkar ke lie svadeshi andolan chheda gaya. tamam andolanon ke bavajood vibhajan hua aur charamapnthi virodhi atnkavadi andolan chalane ke lie bhoomigat ho jae. 1911 men jab desh ki rajadhani kalakatta se dilli le jaee gee, to poorv aur pashchim bngal pun: ek ho ge.
any janakari vibhajan ke sambandh men laaurd karzan ka tark tha ki tatkalin bngal, jisamen bihar aur udisa bhi shamil the, jo kafi vistrit hai aur akela lephtinent gavarnar usaka prashasan bhali-bhanti nahin chala sakata hai.

bngal vibhajan pahali bar 1905 ee. men vaisaray laaurd karzan dvara kiya gaya tha. vibhajan ke sambandh men karzan ka tark tha ki tatkalin bngal, jisamen bihar aur udisa bhi shamil the, kafi vistrit hai aur akela lephtinent gavarnar usaka prashasan bhali-bhanti nahin chala sakata hai. isake phalasvaroop poorvi bngal ke zilon ki pray: upeksha hoti hai, jahan musalaman adhik snkhya men hain. isilie uttari aur poorvi bngal ke rajashahi, dhaka tatha chataganv divijan men ane vale pandrah zilon ko asam men mila diya gaya aur poorvi bngal tatha asam nam se ek naya prant bana diya gaya aur use bngal se alag kar diya gaya.

karzan ka vichar

vibhajan ke samay bngal ki kul janasnkhya 7 karod, 85 lakh thi tatha is samay bngal men bihar, udisa evn bangladesh shamil the. bngal presidensi us samay sabhi presidensiyon men sabase badi thi. 1874 ee. me asam bngal se alag ho gaya. ek lephtinent garvanar itane bade prant ko kushal prashasan de pane men asamarth tha. tatkalin gavarnar-janaral laaurd karzan ne prashasanik asuvidha ko bngal vibhajan ka karan bataya, kintu vastavik karan prashasanik nahin apitu rajanitik tha. karzan ke 'bngal vibhajan' ke virodh men svadeshi evn bahishkar andolan ka sootrapat kiya gaya. bngal us samay bharatiy rashtriy chetana ka kendr bindu tha aur sath hi bngaliyon men prabal rajanitik jagriti thi, jise kuchalane ke lie karzan ne bngal ko bantana chaha. usane bngali bhashi hinduon ko donon bhagon men alpasnkhya men karana chaha.

vibhajan

disambar, 1903 ee. men bngal vibhajan ke prastav ki khabar phailane par charon or virodhasvaroop anek baithaken hueen, jisamen adhikatar dhaka, meman sinh evn chataganv men huee. surendranath banarji, krishn kumar mishr, prithvishachandr ray jaise bngal ke netaon ne 'bngali', 'hitavadi' evn 'snjivani' jaise akhabaron dvara vibhajan ke prastav ki alochana ki. virodh ke bavajood karzan ne 19 julaee, 1905 ee, ko 'bngal vibhajan' ke nirnay ki ghoshana ki, jisake parinamasvaroop 7 agast, 1905 ko kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) ke 'taun haaul' men 'svadeshi andolan' ki ghoshana ki gee tatha 'bahishkar prastav' pas kiya gaya. isi baithak men aitihasik bahishkar prastav parit hua. 16 aktoobar, 1905 ko bngal vibhajan ke lagoo hone ke sath hi vibhajan prabhavi ho gaya.

vibhajan ke bad bngal, poorvin bngal evn pashchimi bngal men bnt gaya. poorvi bngal men asam evn bngal (poorvi) ke rajashahi, dhaka evn chataganv zile milaye gaye. kul 3 karod 10 lakh (1 karod 80 lakh muslim evn 1 karod 20 lakh hindoo) janasnkhya vale poorvi bngal ka kul kshetraphal 1,06,540 varg mil tha. is prant ka mukhyalay dhaka men tha. pashchim bngal men bihar evn udisa tatha pashchim bngal shamil the. 5 karod 40 lakh janasnkhya (4 karod 50 lakh hindoo, 90 lakh muslim) vale is prant ka kul kshetraphal 1,41,580 varg mil tha.

rashtriy shok divas

vibhajan ke din 16 aktoobar, 1905 ee. ko poore bngal men 'rashtriy shok divas' ke roop men manane ki ghoshana ki gayi. surendranath banarji ne kaha tha ki 'yah nirnay hamare oopar ek bajr ki tarah gira hai.' vibhajan par gopal krishn gokhale ne kaha ki 'yah ek nirmam bhool hai.' bngal vibhajan ke virodh men pahali bar ek sabha men 50 se 75 hazar log ekatr hue. bngal vibhajan ke virodh men svadeshi evn bahishkar andolan ka sootrapat kiya gaya. dhire-dhire yah andolan poore desh men phailane laga. lokamany tilak ne is andolan ka prachar bambee evn pune men, ajit sinh evn lala lajapat ray ne pnjab evn uttar pradesh men, saiyyad haidar raza ne dilli men tatha chidambaram pillai ne madras men kiya.

svadeshi evn bahishkar andolan

1905 ee. men hue kangres ke 'banaras adhiveshan' ki adhyakshata karate hue gokhale ne bhi svadeshi evn bahishkar andolan ko samarthan diya. ugravadi dal ke neta tilak, vipinachandr pal, lajapat ray evn aravind ghosh ne poore desh men is andolan ko phailana chaha. svadeshi andolan ke samay logon ka andolan ke prati samarthan ekatr karane men 'svadesh bandhav samiti' ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika thi. isaki sthapana ashvini kumar datt ne ki thi. shighr hi svadeshi andolan ka parinam samane a gaya, jisake parinamasvaroop 15 agast, 1906 ee. ko ek rashtriy shiksha parishad ki sthapana ki gayi. svadeshi andolan ka prabhav sanskritik kshetr par bhi pada, bngala sahity ke lie yah samay svarn kal ka tha. ravindranath taigor ne isi samay 'amar sonar bangala' namak git likha, jo 1971 ee. men bngaladesh ka rashtriy gan bana. ravindranath taigor ko unake giton ke snkalan 'gitanjali' ke lie sahity ka nobel puraskar mila. kala ke kshetr men avanindranath taigor ne pashchaty prabhav se alag hatakar svadeshi chitrakari shuru ki. svadeshi andolan men pahali bar mahilaon ne poorn roop se pradarshan kiya.

svarajy ki mang

1906 ee. men kalakatta men hue 'kangres adhiveshan' ki adhyakshata karate hue dadabhaee nauroji ne pahali bar svarajy ki mang prastut ki. yadyapi svarajy mera janm siddh adhikar hai aur main ise lekar rahoonga ka nara bal gngadhar tilak ka diya hua hai, kintu kangres mnch se svarajy ki sarvapratham mang karane ka shrey dadabhaee nauroji ko diya jata hai. 'bngal vibhajan' ke bad rashtriy andolan men ugravadi vichar ke netaon ki pakad mazaboot hone lagi aur jahan udaravadi neta hinsa ka virodh karate, vahin ugravadi hinsa ke samarthak the. kangres ke kalakatta adhiveshan men donon ke madhy vaicharik matabhed daba diya gaya.

vibhajan radd ki ghoshana

svadeshi andolan ko chalane ke tarike ko lekar ugravadi aur udaravadi netaon ke madhy chal rahe matabhed ke parinamasvaroop 1907 ee. men kangres ke 'soorat adhiveshan' men ugravadi netaon ne svayn ko kangres se alag kar liya. bahishkar evn svadeshi andolan ne vibhajan ke viruddh vishal janamat ikattha kar liya, jisake phalasvaroop british sarakar dvara vivash hokar 1911 ee. men 'bngal vibhajan' ko radd karane ki ghoshana ki gayi.


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adhar
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